Enfoque UTE http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista <p>Enfoque UTE is a scientific journal on engineering. It publishes original papers and state-of-the-art review articles in science and technology.</p> <p>The journal covers the fields of Environmental, Food, Automotive, Industrial, Computer Science, Mecatronics and Petroleum engineerings.</p> <p>Enfoque UTE is focused on the community of undergraduate and graduate teachers, researchers and students in general.</p> Universidad UTE en-US Enfoque UTE 1390-9363 <p><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="http://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc-nd/3.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License"></a><br>This work is licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons 4.0 License</a>.</p> Reduction of the Probability of Occurrence of Differential Pressure Sticking Through the Use of Diesel on Water Based Drilling Fluids http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/366 <p>The drilling campaign on Pad C of the Tiputini Field, located on the Oriente Basin, Ecuador, started with the first exploratory well TPTC-002. Pressure tests performed on the M1 sandstone of the Napo Formation determined that the average reservoir pressure (Pr) was 1921 psi. Ten months later, Pr averaged 846 psi. This increased the risk of differential pressure sticking, event that indeed occurred while drilling the well TPTC-016. By using the “Bow-Tie” methodology as a predictive tool to analyze risks, and taking into account the preliminary studies that describe this phenomena, a solution was found for stablishing an additional barrier with the use of diesel on the water-based drilling fluid. Diesel was used in order to extend the ‘half value time’ and to decrease the friction coefficient between the mud cake and pipe.</p> David Esteban Almeida Campana Marco Loaiza Raul Valencia ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-03-29 2019-03-29 10 1 77 88 10.29019/enfoqueute.v10n1.366 Development and innovation of electronic systems in an automobile: a review http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/350 <p>This article presents a study of the technological advances in the electronic part of an automobile, based on an analysis of the technical, economic, productive and environmental specifications considered in the design, development and innovation of components of a vehicle that meet the requirements of the automotive companies. It systematically explains the idea and content of the innovation systems implemented in vehicles in recent years, in the electrical-electronic part, after several studies carried out by scientists, researchers and innovation analysts in the field of automotive electronics. The transformations occurred in the last years in the electrical-electronic part of a vehicle are discussed and a comparative analysis of the modifications and / or improvements in the characteristics of the automotive systems is elaborated, in order to comply with the existing regulations regarding energy consumption. , performance, waste treatment, comfort, safety, among others. The introduction of new sensors, control units and actuators, related to microelectronics, telematics and multimedia to vehicles, provides profound changes in the design, production, operation and diagnosis of a car, which have been gradually implemented in the systems of brakes , transmission, steering, safety, comfort and engine.</p> Marco Noroña Manuel Gómez ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-03-29 2019-03-29 10 1 117 127 10.29019/enfoqueute.v10n1.350 Modeling and simulation of plastic deformation of Aluminium ASTM A1200 during mechanical conformed process http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/375 <p>The research evaluates the behavior of a material when a plastic deformation occurs. The document describes the analytical process, finite elements and integrate process in order to develop shaped piece plan. Stress analysis and section variation were analyzed during the stuffing process. In the experimental part, the mechanical characteristics of the aluminum ASTM A1200 were determined (Yield strength was 214 MPa). The shaping process was carried out in a 5 tons press with pneumatic device. Several tests were executed with different depths in order to compare thicknesses with the physical model simulation. The maximum error was 3.67&nbsp;% at 15 mm depth and the minimum of 0.24&nbsp;% with the total depth. Respect to the efforts generated during the conforming, the maximum and minimum errors were 10.9&nbsp;% and 2.18&nbsp;% respectively.</p> Luis C Juiña Víctor H Cabrera Nancy V Moreno Cristian A Anrango ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-03-29 2019-03-29 10 1 128 140 10.29019/enfoqueute.v10n1.375 Optimal PMU placement considering N-1contingencies constraints in electrical power systems http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/437 <p>The measurement of electrical parameters through phasor measurement units in the power systems is fundamental, since the obtained data is used to estimate the state of its operation. In the present investigation the problem arises for the optimal deployment of phasor measurement units regarding restrictions of observability, redundancy and N-1 contingencies. Unit minimization considers the output of a transmission line or the failure of a phasor measurement unit and guarantees 100&nbsp;% observability of the power system; For the optimization mixed integer linear programming was used. The proposed algorithm was tested with the IEEE test models of 9, 14, 30 and 118 nodes.</p> Diego Francisco Carrión Galarza Jorge Wilson González Sánchez ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-03-29 2019-03-29 10 1 1 12 10.29019/enfoqueute.v10n1.437 Parallel robot prototype driven by four cables: experimental results http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/440 <p>Parallel cable robots are a special class of parallel robots which are formed by replacing rigid links with cables. Due to the characteristics provided by the cables, like low inertia and greater range of motion, this type of robots can perform a wide range of applications such as: moving cameras from one place to another in sporting events, motoring industry and mainly in rehabilitation of limbs. However, due to the unilateral property of cables, keeping them tensioned becomes a great challenge. This article describes the construction of a parallel robot driven by four cables with the aim to draw three figures through the study of the kinematic and dynamic model considering the redundancy, i.e., more cables than degrees of freedom, in order to avoid those cables that require more tension during the motion of the end-effector.</p> Xavier Aguas Marco Antonio Herrera Nelson Sotomayor Oscar Camacho ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-03-29 2019-03-29 10 1 13 25 10.29019/enfoqueute.v10n1.440 Analysis of the use of micro DC/DC converters focused on the maximum extraction of energy in photovoltaic farm http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/441 <p>This work presents an extended study of the work published in the magazine INCISCOS 2018 titled “Improving of the Photovoltaic High Power Plant Generation Using DC/DC Micro Converters”, and intented to increase the amount of electrical energy generation of a Photovoltaic Plant located in Salinas, Imbabura Province, Ecuador through the implementation of DC/DC converters in the solar panel arrays and tracking techniques of the maximum power point. The results show that the insertion of the DC/DC converters in the system causes an increase in the amount of active power. The system is analiced in variation of solar radiation or changes in the ambient temperature as well.</p> Juan Vargas Jorge Luis Medina Mora Marcelo Pozo Eduardo Ávila NATALY POZO GABRIEL SALAZAR ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-03-29 2019-03-29 10 1 205 217 10.29019/enfoqueute.v10n1.441 Sliding Mode Control Based on Internal Model for a Non-minimum phase Buck and Boost Converter http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/442 <p>This work presents the application of different schemes to control a non-minimum phase Buck-Boost converter. Three control schemes are used. The first controller presented is a PI controller, the second one is Sliding Mode Control and the third one is a combination of two control schemes, Internal Model Control and Sliding Mode Control. The controllers are designed from a Right-Half Plane Zero (RHPZ) reduced order model. The RHPZ model is converted, using Taylor approximation, in a First Order Plus Dead Time (FOPDT) model and after that, the controllers are obtained. The performance of the SMC-IMC is compared against to a PI controller and a SMC. The simulation results show that SMC-IMC improves the converter response, reducing the chattering and presenting better robustness for load changes</p> Byron Cajamarca Óscar Camacho Quintero Danilo Chávez Paulo Leica Marcelo Pozo ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-03-29 2019-03-29 10 1 41 53 10.29019/enfoqueute.v10n1.442 Optimal allocation of communications resources for energy management systems http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/447 <p>This article proposes the optimal resource allocation of radio channels available in cellular networks for the transmission of data from the smart meters to information management systems. The model designed identifies and counts the subscribers of the electricity sector in a geographical area; through the kmeans algorithm the cellular radio bases are located. The optimal location of radio bases provides communication to all devices within its coverage radius. The communication channels available for data transmission are optimized using the Greedy algorithm, which set the time when smart meters must send their data through the disused communication channels.</p> Milton Gonzalo Ruiz Maldonado Esteban Inga ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-03-29 2019-03-29 10 1 141 152 10.29019/enfoqueute.v10n1.447 Mechatronic device for the analysis and mitigation of involuntary movements in people with Parkinson's disease http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/452 <p>Considering that the Parkinson disease is a neurodegenerative, progressive and incurable pathology, and with the purpose of improving ill people life quality, the design and construction of a mechatronic device was proposed to help mitigating the involuntary movements produced by the disease. This device allows the analysis of the involuntary movements of pronosupination generated in the upper limbs using electromyographic signals produced by the muscles of the forearm and an algorithm based on artificial neural networks. To materialize the device, fast prototyping like 3D printing and the V model-based mechatronics methodology were considered. As a result of this investigation, a mechatronics device in the shape of an exoskeleton controlled by an embedded system which analyses, processes electromyographic signals and using neural networks allows tremor and involuntary movements classification produced by each patient. The system operation results are: for tremor prediction is 96.88% of success, and for the involuntary movement prediction is 100 % of success.</p> Gabriel Eduardo Rivera Cárdenas Vladimir Bonilla Moya Marcelo Guillermo Mosquera Anatoly Vitalyevich Litvin ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-03-29 2019-03-29 10 1 153 172 10.29019/enfoqueute.v10n1.452 Motion simulation of a hexapod robot in virtual reality environments http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/456 <p>The aim of this work is the development of an animation of a hexapod robot in virtual reality environments through the use of Unity software. The movement of the robot is 18 degrees of freedom, which are based on servo motors that are controlled by the use of a microcontroller; It also shows the processes necessary to transfer the 3D design of the hexapod robot made in the use of CAD (Computer Aided Design) software to a virtual reality environment without losing the physical characteristics of the original design. Finally, the results obtained from the simulation of movement and responses of the hexapod robot to disturbances such as roughness of the floor, uneven ground and gravity among others are presented; allowing a correct evaluation to possible designs of robots before being elaborated.</p> Jonnathan Chamba Miguel Sánchez Marcelo Javier Moya Joaquín Noroña Rafael Franco ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-03-29 2019-03-29 10 1 173 184 10.29019/enfoqueute.v10n1.456 Automatic device to manufacture paraffin rings used in the Textile Industry http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/458 <p>The work consists in the design and manufacture of an automatic device that allows to continuously elaborate paraffin rings used in the different processes of the Textile Industry. Paraffin is a byproduct of petroleum and is very useful in the Textile Industry, since it helps to reduce the friction between the threads and the different guides through which it passes, reducing the presence of exaggerated tensions that cause the breakage of the threads, defects in the tissues and the paralysis of machines and processes. The device, designed and validated in its mechanical structure by means of the use of a CAD program, consists of a rotating disc on which eight molds in the form of 54 cm<sup>3</sup> capacity rings are located, automatically spaced and controlled to be filled with paraffin liquid continuously, guaranteeing the solidification and extraction of each ring in a synchronized manner as the disc rotates. The performance was validated observing that the results of the tests of dosage, time of filling, time of transfer, solidification time and extraction time of the solidified ring contributed to the productivity of this product.</p> Luis Armando Hidalgo Aguilera Santiago David Morejón Bravo ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-03-29 2019-03-29 10 1 234 246 10.29019/enfoqueute.v10n1.458 Assessment of the value chain of Peruvian cacao (Theobroma cacao l.) http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/339 <p>The main objective of the research was to determine the deficiencies of the current situation of the Peruvian cocoa value chain and pose an integral improvement in its proposals through the competitive factors in question. In order to achieve it, these tools were used: the analysis of the value chain and the analysis of Porter's competitive diamond. The analysis of the value chain allowed a complete ‘photograph’ of those who have participated, how, with what interests and their interrelations, allowing to visualize the needs and potential of the different actors for individual and joint improvement. In the analysis of Porter's competitive diamond, the components of the cocoa sector were interrelated. The improvements in the value chain were: the result of the linkage of the strategy, the structure and the rivalry between the companies of the sector, the condition of the factors, the conditions of the demand, and the related and support sectors or cluster, which are activities linked between the companies involved in a cocoa sector; all of them fundamental to achieve competitive advantage; that will reduce the gap of the different links turned into competitive factors, to give rise to the development of capacities and to generate exportable supply of cocoa in different niche markets, which, to date, is around 100 000 tons. The operations of agricultural production, post-harvest and transformation requires substantial improvements to avoid non-quality costs and the low retribution of the value of cocoa to the farmer. From the problems encountered, a set of strategic guidelines is derived in the short, medium and long term, projecting a competitive chain for the future, such as positioning by ‘differentiation’, aimed at producing fine cocoa or aroma cocoa, organic cocoa and innovation in products with Peruvian cocoa.</p> Jorge Hilario Guzmán G C Chire Fajardo ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-03-29 2019-03-29 10 1 97 116 10.29019/enfoqueute.v10n1.339 Bioremediation of hydrocarbons in wastewater with mixed culture of microorganisms: case car washers Puyango http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/312 <p>Wastewater from car washers and lubricators contain high levels of hydrocarbons. These are discharged into the public sewer system without proper treatment and not complying with the regulations. In this study was evaluated the process of bioremediation of total hydrocarbons in Puyango’s wastewater, using bioaugmentation treatment, which means, applying hydrocarbons-degrading microorganisms. First, a characterization of the wastewater was carried out, and the content of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and the flow rate was determined for seven days. A mixture of bacteria: <em>Acinetobacter sp</em>., <em>Pseudomonas sp</em>. y <em>Mycobacterium sp</em> was applied in solid form (80 g tablet) with a minimum concentration of 4 x 10<sup>8</sup> CFU / ml soluble in water, using 2 tablets during 30 days of treatment. The concentration of the TPH was determined weekly, plotting the temporal variation and quantifying the&nbsp;% of removal. The results indicate that the technique of bioaugmentation was effective (p = 0.003) in the removal of the TPH, obtaining percentages above 86&nbsp;%. The time of greatest removal of TPH was obtained in the third week of treatment with 92&nbsp;%. In addition, COD removals were obtained –40&nbsp;%, Oils and fats - 50%, Surfactants –43&nbsp;% thus fulfilling the current regulations for discharge to the public sewer system for the TPH.</p> Judit García Daniel Peñafiel Heredia Remberto Rodríguez ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-03-29 2019-03-29 10 1 185 196 10.29019/enfoqueute.v10n1.312 Sustainable management for the production of biofungicides and strengthening of the Venezuelan agricultural bio-inputs sector http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/392 <p>The purpose of this work was the design of a management proposal for the production of biofungicides, based on international standards related to quality, environment and safety, and occupational health, aiming at strengthening the Venezuelan agricultural bio-inputs sector, in the production of excellent quality products obtained under sustainable production schemes. A diagnosis was made to establish the conformities of the current management of the laboratories dedicated to this activity with the provisions in the standards, besides of a situational diagnosis for the adoption of the proposal. It is an applied investigation, of field and level of descriptive study; the data were collected between April-September 2018 using the survey and structured observation as techniques, and the questionnaire and checklists as instruments. A sustainable management model was generated to promote the adequacy of the organization's task and being, with the duty to be, constituting an input to lay the foundations that propitiate the national and international recognition of the laboratories and platform, to ensure compliance with the requirements of the registration process, mainly in relation to quality assurance, safety conditions of the production process, required documentation and evaluation of the product.</p> Griselda Tamara Colmenares Lima Miguel Asdrúbal Arcia Montezuma ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-03-29 2019-03-29 10 1 26 40 10.29019/enfoqueute.v10n1.392 Typical meteorological year based on the precipitation of Nanegalito and Pacto-Ecuador http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/422 <p>The typical meteorological year (TMY) based on daily rainfall data was calculated in the parish of Nanegalito; 12 years were considered, from 2004 to 2015, including both years. For the establishment of the TMY, the Finkelstein-Schafer (FS) statistical equation was chosen, together with the calculation of the cumulative distribution function for each month of each year considered. The weighted sum, calculated from the FS values, was used to finally choose the months that best represent the climatic characteristics of the period analyzed by applying the root mean square deviation (RMSD). Once these values were obtained, the TMY of Nanegalito was estimated based on the precipitation. The determination of Nanegalito TMY may be useful for the management of several processes, in this and other surrounding parishes, as an example, Pacto, such as irrigation planning in crops, analysis in drought risk scenarios, and if other variables are analyzed in the future, they could serve as tools for the study of possible renewable energies.</p> Francisco Rodríguez Andrea Castro Freddy Marín Gloria Roldán Fausto Viteri Moya ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-03-29 2019-03-29 10 1 197 204 10.29019/enfoqueute.v10n1.422 Model to estimate the effort required by automation of business processes http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/372 <p>The development of software products has significantly impacted the business world, which has left behind its functional approach and has pledged resources into the quality modeling of its business processes. Numerous studies dedicated to measure indicators, such as quality, complexity and ease of modification, taking into account the constant organizational changes, have resulted in the definition of different metrics, which have mostly been selected, by analogy, with software metrics. In this work, a statistical model that allows the prediction of the effort required in the automation of business processes is defined, taking as a starting point its graphic representation. Metrics related to business process models are proposed in order to study their behavior and influence on the estimation of effort. A base of cases of business process models with their respective effort values ​​was built. The processing of data was carried out from statistical techniques, obtaining a prediction model that is able to explain 99.5&nbsp;% of the represented cases. A computer application was developed for the interpretation of the different output formats of tools that allow modeling business processes and the implementation of the obtained predictive model.</p> Yaimara Granados Hondares Gheisa Lucia Ferreira Lorenzo ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-03-29 2019-03-29 10 1 65 76 10.29019/enfoqueute.v10n1.372 Where to park? Architecture and implementation of an empty parking lot, automatic recognition system http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/445 <p>The traffic congestion present in practically every city has, among its increasing factors, the unavailability of enough parking spaces. A typical driver invests a considerable part of the total trip time looking for a free space where to park his vehicle; in many cases, this leads to delays and the consequent discomfort due to the undesired consequences of the generated tardiness. For this problem it is possible to find partial palliative solutions, minimizing the time spent searching for parking by applying Internet of Things techniques, oriented to smart cities and buildings. This research has been focused on finding an appropriate computer architecture that will allow the implementation of a distributed system, which, thanks to the use of computer vision and machine learning techniques, detects free parking spaces inside a parking lot, and provides real time information to the driver, allowing him to go as directly as possible to a vacant parking space.</p> Héctor Ávalos Estevan Gómez Diego Guzmán Diego Ordóñez-Camacho Jéssica Román Oswaldo Taipe ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-03-29 2019-03-29 10 1 54 - 64 10.29019/enfoqueute.v10n1.445 A visual analytics architecture for the analysis and understanding of software systems http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/455 <p>Visual analytics facilitates the creation of knowledge to interpret trends and relationships for better decision making. However, it has not being used widely for the understanding of software systems and the change process that takes place during their development and maintenance. This occurs despite the need of project managers and developers to analyze their systems to calculate the complexity, cohesion, direct, indirect and logical coupling, detect clones, defects and bad smells, and the comparison of individual revisions. This research considers the design of an extensible and scalable architecture to incorporate new and existing methods to retrieve source code from different versioning systems, to carry out the analysis of programs in different languages, to perform the calculation of software metrics and to present the results using visual representations, incorporated as Eclipse and Visual Studio extensions. Consequently, the aim of this work is to design a visual analytics architecture for the analysis and understanding of systems in different languages and its main contributions are the specification of the design and requirements of such architecture, taking as base the lessons learned in Maleku (A. González-Torres et al., 2016).</p> Antonio González-Torres José Navas-Sú Marco Hernández-Vásquez Franklin Hernández-Castro Jennier Solano-Cordero ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-03-29 2019-03-29 10 1 218 233 10.29019/enfoqueute.v10n1.455 Enterprise Architecture, an enabler of change and knowledge management http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/459 <p>Organizations around the world require a sound process of change management to innovate and remain competitive over time. Change and knowledge management needs to be supported with the right tools to overcome the challenges of transformations and transitions in the business models and processes of diverse organizations. Steering boards can use enterprise architecture (EA) to implement new knowledge management initiatives in their strategic planning. EA allows companies to model the current situation (as-is models) of the organization and the desired future scenarios (to-be models) and to establish road maps to enable adequate transformations. Different frameworks exist in the market that support the management of organizations, for example: Control Objectives for Information and Related Technologies (COBIT), Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL), quality models such as the one proposed by the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) and systems such as the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) are widely used for the management of business and information technologies (IT).&nbsp; However, EA is not widely used with the other mentioned tools. This paper analyzes EA as a tool for change and knowledge management and compares its functionality with other frameworks in the market. The analysis performed in this paper checks if EA can be used and is compatible with other frameworks. To answer this question, an analysis of the most important processes, good practices, perspectives and tools provided by each framework was performed.</p> Oswaldo Moscoso-Zea Joel Paredes-Gualtor Sergio Luján-Mora ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-03-29 2019-03-29 10 1 247 257 10.29019/enfoqueute.v10n1.459 Physical chemical evaluation of pitahaya fruit (Selenicereus megalanthus) in different development stages http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/386 <p>In this research, physical and chemical changes that occur during growth and ripening of pitahaya fruit were assessed. Using the color chart of yellow pitahaya (NTC-3554), fruits were collected in the six stages of ripening (0 dark green to 6 completely yellow) to evaluate the weight of the fruit; while for the variables pulp and skin percentage, pulp firmness (N), soluble solids (ºBrix), pH, acidity (%) and sensory evaluation of flavor and appearance, fruits were only taken in two states (0 and 6). Percentage of skin decreased from 55.93 to 33.40&nbsp;%, whereas that pulp increased from 44.07 to 66.60&nbsp;% among state 0 and 6, respectively. Fruit in the state 6 showed lower pulp firmness (6.20 N) and titulable acidity (0.14&nbsp;%), and higher soluble solids content (20.74&nbsp;%) and pH (4.86). On the other hand, in terms of sensory test, both states (0 and 6) were accepted by the consumer due to the high percentage of soluble solids.</p> Andrea Sotomayor Correa Soledad Pitizaca Maritza Sánchez Armando Burbano Alejandra Díaz José Nicolalde William Viera Carlos Caicedo Yadira Vargas ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-03-29 2019-03-29 10 1 89 96 10.29019/enfoqueute.v10n1.386 Study of the dynamic performance of an Otto engine using mixtures two types of “Extra and Super” gasolines http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/335 <p>The purpose of this study is to compare and examine the performance of an engine, using gasoline with 92 octanes (Super), 87 octanes (Extra) and two volume mixtures of these two types of gasoline, the first one had 50% of volume of each type, the second one had a volume value of 70% of Super with 30% of Extra. To evaluate the performance of the engine, a dynamometer was used to obtain the characteristics curves of power and torque, a gas analyzer was used to determine the level of emission of pollutant gases from the engine (CO, CO<sub>2</sub>, HC, y NOx), finally an homologated cycle was carried out to measure fuel consumption. The mixture of Super 50% with Extra 50% obtained a higher power value with 81.3 HP, the Super gasoline obtained a higher torque value of 89.2 lb-ft, in cycle ASM 2525, the CO, HC and NOx were measured, the Super gasoline, Extra gasoline and the mixture of 50% of each gasoline were the least polluting ones, in cycle ASM 5015, CO, HC and NOx were measured, Super gasoline, Extra and the Super 70% V mixture with Extra 30% V respectively were less polluting, in the static gas test the least polluting was Super.</p> Alex Rodolfo Guzmán Eduardo Cueva Alexander Peralvo Milton Revelo Alexis Armas ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-21 2018-12-21 10 1 208 220 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n4.335 Analysis of the methodology for rate determination in commercial transportation service of conventional and executive taxis http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/343 <p>An efficient transport service allows a society to have economic progress and improves quality of life. Part of this structure is the issue in the determination of pricing the service of it, thus, the incomes of the offeror and good service to the user can be guaranteed. In Ecuador, the National Traffic Agency establishes a methodology that considers the offer of kilometers and operating costs. However, this methodology does not establish how to get and analyse the information that feeds the model, this aspect can generate biases and subjectivities at the time to define the rate. This study seeks to detect deficiencies in the methodology and suggest the relevant changes as an alternative to it, for this a mixed approach is considered, which not only considers surveys but also instrumentation and hi-technology to measure fuel consumption, tire wear, distance traveled and number of passengers. Once the analysis of the methodology was developed, a new approach to information gathering was proposed; and to validate, an experiment was applied to a canton of the country, with this it was possible to obtain rates that better represent the reality of the sector under analysis.</p> Gabriela Duque E Iván Orellana O Mateo Coello Daniel Cordero-Moreno ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-21 2018-12-21 10 1 194 207 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n4.343 Energy and exergy evaluation in a 1.6L Otto cycle internal combustion engine http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/365 <p>This paper aimed to evaluate the behavior of an Otto Cycle internal combustion of a 1.6 L engine measuring its performance by the energy and exergy balance. The energy calculation was developed in a previously set route at a constant speed of 50 km/h and &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;90 km/h. It was determined, that the analysis of the energy and exergy balance contributes to recognize the performance of an internal combustion after the experimentation based on observation, measurement, methods of induction, deduction and synthesis. Also, it was resolved that the engine has an average energy efficiency of 27.57 % for a speed of&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 50 km/h, while the total exergy flow of the system is 22 %. Therefore, there is no significant difference with the efficiency results at 90 km/h.</p> Edilberto Antonio Llanes Cedeño José Bolívar Carguachi-Caizatoa Juan Carlos Rocha-Hoyos ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-21 2018-12-21 10 1 221 232 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n4.365 Data analysis and tools applied to modeling and simulation of a PV system in Ecuador http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/389 <p>This paper presents a research was carried out for the management of a photovoltaic system in a Microgrid, with applications and the use of tools applied to modeling and computational simulation in the Microgrid laboratory implanted in the facilities of the University of Cuenca (Ecuador). Additionally, through the use of automatic learning techniques, the behavior of the photovoltaic system has been modeled in the study area based on radiation and temperature with very good results. In addition, several applications can be made in real engineering studies such as feasibility, performance analysis, energy estimation, educational models, etc.</p> Darío Javier Benavides Padilla F Jurado Luis G González ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-21 2018-12-21 10 1 1 12 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n4.389 Efficient solution of nonlinear model predictive control by a restricted enumeration method http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/393 <p>This work presents an alternative method to solve the nonlinear program (NLP) for nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) problems. The NLP is the most computational demanding task in NMPC, which limits the industrial implementation of this control strategy. Therefore, it is important to consider algorithms that can solve the nonlinear program, not only in real time but also guaranteeing feasibility. In this work, the restricted enumeration method is proposed as alternative to solve the NLP for NMPC problems, showing successful results for pH control in a sugar cane process plant. This method enumerates in restricted way a set of final control element possible positions around the current one. Next, it tests all positions in that set to find the best one, taken as the optimization solution.</p> Jhon Alexander Isaza Hurtado Diego A Muñoz Hernán Álvarez ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-21 2018-12-21 10 1 13 23 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n4.393 Predictive ADRC Control Using LMI http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/394 <p>On recent times Active Disturbance Rejection Control has drawn both the attention of industrial and scientific community due to its capability to handle uncertainties and nonlinearities without using an explicit model of the system; on this paper a modification of the ADRC algorithm is presented, first an Extended State Predictor is calculated and later, a controller is built using the LMI approach, the proposal is evaluated through simulations on the Cayley-Rodriguez representation of the Monoaxial satellite</p> Hanna Khalil Aboukheir Hernandez ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-21 2018-12-21 10 1 24 32 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n4.394 Event-Triggered Control for a Three DoF Manipulator Robot http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/396 <p>In the classical approach of Time-Triggered Control (TTC),&nbsp; the control signal is updated&nbsp; at&nbsp; each&nbsp; sampling&nbsp; time&nbsp; as&nbsp; well&nbsp; as&nbsp; the&nbsp; system&nbsp; states&nbsp; to&nbsp; be&nbsp; controlled,&nbsp; which could imply a redundancy in the computational calculation as well as in the transfer of information in the regulation objective. On the other hand, the Event-Triggered Control (ETC) approach performs the same task in an asynchronous way, i.e,, it only updates the control signal when a performance requirement is violated and the states are updated at each sampling time. This reduces the amount of computational calculation without affecting the performance of the closed loop system. For this reason, in the present work the ETC is developed for the stabilization of a manipulator robot with three Degree of Freedom (DoF) in the joint space where a Lyapunov Control Function (LCF) is proposed to formulate the event function (e¯), which indicates whether or not&nbsp; is required&nbsp; the&nbsp; control&nbsp; signal&nbsp; updating.&nbsp; Simulation results show the reduction of the updates compared with a TTC.</p> Saul Enrique Benitez-Garcia Miguel Gabriel Villarreal-Cervantes ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-21 2018-12-21 10 1 33 44 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n4.396 Fractional order modeling of a nonlinear electromechanical system http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/398 <p><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">This paper presents a novel modeling technique for a VTOL electromechanical nonlinear dynamical system, based on fractional order derivatives. The proposed method evaluates the possible fractional differential equations of the electromechanical system model by a comparison against actual measurements and in order to estimate the optimal fractional parameters for the differential operators of the model, an extended Kalman filter was implemented. The main advantages of the fractional model over the classical model are the simultaneous representation of the nonlinear slow dynamics of the system due to the mechanical components and the nonlinear fast dynamics of the electrical components.</span></span></p> <p lang="en-US">&nbsp;</p> Carlos Enrique Mejia Salazar Julián Esteban Rendón Roldán ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-21 2018-12-21 10 1 45 56 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n4.398 Concurrent design of a lower limb rehabilitation mechanism http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/399 <p>The rehabilitation given by robotic systems is a choice for minimizing the recovery time of a patient and boost their muscular and skeletal capacity on a limb damaged. However, the high cost of these systems limits patients to receive these kind of treatments. The systems of one degree of freedom are a low cost alternative to health care and rehab at home.</p> <p>In this paper, the structural design of an 8-link mechanism for the rehabilitation of lower limbs is performed, based on the approach and solution of an optimization problem in which certain objectives are met, such as dimensional synthesis, and the minimizing of torque to make control easier.</p> José Saúl Muñoz Reina Miguel Gabriel Villarreal Cervantes Leonel German Corona Ramirez Robero Castro Medina ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-21 2018-12-21 10 1 57 68 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n4.399 Root-Locus Analysis of Delayed First and Second Order Systems http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/401 <p>For finite dimensional linear system the root-locus method is well established however for the case of delayed systems the method has some problems due to the transcendental term involved. This work intends to illustrate the problems that arises when a root-locus diagram is performed as well as to develop a Matlab function that provides the root-locus diagram for delayed low order systems. In this way, some comments about the problems that should be tackled to obtain a generalization of the computational method for delayed systems with real <em>m</em> poles and <em>n</em> zeros</p> Moisés Ríos Flores J.F. Marquez-Rubio B. del Muro-Cuellar E. Aranda-Bricaire ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-21 2018-12-21 10 1 69 76 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n4.401 Fault Tolerant MPC Controller for Electric Heater Control http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/402 <p>Los controladores MPC son buenos eliminando el error de estado estacionario aun si el sistema controlado es afectado por perturbaciones. Pero el MPC no fue pensado para mantener su desempeño bajo condiciones de falla por sí solo. El control tolerante a fallas se compone de algoritmos de control, estrategias de detección y compensación de fallas. En este trabajo se implementó un controlador MPC usando la estrategia de matriz dinámica junto con un generador de residuo basado en modelo para detectar la ocurrencia de una falla en el sistema controlado. La cuantificación de fallas se logró mediante el uso de Redes neuronales artificiales y un filtro pasa banda, lo cual permitió realizar una acción de compensación para mejorar el tiempo de recuperación del sistema ante una falla.</p> Raúl Esteban Alzate Diego Martinez Juan Carlos Mena Bernado Sabogal Jimmy Tombe ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-21 2018-12-21 10 1 77 87 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n4.402 A Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller for Planar 4-Cable Direct Driven Robot http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/403 <p>Cable Direct Driven Robots (CDDRs) are a special class of parallel robots but they are formed by replacing all the supporting rigid links with cables. Compare with traditional robots, these robots are good candidates for performing a wide range of potential applications. A Planar CDDR model is considered in this paper since no rotational move and no moment resistance are required on the end-effector, all 4 cables convene in a single point and the end-effector is modeled as a point mass. The main goal of this paper is to present a new approach in control by developing a Sliding Mode Controller (SMC) with a Fuzzy-PI as sliding surface using Fuzzy logic toolbox in Matlab/Simulink. The tests performed were Step change reference test and Tracking trajectory test to observe the behavior of the cables during the trajectory and the end-effector movement. Simulation was carried out on Planar 4-Cable CDDR to prove the effectiveness of the proposed control law and the results were compared with a PI Controller and a conventional SMC in terms of integral square error (ISE) index. Only the kinematic model of Planar 4-Cable CDDR is considered in this paper.</p> Xavier Iván Aguas Andrés Cuaycal Israel Paredes Marco Herrera, MSc ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-21 2018-12-21 10 1 99 109 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n4.403 Sliding modes control for a heat Exchange system: experimental validation http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/404 <p>Sliding modes control (SMC) is a nonlinear control method with a systematic design procedure that allows to obtain a explicit solution for the control input. This method has some advantages, such as robustness against external disturbances and unpredictable parametric variations. On this work, two conventional SMC techniques, one using the error and other using the error integral, are designed and validated in a heat exchange system composed of a single pass circulation electric heater, whose control objective is to regulate the output temperature of the fluid, under the influence of external disturbances, such as variations in the flow and inflow temperature, manipulating the electric current passing through the heater resistance. The two SMC algorithms are analyzed using numerical simulations and their performance is compared through the integral absolute error and the integral absolute control input, selecting the best one to be tested experimentally. The experimental results indicate that the SMC is capable of fulfilling the control objective with satisfactory performance.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Conventional sliding modes control; heat exchange system; nonlinear control.</p> Maribel Cecilia Pérez Pirela Juan Paulo García Sandoval ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-21 2018-12-21 10 1 110 119 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n4.404 The Extended Kalman Filter in the Dynamic State Estimation of Electrical Power Systems http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/407 <p>The state estimation and the analysis of load flow are very important subjects in the analysis and management of Electrical Power Systems (EPS). This article describes the state estimation in EPS using the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and the method of Holt to linearize the process model and then calculates a performance error index as indicators of its accuracy. Besides, this error index can be used as a reference for further comparison between methodologies for state estimation in EPS such as the Unscented Kalman Filter, the Ensemble Kalman Filter, Monte Carlo methods, and others. Results of error indices obtained in the simulation process agree with the order of magnitude expected and the behavior of the filter is appropriate due to follows adequately &nbsp;the true value of the state variables. The simulation was done using Matlab and the electrical system used corresponds to the IEEE 14 and 30 bus test case systems. State Variables to consider in this study are the voltage and angle magnitudes.</p> Holger Ignacio Cevallos Ulloa Gabriel Intriago Douglas Plaza Roger Idrovo ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-21 2018-12-21 10 1 120 130 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n4.407 Potential of aquatic plants for the removal total coliforms and Escherichia coli in wastewaters http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/286 <p>In Ecuador, many communities depend on untreated surface water as the primary source of drinking water and are contaminated with fecal coliforms and <em>Escherichia coli</em>. The objective of the present study was to find aquatic plants with remove of contaminated water with <em>E. coli </em>and total coliforms. For this purpose, the following species were sampled: <em>Azolla caroliniana</em> Willd., <em>Eichhornia crassipes</em>, <em>Pistia stratiotes</em>, <em>Salvinia auriculata</em>, <em>Ceratopteris thalictroides a</em>nd <em>Lemna sp</em>. (Positive control). The plants were reproduced <em>in vitro</em> and bioassays were performed to verify their ability to remove <em>E. coli</em>. Assays were run by triplicate in 0.5 L of water with fertilizer and an <em>E. coli</em> ATCC25922 reference strain was inoculated. As negative control the bacteria without plants and positive control were inoculated with the plant <em>L. minor</em>. After 7 days, the remaining bacterial load was determined. To analyze <em>E. coli</em>, the technique ISO 9308-1 was used. A percentage of 99% <em>E. coli</em> removal was found for <em>A. caroliniana</em>, <em>E. crassipes, C. thalictroides </em>(L.)<em> Brongn</em> and <em>Lemna minor</em>. And 100% for <em>P. stratiotes</em> and <em>S. auriculata</em>. Subsequent waste water tests were performed in which <em>S. auriculate </em>and<em> A. caroliniana</em> achieved 100% removal of the coliforms and the remaining lower efficiency. The use of these species is proposed for the treatment of wastewaters.</p> R León Beatriz Margarita Pernía Santos Rosa Siguencia S Franco A Noboa Xavier Cornejo ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-21 2018-12-21 10 1 131 144 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n4.286 Evaluation of the extract obtained as leached of coconut (Cocos nucifera) fiber as a bioestimulant in remediation of a soil contaminated with oil http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/303 <p><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;">The use of the extract obtained as a leaching of the coconut fiber (Cocos nucifera) as a biostimulant for the remediation of a savanna soil contaminated with heavy oil was evaluated. Through standardized procedures, the main characteristics of the extract, oil and soil were obtained. The soil was contaminated with 100 mL of heavy oil per kilogram. Four experimental units of 1 kg each were established, leaving the first as a pattern without treatment and 3 treated with extract in proportions of 50, 100 and 150 mL, each with 3 replicates distributed at random. The units were left under controlled laboratory conditions and the percentage of oils and fats and the pH were determined every 7 days by means of the EPA 9071b and ASTM D4972 standards, until complying with the Venezuelan standard Decree 2635. It was concluded by means of a Factorial ANOVA analysis, that both the volume of extract applied and the exposure time exert a statistically significant influence on the percentage of oils and fats and the pH with 95% confidence level. All soil units treated with extract reached the limit value established in Decree 2635 at 28 days.</span></p> Tomás Darío Marín Velásquez Creisvy Nazaret Gota Díaz Thania Carolina Ortiz Pinto ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-21 2018-12-21 10 1 180 193 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n4.303 Analysis of benthic macroinvertebrates and biotic indices to evaluate water quality in Sardina´s river, Ecuadorian Chocó Andino http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/369 <p>An aquatic macroinvertebrates community analysis was made at Sardinas River, in the rainy and wet seasons of 2018, using macroinvertebrates as environmental bioindicators; these were collected with Surber net and hand collection, in five points along the river. In the laboratory they were classified and identified as class, order and family. They were studied by the analysis of richness (S) and abundance (N). The environmental quality was determinate applying the BMWP/Col and EPT indices. A total of 526 individuals belonging to 15 orders and 44 families were collected. 35 in the rainy season and 31 in the dry season. The most abundant family in rainy season was Leptophlebiidae, 34 specimens (12.8%). In dry season, the most representative was Chironomidae with 45 individuals (17.2%). In rainy season the point 2 had greater richness S16 and in the dry season P1, S18. P3 - P5 presented medium quality water (BMWP/Col = 69-94 and an EPT average of 47.05%). This study determined through BMWP/Col and EPT indices, in association with the taxa collected and the calculations of (S), (N) and relative abundance (%), the ecological status of the studies’ area.</p> Verónica Machado Roberto Granda Alexandra Endara González ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-21 2018-12-21 10 1 154 167 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n4.369 Modelling of Learning Styles in Relation to University- level Lectures http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/400 <p>Throughout this paper we seek to demonstrate the practicality of obtaining an approximate model of the relationship between a score that determines the learning styles of a student and the results obtained in a specific University-level lecture. The study considered the voluntary participation of over six hundred students from “Escuela Politécnica Nacional” of Ecuador (EPN). The Index of Learning Styles model was used to establish the various learning styles of the students. The analysis of the results considers the linear correlation and the correlation distance.</p> Ruth Cueva Diego Salazar Gabriel Francisco Grijalva ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-21 2018-12-21 10 1 88 98 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n4.400 Discovering behavioral patterns among air pollutants: A data mining approach http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/411 <p>Air pollutants affect both human health and the environment. For this reason, environmental managers and urban planners focus their efforts in monitoring air pollution. In this context, complete information is required to support the decision-making process to improve the quality of life in urban zones. Hence, it is important to extract knowledge not only on concentration levels but associations between air pollutants. Based on the Cross-industry standard process for data mining, this paper presents an approach which leads to identify correlations and incidence between the most harmful pollutants in the Andean Region: Ozone, Carbon monoxide, Sulfur dioxide, Nitrogen dioxide and, Particulate material. This paper describes an experiment using a real dataset from a monitoring station in Cuenca, Ecuador located in the Andean region.&nbsp; The results show that the proposed approach is effective to extract knowledge useful to support the evaluation of air quality in urban zones. In addition, this approach provides a starting point for future data mining applications for the analysis of air pollution in the context of the Andean region.</p> Diana Arce Fernando Lima Marcos Patricio Orellana Cordero John Ortega Chester Sellers Patricia Ortega ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-21 2018-12-21 10 1 168 179 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n4.411 Quality parametres of four types of formulations based on Trichoderma asperellum and Purpuricillium lilacinum http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/348 <p>The genus <em>Trichoderma</em> and to a lesser extent <em>Purpureocillium</em>, have been studied extensively for their properties as beneficial microorganisms and their effectiveness in disease control. However, biological efficacy is not the only parameter considered when formulating a microorganism; viability, purity and concentration in the formulation are important characteristics to ensure success in the field. The aim of this study was to access different types of formulations (granules, powders, liquids) to record their behavior over time, using the variables viability, concentration and purity to select best formulations based on these parameters. As a result, it was obtained that the bioformulates based on <em>T. asperellum</em> showed greater stability during storage, with dry solid formulations being more stable in comparison with liquid products. In terms of the <em>P. lilacinum </em>formulations, it was observed that the presentation of wettable powders showed the highest concentration and stability over the time.</p> William Viera Michelle Noboa Johana Bermeo Francisco Báez Trevor Jackson ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-21 2018-12-21 10 1 145 153 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n4.348 Numerical analysis of the speed profiles of a water flow through a gradual reduction pipe http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/290 <p>The objective of this research work is to understand the behavior of water flow through gradual contraction. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a useful approach to solve the equations that describe the movement of fluids, using numerical methods and computational techniques. This area of mechanics provides the fundamentals of pipe hydraulics and channel hydraulics. A study of the flow through the pipeline has been made to calculate the children in the changes of the geometry. The energy losses derived from the pipes. Calculation of the cases: the occurrences of the incidents in the geometry on the part of the student and also with the help of the ANSYS software fluently. Calculations were used using the K-epsilon model. This simulation provides the values of pressure, velocity and kinetic turbulence in several sections of the pipe where water is its flow.</p> LUIS FERNANDO TOAPANTA RAMOS Gabriel Alejandro Bohórquez Peñafiel Luis Eduardo Caiza Vivas William Quitiaquez Sarzosa ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-09-28 2018-09-28 10 1 80 92 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n3.290 Determination of the optimum speed for MIG welding of alloy 5086-H116, by hardness test, tensile test and metallographic examination for the manufacture of aluminum tankers http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/215 <p>For the construction of the specimens welded by the GMAW process of the aluminum alloy 5086-H116, advance speeds of 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 mm / min are used that are within the recommended range, the same as they allowed the energy contributed to the union. From the results obtained in the different tests, it was determined that the most suitable welding advance speed is 500 mm / min (with a contributed energy of 335.34 J / mm), this energy is the most suitable mechanical in the 5086-H116 alloy welding at an amperage of 148 A. At this energy level, the lowest loss of magnesium occurs; the particle size of Al3Mg2 is finer and easier distributed evenly on the α matrix, that allows obtaining the best mechanical properties.</p> José Omar Cabrera Escobar Raúl Vinicio Cabrera Escobar ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-09-28 2018-09-28 10 1 42 49 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n3.215 Use of an orthogonal arrangement for the analysis of the process of die sink electrical discharge machining with shape electrodes of graphite and copper on aluminum micro-casting) http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/315 <p>This paper deals with the use of the Taguchi method in the realization of experiments to solve the multiple answers in the process of EDM machining using copper and graphite electrodes. This manufacturing process was carried out on the aluminum microfusion material widely used in the footwear manufacturing industry. The experimentation was carried out according to an orthogonal arrangement L8. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the effects of the input variables (tooling material, pulse time, tool shape and cutting depth) on the output variables (material removal rate and surface roughness); as well as a regression analysis to predict the results of the experimental analysis. The results have shown that machining parameters can be optimized with considerations of multiple responses effectively. It is evident that the pulse time is the main influencer in the material removal rate (MRR) and the machining time has a greater influence on the surface roughness (Ra). Finally, it was demonstrated that the copper electrode has better working efficiency and the graphite gives better surface roughness.</p> Cristian Fabian Pérez Edwin Moya Diana Coello ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-09-28 2018-09-28 10 1 67 79 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n3.315 Aerodynamic design of 100 KW blades for horizontal axis wind turbines located on the “Cerro Villonaco” zone http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/330 <p>In this paper, the design and aerodynamic simulation of a rotor for horizontal axis wind turbine for the Cerro Villonaco was carried out. The aerodynamic design aimed for a blade with an optimal geometry, which is defined by the chord and the twist angle of the airfoil. The design parameters conferred to the project were given by the characteristics of the wind in the Villonaco Wind Farm. Results were validated with an aerodynamic simulation, developed in a software employing the mathematical model known as blade element momentum theory, to verify its optimum performance against the requirements established with a TSR, with the goal to set a design method for subsequent investigations. Finally, a rotor analysis was carried out, obtaining an output mechanical power of 107 KW, thus corroborating the design power with the characteristics of the Villonaco Wind Farm.</p> Alexy Fabián Vinueza Lozada Jorge Andrés Narváez Hidalgo ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-09-28 2018-09-28 10 1 106 115 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n3.330 Reduction of the variability of a water demineralization process by ion exchange; for the production of soft drinks. http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/307 <p>The focus of this work was to find the necessary solutions to reduce variability, increase capacity and establish a plan to improve the water demineralization process for beverage production. For this, the diagnosis of the process was made and the elements, supplies and equipment were physically recognized, from the taking of the source to the manufacture of the beverages. The critical quality variables were determined by quality control according to laboratory tests and historical data. It was established within the problematic that the two critical quality variables were the hardness and alkalinity of the water; the process was studied with the reference in these two variables to know the root causes that caused the problems, measurements were made to calculate the capacity of the process and perform stability analysis, and the root causes of the problem were determined. The improvement included staff training, start-up manual and equipment regeneration manual, as well as process controls through type X-R control charts. The reduction of variability, the increase in capacity and improvement of the process was achieved.</p> Edgar Walter Vasquez Reino ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-09-28 2018-09-28 10 1 93 105 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n3.307 Production of a fermented drink based on quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/329 <p>The aim of this study was to develop a beverage obtained from the fermentation of the soluble extract of germinated quinoa under the action of traditional yogurt cultures (<em>S. thermophilus </em>and<em> L. bulgaricus</em> ) and probiotic cultures (<em>Lactobacillus. acidophilus </em>and<em> Bifidobacterium</em> ). Two factors under study were established: the xanthan gum percentage (0.30%, 0.40 % and 0.50% w/w) and sucrose:fructose relation (90:10, 70:30, 50:50) added in the formulation. The quantified variables were: acidity, pH, viscosity and phase separation. The study was conducted under the completely randomized design (CRD), analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey mean separation test with a confidence level of 95 %. The best treatment included 0.50 % xanthan gum and sucrose:fructose relation of &nbsp;90:10 in its formulation. The product was subjected to sensory tests in which it was determined that the product liked to consumers (score of 3.2 points on a 5-point hedonic scale). Finally, a fermented drink made from quinoa was obtained with 9 g of protein per 200 g of product and with a shelf life estimated in 70 days at 4<sup>o</sup>C. This product could be an alternative to fermented beverages such as cow's milk yogurt and soy-fermented drink.</p> Roberto Maldonado Jibaja Paola Carrillo Herrera Lucía Ramírez Cárdenas Francisco Carvajal Larenas ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-09-28 2018-09-28 10 1 1 11 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n3.329 Forecasting of daily precipitation occurrence in an altitudinal gradient in southern Ecuador using a weather generator http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/209 <p>Precipitation forecast is fundamental for improving the management of water resources, for development projects and risk reduction. Due to its high variability, high quality rain forecasts are still a challenge. In the present study, a weather generator (WG) was used to study the quality of the forecast of daily rainfall occurrence. The WG was implemented using three variables as predictors: the binary variable precipitation occurrence of the previous day (Kt-1), the maximum and minimum temperatures of the previous day (Txt-1, Tnt-1, respectively); and two co-variables: monthly values of the observed Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies of the Regions 1+2 and 3.4 of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (Niño 1+2 and Niño 3.4 respectively). We found that the variables Kt-1, Tnt-1 and co-variable Niño 3.4 are those that improve the performance of the precipitation occurrence forecasting. There was a noticeable difference in the number of consecutive wet and dry spell days in the altitudinal gradient in a rainy period. We propose several hypotheses based on the use of WG, which allow the understanding of the functioning of the climate system and the improvement of the forecast of precipitation occurrence in a mountainous area.</p> Diego Hernán Urdiales Flores Rolando Célleri ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-09-28 2018-09-28 10 1 29 41 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n3.209 Diversity and floristic composition of the Los Búhos Forest located in the province of Chimborazo, Ecuador http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/211 <p>To promote conservation processes it is essential to know the biodiversity under analysis. The objective of the present work was to determine the composition, diversity and floristic importance of El Bosque Los Búhos to generate a baseline that allows the management of the resource for academic purposes. A description of the floristic composition was made, the alpha (α) and beta (β) biodiversity indexes were determined and the ecological importance of the species (IVI's) was calculated. The data indicate that the floristic composition of the forest is formed in three strata by 56 species, 18 orders and 27 families. The arboreal stratum presents a biodiversity average (2,534-Margalef) and high dominance (0,8367-Simpson), the shrub layer has low biodiversity (1,811-Margalef) and low dominance (0,4441-Simpson), and the herbaceous stratum presents biodiversity average (3,882-Margalef) and high dominance (0,7101-Simpson). The species with the highest IVI's for the arboreal stratum are Mimosa quitensis (Benth.1848), Acacia retinodes (Schltdl.1847), y Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth. 1819). For the shrub layer are Agave americana (L.1753), Lantana megapotamica (Spreng. Tronc. 1974), Retama sphaerocarpa (L. Boiss. 1840) y Opuntia cylindrica (Lam. DC. 1828). Finally for the herbaceous stratum is Carpobrotus edulis (L.) N.E.Br. 1926).</p> Patricio Xavier Lozano Rodríguez Aracely Armas Martha Gualán Miguel Guallpa ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-09-28 2018-09-28 10 1 12 28 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n3.211 A context ontology for a mobile recommender system of advertisements) http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/327 <p>Currently, most recommendation systems do not consider the context in which they are executed, being inappropriate to operate on mobile devices, this can be observed in the field of advertising, where users are overwhelmed by the excessive general information that they receive, causing widespread dissatisfaction with their use. One of the biggest challenges to incorporate contextual information to the software is the design of a formal model for its representation, because traditional methods are inadequate for this purpose, being necessary to use alternative approaches such as those based on ontologies. This work describes the process used in the construction of an ontology to represent the information of the advertisements and the contextual dimensions: location, time and users’ needs, to consider when recommending. Through the application of the NeOn methodology, an expressive and extensible ontological model was obtained that integrates the ontologies: FOAF, OWL-Time and WGS84 Geo Positioning. The proposed ontology is an initial contribution for the creation of a context-aware mobile recommender system of advertisements.</p> Lenin Xavier Erazo Garzón Andrés Patiño ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-09-28 2018-09-28 10 1 50 66 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n3.327 Petroleum coke as a filter controller in oil-base drilling fluid http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/218 <p>The large amount of petroleum coke produced in Venezuela, leadsed to its use as a filtering controller in oil-based fluids. Initially, the coke was subjected to an oil extraction process using the Soxhlet method and extraction of sulfur by means of microwaves. Then an infrared Spectroscopy (IR) was performed and compared with another spectroscopy of natural petroleum coke, where the effectiveness of the applied process was evidenced. Were made, four (4) drilling fluid (12 ppg) with coke as filter driver, varying its concentration in 6, 8, 10 and 12 lb / bl and after dynamic aging (300 ° F, 100 lpcm) the physical properties of plastic viscosity, yield point, gel 10 s, gel 10 min and filtrate were studied, obtaining a range of values of 25.3-26.3; 5.7-6.3; 4-5; 7-10 and 10.3-10.9 respectively. A statistical study of split plots demonstrated that there were significant statistical differences between the physical properties of the formulated fluids and the physical properties of a standard fluid with lignite as a filtering controller. It was concluded that despite the statistical differences presented, the use of petroleum coke as a filter controller for the conditions under study is possible.</p> Rubén Dario Vega Mejía Martín León Patricia Lara ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-06-29 2018-06-29 10 1 188 197 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n2.218 Design and construction of an automatic dryer for cacao a rotating type of hot air base for a capacity of 500 kg http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/185 <p>The increase of time in the process of dry of cocoa and the problematic winter season motivated in realizing an automatic drying machine for cocoa that fulfills the characteristics of dry, reducing to a percentage of adequate humidity in the Mirador Lojano Community located in the Province of Santo Domingo of the Tsáchilas. The development of the project has as its scope to design and build an automatic dryer for cocoa based on hot air rotary type for a capacity of 500 Kg; this involved the collection of information necessary to carry out the design methodology, the study of existing technological alternatives in the market and select the most viable one that meets the user's requirements, quality and production parameters. Subsequently the mechanical and energetic design of the elements that make up the machine was made. In conclusion, the automatic drying machine for cocoa achieves an adequate drying of 9% humidity in a period of 4 to 5 hours during the process, thus improving the efficiency and production.</p> Javier Enrique Orna Chávez Nelson Chuquín Luis Saquinga Oswaldo Cueva ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-06-29 2018-06-29 10 1 159 174 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n2.185 Software evaluation of the effectiveness of the seatbelt anchorages of a commercial bus seat according to regulation ECE R14 http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/298 <p>The seatbelt is an important element to keep the occupant subject to the seat during an accident. However, if the seatbelt anchorage does not resist the occupant during a crash, it is ejected from the seat. Therefore, it is essential to analyze its effectiveness. The purpose of this work is to assess the strength of the anchorages for safety belts of 2 and 3 anchorage points of a commercial bus seat, applying the Regulation of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE-R14). The materials properties of the seat structure and the belt anchorages were obtained by tensile and bending tests. A finite element model was created using Piecewise Linear Isotropic Plasticity from Ansys – LsDyna. The anchors were evaluated by applying forces on the pelvic and thoracic blocks fastened through the belt as specified in the regulation. In the analysis, the anchors presented large deformations reaching the rupture. Modifying the shape and position of the anchors and increasing structural reinforcements in high-stress areas, the anchors complied with the regulation. This work aims to create a methodology for the seating industry that allows assessing their models prior to homologations</p> César Hernán Arroba Arroba Diego Fernando Núñez Núñez ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-06-29 2018-06-29 10 1 138 148 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n2.298 Modeling and Simulation of the Robot Mitsubishi RV-2JA controlled by electromyographic signals http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/326 <p>The aim of this work is control the Mitsubishi RV-2JA Robot using sEMG surface electromyographic signals. The sEMG signals were obtained from the hand through a Myo bracelet with surface sensors. Myo surface sensors are able to detect the electromyographic signals generated by the muscles. The integration of the system was performed in Matlab's Simulink platform to process, identify, validate and control the robot through the electromyographic signals. The hand gestures analysis was performed using a temporal approximation that allowed the extraction of characteristics of the signals. It was determined that the parameters Electromyographic Integrated, Mean Absolute Value, Quadratic Mean and Variance have direct correlation with the type of Hand movement. In order to classify the first movements like spread fingers, wave right, wave left, elder and voor, we used 6 neural networks, which allow to activate 3 degrees of freedom of the robot. For the integration and verification of the real-time system, the hardware in loop simulation (HIL) was applied. This simulation allowed the execution of the plant model, the connection with the appropriate control and communication system to verify that the system controls the robot.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Félix Vladimir Bonilla Venegas Marcelo Javier Moya Anatoly Litvin Evgeny Lukyanov Leonardo Emanuel Marín Pillajo ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-06-29 2018-06-29 10 1 208 222 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n2.326 Clarification of used cooking oil and discoloration of red palm oil with the use of ozone, activated carbon and hydrogen peroxide http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/192 <p>Alternative processes for the clarification of used cooking oil (UCO) and the discoloration of red palm oil (RPO) were evaluated. The clarification of UCO consisted of two steps, sediment removal and bleaching. In the first step, three methods were tested: heating, washing with brine, sedimentation and filtration; sedimentation alone; and washing with brine, sedimentation and filtration. The third method allowed the highest removal of impurities. For the second step, three methods were proved: adsorption with activated carbon (AC); ozonation, and application of hydrogen peroxide. The best method was ozonation, with a dose of 0.1946 mol O3/L and a post-treatment temperature of 60 °C; a 24.39% discoloration was reached. Regarding RPO, the best treatment was the adsorption with activated carbon. The ratio of oil: AC that produced the best results was 25:1; a 90.48% color decrease was achieved. The analysis of the quality parameters measured in the treated oils (acid value, saponification value, color and suspended solids) determined that both could be used as raw material for manufacturing soap.</p> Tania Parra Freddy Alexander Marin Sinche Gonzalo Jácome Marco Sinche ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-06-29 2018-06-29 10 1 77 88 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n2.192 Study of the antioxidant capacity and content of polyphenols in the clarification process of Jamaica flower (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) wine http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/305 <p>The objective of this research was to study the effect of the clarification process by tangential microfiltration (MFT) and the static clarification in cold at 6 °C for six days, on the content of polyphenols and the antioxidant capacity of the Jamaica flower (Hibiscus sabdariffa L) wine, made from fresh chalices. Physicochemical analyzes (soluble solids, pH, turbidity, titratable acidity expressed as tartaric and malic acid, color and turbidity) and biochemical analyzes were performed by spectrophotometry of total polyphenols content (Folin-Ciocalteu method) and antioxidant capacity (TEAC method). The antioxidant capacity of the fermented wort without clarification treatment was superior to the fermented wort clarified by MFT at 2 bar and inferior to the fermented wort clarified in cold at 6 °C and for six days. The antioxidant activity of the fermented must clarified by MFT at 2 bar is lower compared to the cold static clarification process with an antioxidant activity of 8.21 mM of Trolox equivalent / 100 ml. The process of clarification in cold at 6 °C and for six days contains greater capacity of antioxidant, but in function of the cleaning (NTU) as attribute of quality is low in comparison to the one obtained by tangential microfiltration to 2 bar.</p> Victoria Zamora Cujilema Gabriel Alejandro Mariño Brito Carlos Ernesto González Gallardo María Belén Jácome Villacres Elena Rosario Beltrán Sinchiguano ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-06-29 2018-06-29 10 1 1 14 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n2.305 Merging Manual and Automated Egg Candling: A Safety and Social Solution http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/292 <p>Eggs should comply with strict quality control processes. The first step of the quality process is egg candling analysis. Egg candling is a non-destructive procedure that consists on applying light against an egg to detect abnormalities. This process is usually done manually at small and medium poultry factories. Manual egg candling is prone to human mistakes and can cause health problems to the workers. It is necessary to implement an automated process. The following study briefly describes a device that merges automated and manual egg candling analysis. Furthermore, it goes beyond the design and describes valid solutions regarding occupational safety and malnutrition that can emerge due to the implementation of this innovative design.</p> Ramiro Sebastián Vargas Cruz Lourdes Cecilia Ruiz Salvador María Cristina Navas Lema ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-06-29 2018-06-29 10 1 70 76 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n2.292 Bromatological characterization and evaluation of the antimi- crobial activity of Ecuadorian banana peel (Musa paradisiaca) http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/297 <p>The bromatological composition of banana peel (<em>Musa paradisiaca</em>) produced in Ecuador was determined and the fractions and phytochemical groups responsible for its antimicrobial activity were identified. The bromatological analysis determined a humidity of 88.94% and 11.06% of total solids (1.55% of ash, 0.47% of fat, 0.74% of protein, 0.87% of fiber and 8.3% total carbohydrates). To obtain the fractions, two methods of maceration were applied. The first used four solvents of different polarities, such as petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and water. The extracts were subjected to phytochemical screening tests that identify the presence of fatty compounds, sterols, triterpenes, saponins and tannins. The second method used 70% ethanol as solvent and five fractions were generated. Tests of antimicrobial activity by the agar diffusion method were performed in <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Escherichia coli</em> using the crude ethanolic extract and its fractions, microbiological activity was evidenced. Phytochemical screening assays and chromatography were performed on each fraction and extract identifying the main groups of compounds responsible for the antimicrobial activity.</p> Gabriela Pilco Dayana Borja Lorena Goetschel Paulette Andrade Jorge Irazabal Paúl Vargas-Jentzsch José Luis Guil-Guerrero Víctor Rueda-Ayala Luis Alejandro Ramos ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-06-29 2018-06-29 10 1 48 58 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n2.297 Processing a beverage using by-products of the dairy industry http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/295 <p>Worldwide whey production is 180 to 190 million tonnes per year, generating 1.6 billion liters of acid whey as waste. Ecuador allocates 40% of milk production to industrialization and to the production of artisanal cheeses. Whey contains lactose, total solids, protein, minerals and vitamins; the acid whey has more phosphorus, lactic acid and essential amino acids compared to sweet whey. Nutrients produce pollution by generating high amounts of BOD and DBQ. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of whey acid and xanthan gum in the preparation of an orange nectar. A completely randomized design with factorial arrangement 2<sup>2</sup> (acid whey: 10 and 15%, xanthan gum: 0.05 and 0.1%) and four replicates were used. The treatment with 10% acid whey and 0.1% xanthan gum was the only one that met the established specifications for pH, acidity and soluble solids. Sensory was located between "I like" and "I like it very much" (level of satisfaction of 85%). The purchase intention showed that 86% of consumers would buy the product. The data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance and Tukey's test (5%).</p> Maricruz Mieles Cedeño Lucía D Yépez Tamayo Lucia Ramírez ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-06-29 2018-06-29 10 1 59 69 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n2.295 Elaboration of a pasteurized beverage from a quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) protein extract http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/300 <p>The research consisted on evaluating parameters to obtain a quinoa beverage. Quinoa soluble protein (SP) extraction and two process conditions (addition of stabilizer and pasteurization temperature) were considered as parameters. The concentration of SP in the protein extract was studied through the factors: flour:NaOH solution ratio (1:2.50, 1:3.25 and 1:4.00), conditioning temperature (20 and 45 ºC), and pH (7.50 and 8.00), for 30 min at laboratory scale. The protein extract with the highest SP concentration was replicated at pilot scale, and white sugar, vanilla flavor and stabilizer (0.00 and 0.25 %) were added to formulate beverage. Then, the pasteurization temperature (120 and 135 ºC) was evaluated. The independent variables: soluble protein variation (SPV<sub>b</sub>), suspension percentage and microbial population reduction (MPR) were measured at day 0. The protein extract that was obtained with a flour-NaOH solution ratio of 1:3.25, 20 ºC and pH 7.5 reached 77.10 ± 1.76 %. The beverage had a VPS<sub>b</sub> -2.36 ± 0.25 %, a suspension percentage of 98.33 ± 1.53 % and 2.36 % of protein at 120 ºC with stabilizer 0.25 %.</p> Andrea Estefanía Guallasamín Dávila Jenny Marcela Ávila Vélez María Cristina Sotomayor Grijalva ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-06-29 2018-06-29 10 1 36 47 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n2.300 Repercution of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Kluyveromyces fragilis (L-4UCLV) on the bioproductive parameters of pigs http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/301 <p>With the objective of evaluating the repercussion of <em>Lactobacillus acidophilus</em> and <em>Kluyveromyces fragilis</em> L-4UCLV on the productive indicators and the health of the pigs in the different productive stages, two experiments (I and II) were carried out. 14 and 42 hybrid pigs CC21 (Yorkshire - Landrace / L35 Duroc) were used, respectively, distributed in two and three groups of 7 and 14 animals each. Control (T1); prepared-A (T2) and prepared-B (T3). T2, contained <em>L. acidophillus and T3, L. acidophilus</em> more <em>K. fragilis</em> (L-4 UCLV). A completely randomized design was used to evaluate weight gain (WG), average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion (FC), food efficiency (FE), incidence of diarrhea and mortality. WG, ADG, FC and FE were higher (p&lt;0.05) in T2 in experiment I and in T3 in the second. The incidence of diarrhea and the percentage of mortality was lower (p &lt;0.05) in T2 and T3. In conclusion, with the use of probiotic preparations, the productive parameters are improved and the incidence of diarrhea and mortality in all the stages studied is reduced.</p> José Efraín Miranda Yuquilema A Marín-Cárdenas M González-Pérez A Valla-Cepeda D Baño-Ayala ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-06-29 2018-06-29 10 1 27 35 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n2.301 Effect of the addition of malted and unmalted quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa wild) in Ale type beer with barley (Hordeum vulgare) malt http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/302 <p>The effect of the addition of malted quinoa (QM) and without malting (QSM) was evaluated in an Ale type beer with malted barley. Formulations containing 35 and 50% of QM and QSM were developed. Quinoa was previously unsapponificated and characterized. Density, alcoholic degree, turbidity, total acidity and pH were determined before and after the fermentation process. Analysis of color (L, a *, b *, Hue and Cr *) and sensorial acceptability were performed. Unsapponification process increased moisture content, reduced fat and ash and slightly decreased carbohydrates, nevertheless, protein and fiber content were not affected. After the fermentation, the beer with QM presented lower density, higher alcohol content and turbidity. No difference was found in total acidity and pH, while the color of beer with QM presented lower values in the analyzed color parameters (except a *). The formulation with the highest overall acceptance was the one with 50% QM. The use of QM for brewing is an alternative for the consuming of this cereal and a novel product for the consumer.</p> Ricardo Castañeda Maria Jose Andrade-Cuvi Yolanda Argüello Maria Gabriela Vernaza ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-06-29 2018-06-29 10 1 15 26 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n2.302 Characterization and spatio-temporal dynamics of Cylindrospermopsis raciborski in an Amazonian Lagoon, Ecuador. http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/195 <p>The cyanobacteria <em>Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii</em>, is a fresh water ubiquitous species from tropical to temperate weather. It is potentially capable of producing toxins.&nbsp; Thus it is necessary to monitor its presence in fresh waters associated to recreational use activities and human consumption. There are official reports and one thesis reporting the presence of <em>C. raciborskii </em>in Ecuador. Nevertheless, this country does not appear in the latest distribution maps of this species in the scientific literature. In this article, we report the presence of <em>C. raciborskii </em>in Ecuador, together with the characterization of the environmental conditions of one of the habitats where this species is present: the Limoncocha lagoon, province of Sucumbíos.</p> Judith Venegas Pablo Castillejo Pons Susana Chamorro Ivonne Carrillo Eduardo Lobo ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-06-29 2018-06-29 10 1 117 124 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n2.195 Evaluation of Micro-Algae Biomass in the Limoncocha Lagoon as a Raw Material for the Production of Bio-fuels http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/199 <p>It was determined the best experimental conditions for the production and evaluation of microalgae biomass, which come from Limoncocha, for the purpose of proving the feasibility of use in biofuel acquisition. Different crops were monitored in order to obtain the growth kinetics of microalgae and establish the yield with which they are produced on a laboratory scale controlling the different variables that interfere in this process. Once the biomass was gotten in the photo bioreactors, it was characterized to know its composition and lipid content. The productivity for the first consortium <em>Vischeria/Scenedesmus sp </em>was of 0,088&nbsp;g L<sup>-1 </sup>day<sup>-1</sup>, which reached a total of 5030000&nbsp;cel/mL and for the second consortium <em>Chlorella/Monoraphidium Contortum sp </em>was of 0,091<em>&nbsp;</em>g L<sup>-1</sup>&nbsp;day<sup>-1 </sup>with a total of 5537636 cel/mL. For the lipid composition through Soxhlet method by using a mixture of chloroform / methanol as solvents, the gotten results were from 16% out of the total lipids for <em>Vischeria/Scenedesmus sp</em>&nbsp;consortium and 42 % for <em>Chlorella/Monoraphidium Contortum sp</em> consortium.&nbsp;</p> Soledad Subía Rodolfo Jefferson Rubio Aguiar ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-06-29 2018-06-29 10 1 106 116 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n2.199 Determination of cadmium and lead in water, sediment and bioindicator organisms in Estero Salado, Ecuador http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/246 <p>Evidence of pollution by heavy metals have been detected in the city of Guayaquil, province of Guayas, coastal Ecuador. The water and sediment in the mangrove environs of Puente Portete in Estero Salado were tested for concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), as well as the following organisms: gastropods, including <em>Littorina varia </em>and <em>Cerithidea mazatlanica</em>, and the leaves of <em>Rhizophora racemosa</em>,<em> Laguncularia racemosa</em>, <em>Avicennia germinans</em>, and <em>Conocarpus erectus</em>. The samples were analyzed using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The values of Cd and Pb in water and sediment exceeded the permissible limits established by Ecuadorian and Canadian standards. The gastropod species <em>L. varia</em> and <em>C. mazatlanica</em> were the best indicator organisms for detecting pollution by accumulating 2.45 ± 0.49 ppm Pb and 1.49 ± 0.67 ppm Cd, respectively. Because of the low bioavailability of heavy metals in sediments, mangrove plants did not accumulate Cd and Pb in leaves.</p> Beatriz Margarita Pernía Santos Mariuxi Mero Xavier Cornejo Nelson Ramírez-Prado Lissette Ramírez Kenya Bravo David López Jorge Muñoz Josué Zambrano ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-06-29 2018-06-29 10 1 89 105 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n2.246 Multitemporal Analysis of vegetation change at Chimborazo Reserve as a result of climate change http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/252 <p>Climate change is a global problem that affects the state of conservation of ecosystems in all regions of the world; as well as in the Chimborazo Fauna Production Reserve, which is linked to anthropogenic activities inside and outside it, such as the extensive and intensive grazing of sheep and cattle that have caused effects on vegetation and soil given to the consumption of native plants and all ecosystem processes because they are related to each other. The methodology used to achieve optimal discrimination of vegetation change and conservation status is obtained through the application of satellite images LANDSAT 5, LANDSAT 7, orthophotos and aerial photographs from 1962 to 1966 up to 2010 distributed in three periods; using procedures such as supervised classification and the calculation of the Normalized Differential Index of Vegetation. Anthropogenic activity for the period 1962-1966 determines 0.26% and snow is 10.30%, while for the period 2010-2011, the percentage of intervention increases to 9.54% and the snow decreases to 4.46%, evidencing the loss of perpetual snow due to solar radiation.</p> Pamela Andrea Paula Luis Zambrano Paulina Paula ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-29 2018-06-29 10 1 125 137 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n2.252 Generation of a Quality Model for Learning Objects Using the iStar Notation and the ISO/IEC 25010 Standard http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/234 <p>This study describes the process for the creation of a quality model that evaluates Learning Objects in terms of technology and didactics by using <em>i*</em> notation. In order to achieve the objective, quality models from both aspects were reviewed along with LO concepts and quality characteristics that a LO must accomplish were determined in order to consider the evaluation characteristics. The IQMC method was used to construct the diagram for strategic (SD) <em>i*</em> sections for the final quality model. With the SD model created, it was established the traceability between the generated model criteria and the ISO/IEC 25010 matrix to keep a correlation between the <em>i*</em> notation characteristics and the standard ISO matrix mentioned before. The matrix obtained was enriched with conceptual characteristics and with the attributes that a LO should fulfill. The different metrics in the ISO matrix were established for LO evaluations. As a result, a model through LO evaluation with each one of the selected metrics was generated.</p> Vanessa Alexandra Solis Cabrera Juan Pablo Carvallo Jorge Javier Maldonado Mahuad ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-06-29 2018-06-29 10 1 175 187 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n2.234 Effect of the application of nutritive solution for the initial growth of Polylepis racemosa at hatchery level http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/207 <p>Afforestation and reforestation programs with emphasis on ecological sustainability focus their efforts on the protection of water sources, eroded soils recovery, and the establishment of agroforestry systems in high altitude areas, where quality plants are required. The present study aims to determine the response in aerial and foliar growth of nursery yagual (<em>Polylepis racemosa</em>) to the application of different nutritive solutions after transplantation. A completely randomized blocks (RCB) experimental design was established with seven treatments and four repetitions. The treatments consisted in the use of a mixture of three fertilizers (ammonium nitrate, potassium nitrate and mono potassium phosphate) at three different concentrations (100-50-100 (D1), 150-75-150 (D2), 200-100-200 (D3) mg.L<sup>-1</sup>NPK respectively), and two application frequencies (two (F1) and three (F2) times per week), plus a control treatment. The analyzed variables were the total height (hT) and the number of leaves (N° H). According to the results, the largest height and the greatest number of leaves were obtained when fertilizing with 200-100-200 mg.L<sup>-1 </sup>NPK, with three times per week applications for 120 days. On the other hand, the treatment that rendered the shortest plants and lowest number of leaves was the D1-F1 combination, which, in the case of leaf number, was not significantly different from the control.</p> Sonia Carmita Rosero Haro José Arcos Miguel Guallpa Holguer Guaraca ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-06-29 2018-06-29 10 1 198 207 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n2.207 Evaluation of gas emissions in light gasoline vehicles in height conditions. Case study Quito, Ecuador http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/201 <p>At present it is very important to estimate the contribution of the vehicle fleet in the inventories of polluting emissions for the city of Quito due to its geographical characteristic that places it at a height above 2810 m. In this research, the emission factors en route of three fuels used mainly by light vehicles in Ecuador are evaluated; Super gasoline with 93 octane; Extra gasoline with 87 octanes; and Ecopaís gasoline (Extra gasoline and 5% bioethanol). A Chevrolet Aveo 1.6 L vehicle was used, instrumented with an on-board system to obtain information on pollutant emissions and total fuel consumption in a pre-determined route of 12 km, at an average speed of 40 km/h. The simplified combustion model was used to develop a mass balance with respect to the amount of carbon present in the fuel, and thus obtain the emission factors ( ) in grams of pollutant per kilometer traveled. The results obtained are: Extra gasoline: CO 3.194 g/km, HC 0.060 g/km and NOx 0.142 g/km; Gasoline 92 Super: CO 4.770 g/km, HC 0.099 g/km and NOx 0.281 g/km; and Ecopaís gasoline: CO 5.939 g/km, HC 0.082 g/km and NOx 0.279 g/km.</p> Edilberto Antonio Llanes Cedeño Juan Carlos Rocha-Hoyos Diana Belén Peralta Zurita Julio César Leguísamo Milla ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-06-19 2018-06-19 10 1 149 158 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n2.201 Agile Architecture Based on ISA-88 for the Design of Execution Control Chart in Distributed Applications using IEC-61499 http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/186 <p>Nowadays, industrial automation systems must optimize control techniques and communication integration of their processes, to introduce concepts given by Industry 4.0. To achieve this, it is necessary to introduce new automation standards to achieve agile and intelligent manufacturing systems, this is the reason why the IEC-61499 standard is considered as the main option. In an industrial level, the ISA-88 standard offers a coherent set of rules and terminology for batch digital control and it defines models for this kind of industries. This is why it is necessary to contribute with low cost alternatives to the industry with which it can implement the Industry 4.0 concepts in various control systems. The present working paper proposes the development of Function Blocks (FBs) networks under IEC-61499 standard to integrate distributed control systems with the help of embedded hardware using the ISA-88 standard as a basis for the development of control algorithms and FB’s Execution Control Chart (ECC).</p> Fabricio Chicaiza Carlos A. García Esteban X. Castellanos Carlos Sánchez César Rosero Marcelo Garcia Sanchez ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-03-30 2018-03-30 10 1 149 165 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n1.186 Review of the state of the art of batteries in automotive applications http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/202 <p>Purpose of this paper is the review of the literature and analyze the progress and application that battery technologies have made in the automotive industry, due to the implementation of electrified systems in the power train, that are used in hybrid and electric vehicles. The technologies which are used, were classified by the materials applied in the construction of the electrochemical cells, lead acid, lithium ion and nickel metal hydride were the chosen ones. It was identified the most important characteristics as the capacity, the nominal voltage of their cells, among others. Lead-acid batteries will continue to occupy a considerable market share because of their cost, but they cannot be used as propulsion batteries. Nickel-metal hydride batteries withstand higher work stress and have higher energy density, so they are mainly used in hybrid vehicles. Because of the demand for energy and power, that electric vehicles need, is used the lithium-ion technology.</p> Eduardo José Cueva Sánchez Juan Lucero Alex Guzman Juan Rocha Luis Espinoza ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-03-30 2018-03-30 10 1 166 176 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n1.202 Reconstruction of the Electric Consumption Pattern from Big Data using MapReduce Technique http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/220 <p>The work presents the performance of the MapReduce technique to reconstruct the load curve from a previously stored amount of information coming from smart metering of electrical energy and currently considered as Big Data. The management of information in the stage of an intelligent electrical network considered as a System of Management of Measured Data or MDMS needs reducing the times with respect to the reports that are required in a certain moment for decision making in relation to the electrical demand response. Therefore, this paper proposes the use of MapReduce as a technique to obtain information of the load curve in a suitable time to obtain trends and statistics related to the residential electric pattern.</p> Esteban Inga Ortega Juan Inga Estuardo Correa Roberto Hincapié ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-03-30 2018-03-30 10 1 177 187 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n1.220 Design of a linear microwave amplifier for X-Band carriers http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/231 <p>In the present article, are exposed the results obtained in the design of a linear microwave amplifier for X-band carriers. Fundamentally,&nbsp;shows the contributions made in the techniques of implementation of high frequency amplifier circuits based on&nbsp; transistors of GaN HEMT technology;&nbsp; as well as the elaboration of polarization lines and adaptation ports, stability control and gains in the desired frequency range. It should be noted the use of free software tools for the characterization of the transistor through its S parameters and the geometry of the transmission lines of the circuit.</p> CRISTHIAN CASTRO-PEÑAHERRERA CARLOS ALBERTO SERRA JIMENEZ ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-03-30 2018-03-30 10 1 12 24 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n1.231 Linear Quadratic Regulator and Model Predictive Control Applied to a Four-Tank System: A Performance Comparison http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/257 <p>This paper shows a comparison between two linear controllers, a PI-LQR and a Soft-Constrained MPC applied to a Four-Tank process, which main characteristics are the nonlinearities, multiple inputs and outputs coupled together and slow behavior. The model was linearized around an operating point by using an optimization method, named least square. Also, a general mathematic formulation for both controllers is presented that can be extended to any process control. All the procedure was described in detail as well as the simulation results for both controllers. To achieve a real performance comparison the experimental data were obtained under the same conditions and all the response parameters were analyzed.</p> William Oswaldo Chamorro Hernández Pablo Velarde Rueda ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-03-30 2018-03-30 10 1 204 216 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n1.257 Analysis by the finite element method of the behavior of the ABS brake pads with materials based on steel and zinc discretizing the continuous element using CAE software http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/259 <p>In this paper, the study of the behavior of the brake pads of an ABS system was carried out using the finite element analysis method. This method is based on the transformation of a body of continuous nature into an approximate discrete model, this transformation is known as the discretization of the model. For this reason, one of the most critical actions is to perform quality meshing, so that this allows improving the convergence of results by optimizing the computational load, which enables the problem to be solved in less time. The use of software tools to carry out this type of study has the advantage that in the post-processing the type of parameters that can be studied can be chosen, in this case, mechanical and thermal variables that allowed to characterize the behavior of the materials were analyzed. The study was carried out for two materials: Trimat MN1081 which is composed of steel and non-ferrous filaments and Trimat GZC composed of zinc fibers, in this way important characteristics of these materials were obtained, such as stress, deformation, penetration, the flow heat and energy. Based on the method developed and the results obtained, a study will be conducted with alternative materials, which will allow determining the feasibility of using these materials in search of optimal results in both mechanical characteristics and costs.</p> Nelson Gutierrez Alexy Fabian Vinueza Lozada ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-03-30 2018-03-30 10 1 188 203 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n1.259 Embedded System Oriented to Babies in Crawl Phases for Accident Prevention in Applied a Smart Textile http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/281 <p>The crawling of babies is the way to discover and learn their motor, cognitive, social, and emotional functions, among others. Because of this, infants are exposed to different dangers such as falls, burns, bodily injuries among the most common, where the home is the place of major incidents. Due to the above, the present investigation focuses on the development of an embedded system within an intelligent textile that allows accidents to be noticed. The system is in a garment in the form of a harness that has a connection with knee pads with magnetic sensors. These elements are responsible for detecting magnetic security tapes previously placed in places of greatest danger in the home. As a result, the system issues an alert with a reaction time of 7.6 seconds, after the system is activated.</p> Inti Javier Chico Morales Sandra Karina Narváez Pupiales Ana Cristina Umaquinga Criollo Paul David Rosero Montalvo ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-03-30 2018-03-30 10 1 217 225 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n1.281 Design of a Smart and Compact Illumination System http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/283 <p>Light is a very influential environmental factor in the quality of life and the performance of people. For this reason, it is necessary to create and implement technologies that help maintain healthy environments, in terms of lighting, for users. If we add to this the large amount of electrical energy that is wasted due to bad consumption habits and the use of outdated and inefficient devices, the importance of this work is evident, which proposes the design of a compact and versatile lamp that easily replaces traditional light bulbs with advantages such as an automatic on and off control depending on the movement registered in the room, an automatic control of lighting level to maintain optimal levels at all times and regulation of the light tone according to the room and at the time of day. To achieve the aforementioned, LED technology, a microcontroller and sensors were used, which together with control techniques govern the behavior of the lamp. Several operating parameters were established such as lighting level and tone of the emitted light which were fulfilled within certain operating conditions.</p> Daniel Francisco Lopez Fernandez Daniel Mideros ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-03-30 2018-03-30 10 1 226 235 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n1.283 Implementation of a prototype for capture and digital processing of thermal images acquired from a UAV http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/204 <p>The present work focuses on the development of a prototype for capturing and processing thermal images from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The system consists of two parts: an "air" stage installed in a DJI Phantom 3 Standard. And another programmed into a receiving PC called "ground". The “air” system is composed by a Flir Lepton thermal camera, a Raspberry Pi card and a GPS module (for georeferencing). After that the images are sent to the PC using an Ad-Hoc network. The PC performs an analysis of the information through the use of histograms and edge detection (Canny algorithm). An algorithm is obtained in order to discriminate photographs with clearly heat points. Through the use of the algorithm the probability of detecting false positives in the images is reduced avoiding a waste of time and power during the processing. Finally, to verify the correct operation of the system, the prototype was tested in adverse weather conditions (fog) in the Pululahua Volcano sector.</p> Ricardo Llugsi Cañar Renato Escandón ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-03-30 2018-03-30 10 1 1 11 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n1.204 A Practical Model to Perform Comprehensive Cybersecurity Audits http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/214 <p>These days organizations are continually facing being targets of cyberattacks and cyberthreats; the sophistication and complexity of modern cyberattacks and the modus operandi of cybercriminals including Techniques, Tactics and Procedures (TTP) keep growing at unprecedented rates. Cybercriminals are always adopting new strategies to plan and launch cyberattacks based on existing cybersecurity vulnerabilities and exploiting end users by using social engineering techniques. Cybersecurity audits are extremely important to verify that information security controls are in place and to detect weaknesses of inexistent cybersecurity or obsolete controls. This article presents an innovative and comprehensive cybersecurity audit model. The CyberSecurity Audit Model (CSAM) can be implemented to perform internal or external cybersecurity audits. This model can be used to perform single cybersecurity audits or can be part of any corporate audit program to improve cybersecurity controls. Any information security or cybersecurity audit team has either the options to perform a full audit for all cybersecurity domains or by selecting specific domains to audit certain areas that need control verification and hardening. The CSAM has 18 domains; Domain 1 is specific for Nation States and Domains 2-18 can be implemented at any organization. The organization can be any small, medium or large enterprise, the model is also applicable to any Non-Profit Organization (NPO).</p> Regner Sabillon ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-03-30 2018-03-30 10 1 127 137 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n1.214 Moving the IT Infrastructure to the Cloud http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/219 <p>Cloud computing services are nowadays advertised as an emerging business model. Moreover, these services bring innovative solutions in a more sophisticated competitive market. But, the decision for their adoption could be significantly reduced due to organizations’ concerns related to security, privacy, and trust. The challenge involves such questions as where to start, which provider should the company choose or whether it is even worthwhile. Thus, this paper proposes an improved unified framework, based on a previous study where a 6 step process framework was introduced. This improved framework add one new step for security and control after the migration process. At the end, a 7 processes framework is proposed aimed to fulfill organizations’ concerns when decide to adopt cloud computing services with a follow-up step. This additional step intends to help IT directors to make sure everything is working properly in a methodological way, in order to achieve a successful cloud computing migration process. An effective solution that is gaining momentum and popularity for competitive organizations.&nbsp;</p> Oswaldo Moscoso-Zea Pablo Saa Joel Paredes-Gualtor Fanny Sandoval ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-03-30 2018-03-30 10 1 79 89 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n1.219 An expert system based on data mining and linear integer programming to support the timetabling design and courses assignment in higher education http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/226 <p>Commonly, the most of organizations tend to manage the timetables of their employees according to traditional guidelines (imposing an 8-hour work day). The primary objective of this approach is controlling some variables such as the attendance and absenteeism of the employees, and even, in some cases considering this situation as work efficiency. However, the new organizational tendencies have broken specific paradigms based on mechanistic orientation, trying to create a new horizon towards the construction of organic and dynamic organizations. For these reasons, in this paper, we present an expert system based on integer linear programming and data mining with the aim of addressing the problem of assigning courses to teachers and timetabling (considered an NP-complete problem). The preliminary results are encouraging, given that the system was able to assign courses on a database consisting off 133.000 registers of teachers, and at the same time, generate timetables with minimal computational costs.</p> Daniel Calle-López Javier Cornejo-Reyes Fernando Pesántez-Avilés Mónica Rodas-Tobar César Vásquez-Vásquez Vladimir Robles-Bykbaev ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-03-30 2018-03-30 10 1 102 117 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n1.226 Strategy for responding to computer incidents of insecurity set in Ecuadorian law http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/229 <p>Assurance the security of information, information systems, services and networks implies socializing, also knowing how to respond to an event where such information security has been violated and how manage the identified digital evidence. The present paper is a solution, based on international standards and complying with the current Law of Ecuador. Digital evidence will be identified at the scene of a computer incident by the authorized persons. The authorization must indicate what motivates, authorizes and limits the identification of evidence. The phase of obtaining the digital evidence identified will depend on the established internal circumstances and policies. The preservation of the objective evidence is carried out through chain of custody, the verifiable, complete and reliable results are reported. The previously described strategy was applied as a case study to the incidents of violation of logical securities. The digital evidence found in the place was recognized, extracted, preserved and informed about. Throughout the process, the chain of custody was implemented, which assurance the integrity and reliability of the data. In each phase it was recorded as, when, where and who manipulated both digital signs and digital devices.</p> Rodrigo Arturo Proaño Andrés Fernando Gavilanes Molina ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-03-30 2018-03-30 10 1 90 101 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n1.229 Mini-Spin and Mini-Spin-VR: equivalence between virtual and traditional anxiety test http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/230 <p>Virtual reality technologies enable the representation of a vast array of existing and fictitious environments into virtual, digital scenes. These scenes allow for the easy integration of users into a controlled laboratory, allowing them to participate on a variety of scientific studies. Many different areas, like psychology, have already integrated virtual technologies into its field; nevertheless, there are still many open problems related. The main focus of this work is to find out if the virtual environments could replace traditional pen and paper psychological test. Thanks to the use of the two one sided equivalence test, results showed significant statistical equivalence.</p> Verónica Egas-Reyes Raúl Hinojosa-Alcocer Diego Ordóñez-Camacho ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-03-30 2018-03-30 10 1 43 52 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n1.230 Influence of social networks on the analysis of sentiment applied to the political situation in Ecuador http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/235 <p>Knowing the opinion of a sector of the population can be as important to launch a product in marketing, as to know the opinion of voters, in politics. In Ecuador, the social network Twitter has become one of the main means of direct interaction between political figures and the population. So a study that reflects feelings in Spanish by idioms of each region, gives us a great opportunity to study the relationship between the level of acceptance on Twitter of a candidate and the election results. The contribution of this article is the analysis of feelings (SA) using a tool for NLP adapted to the variation of Spanish used in Ecuador, taking advantage of the fact that most of the literature has focused on the English language, while adaptations for languages, like Spanish, they are minimal and are still in process due to the complexity inherent in the language.</p> Estevan Ricardo Gómez-Torres Roger Jaimes Orlando Hidalgo Sergio Luján-Mora ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-03-30 2018-03-30 10 1 67 78 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n1.235 Inclusive Education: Mobile Serious Games for People with Cognitive Disabilities http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/236 <p>Nowadays, the use of mobile devices is increasingly frequent. In many occasions they are used as a means of entertainment for people through video games. Serious games is a category of video games used as teaching methods in different environments. They use fun as a strategy for the learning process. However, the vast majority do not focus on vulnerable groups such as people with cognitive disabilities, because they do not consider accessibility parameters in their design. Some video games development companies have proposed general guidelines for the implementation of accessible video games, but they have not been formalized as good practices or standards. This article presents a compilation and analysis of different accessibility guidelines for the development of mobile serious games for people with cognitive disabilities. It also proposes a model to evaluate the access of serious games for people with cognitive disabilities and applies it in a case study. Finally, an evaluation tool is proposed for mobile serious games developers focused on people with cognitive disabilities.</p> Angel Jaramillo-Alcázar Sergio Luján-Mora Luis Salvador-Ullauri ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-03-30 2018-03-30 10 1 53 66 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n1.236 Indoors positioning with Android, Bluetooth and RSSI http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/238 <p>This research has two main objectives. First, to determine experimentally the relationship between RSSI and distance. Second, with trilateration techniques, to establish the location of the receiver device in the experimental environment. The main contributions are: to determine how Bluetooth devices interact between them and how they differ when dealing with RSSI measures; to collect data over controlled distances applying to it regression analysis to establish the RSSI – distance relationship; to evaluate the basic trilateration techniques to produce a functional prototype for an indoor positioning system using Android devices. Results are encouraging considering that even with an extremely heterogeneous hardware and software configuration, it was possible to get a high average precision.</p> Edwin Cabrera-Goyes Diego Ordóñez-Camacho ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-03-30 2018-03-30 10 1 118 126 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n1.238 Application of standard web services for the automatic hydrometeorology monitoring, integrating information from diverse sensors using ontologies http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/239 <p>The last developments in worlwide technology and the continuous grow in telecommunications have resulted in the requirement to make available the information generated by a number of devices, especially for those that incorporate sensors, with the goal of reacting to any relevant events that could occur. The latest advances in this area have resulted in the development of several devices with heterogeneous types and from different vendors. This paper presents a proposal for an architecture that integrates serveral standard web services for the compilation, organization and storage of the information generated by a network of hydrometeorology sensors. Likewise, the paper proposes the application of standard services for controling remotely these sensors and for managing events and generating early warnings. The aforementioned web services are some examples of the set of services that form the Sensor Web Enablement standard. Considering the diversity, both in type and vendor, that is typically found</p> Jaime Veintimilla-Reyes Pablo Vanegas René Estrella ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-03-30 2018-03-30 10 1 34 42 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n1.239 MOOCEP: A method for Building Massive Online Courses for Elderly People: Using a MOOCEP creation http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/242 <p>Today, the population of elderly people has increased significantly in relation to the total world population. In recent years, this segment of population has shown a greater adherence and interest in technological advances, among them the Internet and its services; this, with the aim of develop different activities such as entertainment, obtain current information, learning different topics, among others. However, applications and websites do not take into account the specific requirements of elderly people. Hence, it is necessary to have methodologies, processes and tools that take into account appropriate forms of interaction specific to this vulnerable sector of the population. This article is an extension to the one presented at the INCISCOS 2017 conference, which proposed a methodology for the creation of massive online courses, called MOOCEP. In this work, it has been considered convenient to test the devices created with the use of MOOCEP, by presenting these resources to elderly people, in order to make a comparison of the before and after knowledge of the various topics presented in the learning platform.</p> Irene Priscila Cedillo Orellana Paola Beltrán Paul Rodríguez Freddy Serrano Alexandra Bermeo ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-03-30 2018-03-30 10 1 25 33 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n1.242 Attacking an ERP with Open Source Software http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/253 <p>Information security is a growing concern in companies and organizations, being even higher when linked to financial platforms where sensitive information exists. This article explains the techniques used in the pentesting performed on the ERP software developed in APEX 5 by the University of Azuay. To achieve this goal, six stages has been considered for perform a penetration test: I) Conceptualization, where is defined the scope of the tests to be performed. II) Preparation of the laboratory, which identifies some of the tools used to initiate the safety tests. III) Obtaining of information, where the possible objects are recognized and scanned in greater depth to identify intrinsic characteristics for subsequently exploit them. IV) Analysis of the vulnerabilities found in the previous stage. V) Exploitation of vulnerabilities; and VI) post-exploitation, a stage that contemplates the destruction of evidence of the attack and the conservation of the connection and the accesses obtained to extract information. All these stages were carried out within the facilities of the “Universidad del Azuay”, considering the development environment in which this software is currently located.</p> Esteban Crespo Fabian Carvajal Catalina Astudillo Marcos Orellana Rosalva Vintimilla Juan Pablo Carvallo ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-03-30 2018-03-30 10 1 138 148 10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n1.253 Use of sodium bentonite as a pretreatment to the tangential microfiltration of Castilla’s blackberry wine Rubus glaucus Benth http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/180 <p>This research studied the influence of clarification techniques of Castilla's blackberry wine Rubus glaucus Benth on its chromaticity, turbidity and yields of the process. Initially, the tangential microfiltration (TMF) at three different working pressures (1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 bar) and then the treatment of the feed with sodium bentonite prior the filtration. The TMF at 1.5 bar obtained the highest Volume Reduction Factor (VRF) and the best performance, standardizing the pressure conditions for the TMF with pretreatment. According the pH, the optimum quantity of flocculant added to each batch of wine was established at 9 grams, carried to rest at 6 ° C (6, 12 and 24 hours), obtaining 610 ± 38 g for the highest proportion of turbid in the batch of 6 hours of rest, product of a greater unstable catch by the clarifier. The TMF of the pretreated batches indicated representative improvements in the yield, up to 40%. All the analyzed microfiltered wine samples with and without pretreatment achieved a turbidity less than 2 NTU, accomplishing with the quality criterion of "bright red", concluding that the TMF separately and with pretreatment improve the quality of the product, but they can cause color deterioration.</p> Gabriel Mariño Manuel Coronel Carlos González Elena Beltrán ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-12-18 2017-12-18 10 1 53 66 10.29019/enfoqueute.v8n5.180 Physical, chemical and microbiological evaluation of cassava silage with cowpea and microbial culture http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/181 <p>The aim of this work was to evaluate the physical, microbiological, fibrous and lactic acid changes of cassava silage with cowpea used on biological mix. Fifty kg whole cassava (root, stem and leaves), 20 kg of cowpea flour and 4 L of microbial culture containing Lactobacillus acidophillus, Streptococcus thermophillus and Klyumyces fragilis (L-4 UCLV) were used. The evaluated treatments were: Y100integral cassava (Y100), integral cassava more 20% cowpea (Y+C), and integral cassava more 20% cowpeas and 8% of microbial culture (Y+C+BP). The ensiled material was preserved in sterile glass bottles with wide mouth. A completely randomized design was used. The physicochemical, microbiological, fibrous and lactic acid characteristics were evaluated. For 18 months, the dry matter, crude and true protein, lactic acid contents and the microbial viability was higher (P &lt;0.05) in Y+C+BP treatments from 2 to 18 months. The fibrosity and the pH of the silage was also lower (P &lt;0.05) at the end of the study in this treatment Y+C+BP. It is concluded that with the inclusion of the microbial mix in the cassava silage with cowpea, it is possible to preserve the physicochemical and microbiological properties for 18 months, as well as the values of dry matter, crude and true protein, and lactic acid contents were improved.</p> JE Miranda-Yuquilema A Marín-Cárdenas M González-Pérez D Sánchez-Macías ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-12-18 2017-12-18 10 1 67 75 10.29019/enfoqueute.v8n5.181 Study of the compliance of the INEN 2205 standard in the seats of urban public transport bus http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/182 <p>An important participation in the urban public transport offer of Quito is in the hands of the private company. Given the high demand, it will show the safety indicators and the quality of the service. This fact is the fundamental motivation of this article, which verified the compliance with the INEN 2205 standard for passenger and driver seats in a specific urban transport company. A sample of the units is shown and each point shows a body model. In particular, measurements were made of seats using: flexometer, bubble level and inclinometer. In addition, visual inspections and simple experiments of mechanical friction were carried out to evaluate the qualitative characteristics. Finally, a simple verification count was performed on the sample and confidence intervals and hypothesis tests were constructed for the statistical ratio. Population inferences showed that 41% and 55% of seats for passengers and drivers, respectively, did comply with the regulations; while the multivariate analysis allowed to identify sample groups and correlations between them. It was concluded that it exists in the observation of the regulations regarding the state of the seats and angular parameters.</p> Vinicio Reyes Carlos Rosales Alex Guzmán Sebastián Báez ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-12-18 2017-12-18 10 1 76 88 10.29019/enfoqueute.v8n5.182 Design and implementation of an automatically controlled plastic bottles cutting recycling machine http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/183 <p>An automatic machine has been designed to obtain threads and ribbons through a continuous rotational cutting process. This machine processes plastic bottles used as containers for storage and transportation of soft drinks and non-carbonated drinks with a capacity of three liters. It is a mechatronic design, composed of simple mechanical / pneumatic, electrical and control systems, which allows to process up to fifty bottles per hour. A variety of products can be obtained; from threads with approximately 46.5 m in length and 1.6 mm thick (width) to ribbons with 11.3 m in length and 6.7 mm in width per bottle can be obtained. These products are economic raw material obtained from waste material such as plastic bottles, which are highly polluting elements of the environment due to the small percentage that is recycled especially in Ecuador. This raw material can have applications in some manufacturing processes such as the manufacture of brooms, ropes, baskets, bags, fasteners among others.</p> Luis Hidalgo Aguilera Jimmy Imbaquingo Daniel Mideros ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-12-18 2017-12-18 10 1 89 102 10.29019/enfoqueute.v8n5.183 Potential native trees and shrubs for reforestation in the Central Sierra of Ecuador http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/184 <p>Within the National Forest Restoration Plan of the Ministry of Environment of Ecuador, the ESPOCH herbarium identified the species used in the Autonomous Parochial Governments of the provinces of Chimborazo, Cotopaxi and Tungurahua. The different institutions sent samples to the Herbarium of the Escuela Superior Politécnica del Chimborazo. We checked that the mentioned species are native and that they correspond to the established zones, for this the catalog of vascular plants was used. We processed the information from which 17 lists of forest species belonging to 21 families, 26 Genres and 49 species were generated. The most frequent species is Alnus acuminata Kunth in all provinces. The species should be generated from the environmental conditions of each of the provinces, and the species to be used in the program should be exclusively native since it is about preserving what little we have, even using known species in the first stage. In addition, not all species can be found in native populations, but only cultivated; this is, therefore, necessary to take into account since the requirements of the species for its development are not the same.</p> Jorge Caranqui Aldaz ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-12-18 2017-12-18 10 1 103 109 10.29019/enfoqueute.v8n5.184 Use of distributed ledger technology by central banks: A review http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/175 <p>This paper reviews what stage the central banks of the world’s leading economies are at in their study and adoption of distributed ledger technology (DLT) to reengineer their various systems and functions. A brief description of DLT will be given, followed by an analysis of central banks’ publications and pronouncements to determine what each central bank is doing on their journey to DLT adoption. It was found that of the central banks for which information was available, all of them have expressed interest in DLT and have evaluated it to some extent. Nevertheless, no central bank has an operational DLT-based system at this point. This is because some issues remain regarding the speed, cost of processing, security, transparency and privacy, legal settlement finality, scalability and network effects of the technology. As DLT matures, the expectation is that these issues will begin to be resolved.</p> César A. Del Río ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-12-18 2017-12-18 10 1 1 13 10.29019/enfoqueute.v8n5.175 An Hybrid Genetic Algorithm to Optimization of Flow Shop Scheduling Problems under Real Environments Constraints http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/176 <p>This paper aims to analyzing the effect of the inclusion of several constraints that have negative influence in the real manufacturing productions. For the solution of the scheduling problem treated in this paper, known as Flow Shop Scheduling, an efficient Genetic Algorithm is introduced combined with the Variable Neighborhood Search for problems of n tasks and m machines minimizing the total completion time or makespan. Release date, dependent setup-times and transport times are entered. These are common restrictions that can be found in multiple manufacturing environments where there are machines, tools, and a set of jobs must be processed in these, following the same flow pattern. The computational experiments carried out on a set of instances of problems of different sizes of complexity show that the proposed hybrid metaheuristic achieves high quality solutions comparable to the optimum ones reported.</p> Rodolfo Najarro Ringo López Ruth Elizabeth Racines Amilkar Puris ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-12-18 2017-12-18 10 1 14 25 10.29019/enfoqueute.v8n5.176 Risk assessment and modeling of technical solutions for filtrations earth dams http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/177 <p>The paper presents the evaluation and the analysis of three types of filter geometry to evaluate the filtration risk in Zaza Reservoir, taking as starting point the historic characteristics of the fluctuation of water levels inside the earth dam. The work is based on the experience of a multidisciplinary team and previous research with bi-dimensional models, using the Finite Elements Method for the solution of basic engineering problems. Also, the results of the installation of a new filter system with a geospatial index are evaluated (under criteria of threats, vulnerability, and risk) with spatial visualization data in a Geographical Information System for thematic maps generation, that represent how much the water level varies inside the dam according to the different filters evaluated.</p> Michael Álvarez González Lamberto Álvarez Gil Romel Vázquez Rodríguez ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-12-18 2017-12-18 10 1 26 36 10.29019/enfoqueute.v8n5.177 Influence of the seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum as a growth promoter in the stage of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/178 <p>The quality of the algae Ascphyllum nodosum was assessed as a growth promoter in the breeding stage of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and its immunostimulant effect with regard to fungal diseases as the Saprolegnia sp. 6000 fingerlings of 77 days of age were used, with an average weight of 0.15 g, distributed under a DCA. For the analysis of the results, it was applied the analysis of variance and separation of averages (Duncan to p&lt;0.05), orthogonal comparisons and chi square. The seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum added as nutritional supplement in the growth stage with a level of 2% and 98% of concentrated food was the one that reached the best zoo technical and economic results: initial weight 0.84 g, daily weight gain 0.30 g, final weight 34.60 g., nutritive conversion 0.19, mortality 4.60%, and the cost of production per kilo of meat is $35.24. Regarding the mycotic challenge (fungus Saprolegnia sp.), the administration of the seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum on the percentages of 2%, 2.5% and 3% as nutritional supplement, provided resistance to the fingerlings.</p> Diego López Iván Naranjo Olga Pérez Vinicio Uday ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-12-18 2017-12-18 10 1 37 45 10.29019/enfoqueute.v8n5.178 The visual effect and the necessity of determinating the superficial whitening method of the macadamia’s nut http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/179 <p>Macadamia nut is considered "the queen of nuts", because of its high energy content and nutritional value. Certain types of nuts are considered to be non-commercial due to their color; therefore, the aim of this study was determining a method of surface bleaching using additives that do not affect the taste, smell and texture of the walnut. Color is a sensory quality of food; it’s an indicator and a critical quality factor in fresh and processed products. Three food additives were used as bleaching agents: 1% citric acid for 2 minutes and 3% for 1 minute, 0.1% ascorbic acid for 1 minute and 0.3% for 3 minutes, and 5 and 10% sodium bicarbonate for 1 minute. For all treatments, color analysis, walnut moisture, sensory analysis of odor, taste and texture were carried out. Walnuts were bleached superficially after drying. The results indicate that the best treatment for bleaching macadamia nut is ascorbic acid at 0.3%, with this it is possible to add a more homogeneous and natural color to the nut, free of blackish spots.</p> María José Jijón Teresa Guerrero Villegas Adriana Barahona Pablo Aguilar Barriga ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-12-18 2017-12-18 10 1 46 52 10.29019/enfoqueute.v8n5.179 Towards the construction of a device to support blind people in the “cuarenta” game http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/170 <p>The present work has the objective of developing a system for the automatic recognition of a playing card on a table, as part of a more general project to create a device to assist the blind in the chance game called “cuarenta”. The aim of this device will be to inform the user about the cards being played, via audio. For this phase of the project the algorithm used was k-NN, trained with a set of alphanumeric synthetic characters. The test set contained photographs taken in controlled lighting conditions, with the card positioned in arbitrary orientations. The parameterization of the algorithm gave a value of 1 as the optimal k, with which a classification error of 5% was obtained in the test set. Only two characters were confused by the classifier, the “A” and the “J”, with 20% and 40% errors each one. The algorithm was implemented in an embedded Raspberry Pi 3 system, obtaining a response time of 5 seconds, including the conversion to audio, and a memory occupation no greater than 60% of the total capacity of the system. These results suggest its applicability in portable devices.</p> Holger Ortega Rodrigo Tufiño Juan Estévez ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-09-29 2017-09-29 10 1 27 40 10.29019/enfoqueute.v8n4.170 Applied geostatistics for reservoir characterization: High Resolution Cells based model http://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/174 <p>Is it easy to use geostatistics for reservoir characterization or not? Is SGEMS able to reproduce reservoir geological characteristics in a 3D high resolution model? After years, Geostatistics has been allowing high resolution models generation to increase reservoir lithological detail. This work presents a straightforward methodology to create a facies model conditioned with the porosity model. Therefore, Open source geostatistics software was used to interpolate data. Rock type and porosity data, obtained from 26 well-logs of the Oriente Basin, were loaded in SGEMS. A high vertical and areal resolution 3D grid was built. Finally, 20 facies and porosity equiprobable models were generated. The model that better represents the reservoir characteristics was selected. The result is a high-resolution grid that represents the porosity conditioned to a facies model.</p> Gonzalo M. Cerón López ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-09-29 2017-09-29 10 1 41 52 10.29019/enfoqueute.v8n4.174