Enfoque UTE 2021-09-21T10:28:06-05:00 Comité Editorial Open Journal Systems <p><em><strong>Submit your paper !!!</strong></em><br />We are receiving your engineering papers for the v13n1 (January 2022) issue. <strong>Submit them until October 31st 2021</strong>, to have the best chances of being considered !!!</p> <p>Enfoque UTE is a scientific journal that publishes research papers in engineering and related areas. The journal is aimed at the international community of researchers, scientists, practitioners and engineers in general, and receives papers written in English or Spanish.</p> <p>Enfoque UTE is a Diamond Open Access journal that firmly believes in the free dissemination of scientific knowledge, which is why it guarantees that its content and its services in general will be totally free for readers (no suscription fees), authors (no APC) and the general public.</p> <p>In its 12 years of life, the magazine has published more than 300 engineering research papers, serving more than 800 authors. All this has been achieved thanks to the selfless participation of its team of editors, reviewers and contributors, as well as the permanent support of the Universidad UTE, which funds the activities of the journal.</p> Learning based on software development through with Civil Engineering students 2021-09-21T10:28:06-05:00 Yasmany García-Ramírez Santiago Quiñoñes Jandry Camacho Jefferson Montoya Angie Vicente Darwin Villamagua <p>The software is necessary to improve the designs and operation of civil engineering projects. Despite its valuable contribution, during the Civil Engineer's training, it is more important to know the physical and mathematical elements behind each model. A combination of both, as software development, could enhance their learning. Therefore, this study aims to propose a learning methodology based on software development for Civil Engineering students. This methodology consisted of 6 phases: 1) choosing the model, 2) searching for developed software, 3) understanding the model, 4) choosing and training in the programming language, developing the software, and 5) validation. The methodology was applied to the iRAP model to evaluate road safety. The proposed methodology, based on several active learning techniques, favors the development of skills that Civil engineers will need in their professional practice. This procedure can be applied to other fields where the programming in the curricular plan is not deepened.</p> Copyright (c) Honey authenticity in Ecuador 2021-09-07T02:35:02-05:00 Patricia Vit <p>Honey bees and stingless honey bees are valued pollinators. Honey is a medicinal food. Ecuador has an apifauna biodiversity of some 200 species of stingless bees (Hymeoptera: Apidae: Meliponini) producers of honey in cerumen pots. Ecuadorian comercial bee keeping with <em>Apis mellifera</em> neglects the cultural legacy of meliponiculture, to such extent that the norm for pot-honey made by consensus along the technical revision of the honey norm NTE INEN 1572, ages in the Ecuadorian Agency of Norms INEN in Quito. Classic and metabolomic data from my Prometeo Project at Universidad Técnica de Machala was provided to INEN to differenciate the entomological origin of Ecuadorian honeys and to detect fake honeys. A fast demonstration was done to uncover fake honey during a meeting of the Technical Committee of Norms: Food Products: Honey, in the year 2015. It is hard to understand how a country with the great biodiversity and ancestral knowledge is not taking action to empower the bee industry with botanical origin, entomological origin and protected geographical indication (PGI). The presence of fake honey is an indicator of bee development in a country. The authenticity analysis of Ecuadorian honey was carried out with the interfacial emulsion test, by quantitative sensory analysis and observation of the honey sediment. The main motivation for this work was to show alternative techniques to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and classical hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) analysis to detect false honeys.</p> Copyright (c) INFLUENCE OF THE DRIVING CYCLE, TYPE OF VEHICLE AND TRAVEL CONDITIONS IN THE CINEMATIC VARIABLES OF THE ROUTES IN URBAN BUSES. CASE STUDY IBARRA - ECUADOR 2021-08-26T18:17:51-05:00 Rommel Imbaquingo Ramiro Rosero Añazco Fredy Rosero Zamir Mera Fausto Tapia Jordan Ramirez <p>Latin American cities have pollution and traffic problems due to the lack of research and planning in the transport sector. In Ecuador, the characteristics of the transport fleets and their kinematics in the city have not been determined. This study analyzes in detail the kinematic characteristics of each public transport route in the city of Ibarra-Ecuador using GPS georeferencing equipment for each second of travel. 22 urban bus routes were monitored evaluating 186 buses in 832 trips, where it was determined that the average speed, acceleration and deceleration depend mainly on three factors: route, city sector and vehicle model. Other factors such as operator, age of driver, travel times and time slot did not show greater significance in influencing the kinematic variables under study, so it is not considered within the research study.</p> Copyright (c) INFLUENCE OF THE DRIVING CYCLE, TYPE OF VEHICLE AND TRAVEL CONDITIONS IN THE CINEMATIC VARIABLES OF THE ROUTES IN URBAN BUSES. CASE STUDY IBARRA - ECUADOR 2021-08-26T17:26:31-05:00 Rommel Imbaquingo <p>Latin American cities have pollution and traffic problems due to the lack of research and planning in the transport sector. In Ecuador, the characteristics of the transport fleets and their kinematics in the city have not been determined. This study analyzes in detail the kinematic characteristics of each public transport route in the city of Ibarra-Ecuador using GPS georeferencing equipment for each second of travel. 22 urban bus routes were monitored evaluating 186 buses in 832 trips, where it was determined that the average speed, acceleration and deceleration depend mainly on three factors: route, city sector and vehicle model. Other factors such as operator, age of driver, travel times and time slot did not show greater significance in influencing the kinematic variables under study, so it is not considered within the research study.</p> Copyright (c) Formulación de la mezcla de harinas de cebada (Hordeum vulgare) y lenteja (Lens culinaris) (cereal y leguminosa) para su aplicación en una bebida proteica. 2021-08-23T17:06:11-05:00 MARIA ISABEL MANTUANO CUSME MARIANA AVELLAN CHANCAY kevin Avila Franco <p>The research consisted in obtaining a flour with a high protein content based on lentil flour and barley flour to be applied in a beverage. The parameters studied were: protein content, functional properties and sensory evaluation. Whose treatment (T2: 70%L-30%C) with the highest percentage of lentil presented the highest average protein value of 21.34%. Regarding the functional properties studied as the water absorption index (IAA), water solubility index (ISA) and swelling power (PH), the treatments did not show significant differences. Determining that for all treatments the swelling temperature was 90 ° C, this being an indicator in the preparation of the laundry. Regarding the sensory evaluation, the treatment (T3: 30%L-70%C) with the highest barley content was the one with the highest acceptability by the panelists with 68% in taste and 76% smell respectively.</p> Copyright (c) the redes mpls 2021-08-23T15:43:24-05:00 WILLIAM DANTY RAMOS PAUCAR <p>El presente trabajo de investigación consistió en realizar la evaluación de los parámetros de calidad de servicio en la red WAN de la Universidad Nacional de Huancavelica, antes y después de la implementación de la tecnología MPLS, teniendo como objetivo: Determinar la influencia del modelo de red con tecnología MPLS en la mejora de la calidad de servicio en la red WAN. Se realizó un estudio experimental de Pretest y Postest, de tipo explicativo llevado a cabo en un laboratorio de simulación mediante el software GNS3 y D-ITG. La población y la muestra está constituida por las diez redes WAN y el muestreo fue de manera no probabilística, en cada red se realizaron las pruebas de calidad de servicio, con los tres tipos de tráfico: datos, VoIP y Streaming, siendo los indicadores delay, jitter y perdida de paquetes para cada tipo de servicio. Los resultados obtenidos son óptimos en cada uno de los indicadores que son menores a los resultados obtenidos antes de la implantación de MPLS, por lo tanto, se concluye tanto estadísticamente que la tecnología MPLS influye significativamente en la mejora de la calidad de servicio en comparación con la tecnología IP, porque el valor de P es mayor a 0.05 del nivel significancia.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Palabras Clave: QoS, redes MPLS/VPN, VRF, BGP, OSPF, WAN.</p> Copyright (c) Telecommuting as a Sustainable Transportation Measure in Ecuador 2021-08-23T13:43:07-05:00 Alvaro Nicolás Corral Naveda <p>The purpose of this article is to provide information to determine that telecommuting in Ecuador can be used as a measure of sustainable transport. Briefly, sustainable development is described, and certain definitions and approaches related to sustainable transport are covered, for instance, the Avoid-Shift-Improve (ASI) approach, as well as the Transport Demand Management (TDM), which serve to validate from a conceptual point of view the application and usefulness of telecommuting. An overview of the current situation in the transport sector in Ecuador is analyzed; the final energy demand; the environmental aspects related to transport, and the amount of public and private employees that are telecommuting. Taking into consideration some hypothesis, such as car ownership rate, the total amount of kilometers driven per year, the assumption of the distance travelled by employees who take public transportation; the assumptions helped to determine the savings that can be obtained through telecommuting in the present time. Therefore, these results would provide adequate information for decision makers to establish a conclusive pronouncement on whether or not support telecommuting as a valid working approach, and to develop the necessary policies to maintain it over time.</p> Copyright (c) Sacha Inchi Energy Bars: Formulation Optimization with Statistical Mix Design 2021-08-17T18:57:36-05:00 Carolina Montero <p>This work presents the results of the optimization of the formulation of a Sacha Inchi (Plukenetia Volubilis) energy bar through statistical design of mixtures for the analysis of the composition and caloric power in the bar. Energy bars constituted by amaranth, quinoa, dehydrated pineapple, oats were made, modifying in each one the composition of: bee honey and Sacha Inchi. Three bars with the greatest difference between their compositions and caloric power were selected, and a survey of acceptability was conducted to potential customers of ages between 19 and 24 years. In addition, the caloric intake of the bars was determined, and proximal analysis was performed on the bar with the highest acceptance. By the means of the statistical tool called Mix Design, the preparation of the most acceptable bar was optimized, obtaining new mixture compositions without varying the energy intake, with which a new bar was formulated and its acceptability was verified again. It was determined that there were significant differences with respect to the acceptance of the optimized and non-optimized bars. The non-optimized bar has a higher content of Sacha Inchi (35% wt) than the non-optimized one (30% wt), and as for honey, the non-optimized bar has a higher content than the optimized one (30% wt and 20% wt, respectively). An alternative energy bar was obtained that promotes the consumption of native cereals and lipids, which also have a high nutritional value.</p> Copyright (c) Literature Review of Reverse Logistic, applications and future trends 2021-08-15T22:47:44-05:00 Jorge Campoverde Martha Helena Carrillo Jonnathan Jiménez Yumbla Raúl Roldán Nariño Diego Loyola Katherine Coronel Pangol <p>This article presents a review of the literature on Reverse Logistics (RL) research, application cases and exploration. Various databases were used to retrieve articles. This review has allowed to analyze initial concepts of RL and complementary ones with new optics and arguments developed by various authors. The main contribution is the taxonomy proposed in the development of the article. It was made up of relationship of themes and terms found in the literary review. Also, the most important fields of application and future trends in RL have been identified, where it has been determined that it is necessary to extend the analysis of RL towards an economic, social, cultural and environmental perspective.</p> Copyright (c) Evaluation of the Aerodynamic Drag in fuel consumption in commercial vehicles in Ecuador 2021-08-05T18:23:59-05:00 Edwin Grijalva Jorge Javier Acosta Manosalvas Edison Marcelo Mancheno Padilla <p>Energy efficiency on small type vehicles is an important factor that has to be considered, as for the automotive industry, as well for the end consumer. The different motor companies only calculate the fuel consumption by using standard values without considering other external factors, hence car manufacturers just provide a rough calculation of it.&nbsp; The objective of this article is to analyze the influence of the air density over the aerodynamic resistance through a “Model in the Loop” (MIL); allowing it to evaluate the powertrain system and to calculate the fuel consumption for small type vehicles currently on use in Ecuador.In this context, this paper considers external factors found in different geographical locations in Ecuador.&nbsp; The results allowed to determine fuel consumption of 6,79 liters per 100 km for the Sierra region and 7,21 liters per 100 km for the Coast region, which represents an increase of around 6% for the latest due to the influence of the aerodynamic resistance between the two regions. The adaptation of the mathematical model allows a better and near accurate estimation of fuel consumption for small type vehicles currently on use in Ecuador.</p> Copyright (c) Desalinizador solar de múltiples etapas para su aplicación en zonas costeras del Ecuador 2021-09-17T18:13:49-05:00 Marcelo Moya Cajas Esteban Urresta Andres Campana Dario Rodríguez <p>A solar desalination system with heat recovery has been developed for coastal areas of Ecuador with a shortage of freshwater. The prototype consists of a 3-stage distillation tower connected to a flat plate solar collector. The solar energy absorbed by the collector is transferred by natural circulation to the distillation tower, wherein the heat of condensation of water is recovered in each stage to increase distillate output. The modular design of the equipment allows water production to be varied, from a few liters to more than a cubic meter per day. The system is simple and can be quickly disassembled, greatly facilitating its operation and maintenance. The average monthly production of the desalination unit varies between 4.3 and 5.8 liters per day (2.44 and 3.29 kg/m<sup>2</sup>). A mathematical model was created to analyze system performance. The accuracy of this model was improved by experimentally evaluating the convection heat transfer coefficients in the distillation tower. A simulation program was developed in Matlab-Simulink to predict the temperature profiles, distillate output, and heat flows in the unit. The simulation results for one day of prototype operation were very satisfactory, with a difference of only 7.7% between theoretical and experimental data. The simulation was also used to analyze improvements in equipment performance, which determined that freshwater yield could be increased by up to 107%.</p> Copyright (c) The Growth of Anisotremus scapularis (tschudi, 1846) under supply of living diets 2021-08-02T13:14:22-05:00 Luis Antonio Espinoza Ramos <p>The purpose of this work was to evaluate the growth of <em>Anisotremus scapularis</em> larvae under live diet supply. 50,000 larvae were planted in a 900 L tank where the temperature was controlled daily. Sequentially, three diets were supplied: 1<sup>st</sup>) <em>Brachionus plicatilis</em> and 2<sup>nd</sup>) <em>B. plicatilis </em>+ <em>Artemia </em>sp. and 3<sup>rd</sup> <em>Artemia</em> sp. Biometric controls were recorded (cm): initial length, 3.0 ± 0.1 mm; diet with rotifer: 5.03 ± 0.15 mm and diet with <em>Artemia</em> sp. 6.43 ± 0.21 mm. It was concluded that, <em>A. scapularis</em> larvae showed growth under the semicontrolated conditions culture.</p> Copyright (c) Architectures of Energy Harvesting Systems 2021-08-05T16:17:40-05:00 Fabian Salazar Maritza Núñez Julio Cuji Carlos Gordón <p>This article develops the literary review of the architectures of energy harvesting systems, identifying parameters such as: frequency, type of antenna, architecture (elements), among others. The methodology has four stages: a) Search for documentation, 10 systems were obtained, which were designated with the letter "S" accompanied by the article number; b) Reading of scientific documents; c) Extraction of information and architecture of the systems, where the stages of each system are detailed (which vary from 2 to 4), the working frequencies (300 KHz to 3.43 GHz, 2.45 GHz being the most used in systems for collecting radio frequency energy). In addition to using in certain systems, multiplier and rectifier circuits in different configurations: half wave, full wave; to later be stored in batteries or directly applied to devices; d) Documentation of the information extracted. Finally, after completing the literary review, it was observed that, in most articles, the systems have 3 stages: antenna, coupling, and rectification that transforms the received energy (alternating current) into direct current, their operation varies in frequency intervals of 1.8 to 2.4 GHz depending on the configuration of each system. Likewise, the product obtained is a consultation APP, with a selection menu of the different architectures investigated, which is a very beneficial contribution for researchers who wish to work in this area.</p> 2021-08-26T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE Convolutional Neural Network for Spatial Perception of InMoov Robot Through Stereoscopic Vision as an Assistive Technology 2021-08-19T10:39:41-05:00 Juan Felipe Cortes Zarta Yesica Alejandra Giraldo Tique Carlos Felipe Vergara Ramirez <p>In the development of assistive robots, a major challenge is to improve the spatial perception of robots for object identification in various scenarios. For this purpose, it is necessary to develop tools for analysis and processing of artificial stereo vision data. For this reason, this paper describes a convolutional neural network (CNN) algorithm implemented on a Raspberry Pi 3, placed on the head of a replica of the open-source humanoid robot InMoov, to estimate the X, Y, Z position of an object within a controlled environment. This paper explains the construction of the InMoov robot head, the application of Transfer Learning to detect and segment an object within a controlled environment, the development of the CNN architecture, and, finally, the assignment and evaluation of training parameters. As a result, an estimated average error of 27 mm in the X coordinate, 21 mm in the Y coordinate, and 4 mm in the Z coordinate was obtained; data of great impact and necessary when using these coordinates in a robotic arm to reach and grab the object, a topic that remains pending for future work.</p> 2021-09-10T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE Process improvement through integration of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point methodology and Knowledge Management 2021-07-30T11:20:43-05:00 Yadrián Arnaldo García Pulido <p>Multiple tools have been developed for process improvement; however, the integration of techniques from other areas of knowledge is scarce. Knowledge management is a solid base that promotes continuous improvement and the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point methodology allows achieving this objective. The research proposed to glimpse a way to improve processes from the integration of elements of knowledge management and safety management. The proposal starts from the information of critical activities and the search and control of corrective measures that generate new information and stimulate continuous improvement. In this way, increasingly efficient and effective processes are achieved according to market and commercial characteristics, contributing to business success.</p> Copyright (c) PAINT BOOTH TEMPERED WITH HEAT EXCHANGER OF CASE AND TUBES FOR VEHICLES 2021-07-26T23:52:11-05:00 Jefferson Javier Sumba Ordoñez <p>During the drying process in the open air, different circumstances arise that influence the final finish of the painting, generally caused by impurities or insects. In addition, this process takes hours to handle the vehicle. For this, the design of a tempered paint booth will be developed, capable of storing the Ford vehicle model F450 Super Duty, considered the longest existing vehicle in 2021, the vehicle will be able to remain with the doors open inside the cabin without complicating the mobility of the operator, this system will allow to control variables such as the air entering the cabin and the interior temperature. The forced ventilation system will evacuate the internal air in the cabin at the time of painting, during the drying phase, air recirculation will be used to generate energy savings and achieve a temperature of 60C. 100 renewals / hours were considered to guarantee a clean air flow, the heat exchanger must provide 42.15 kW to reach the desired temperature, the filters are capable of providing an ideal air speed of 0.25 m / s, in addition to having a capacity retention of 5500gr / m2 for particles that are generated by paint spraying. Finally, by controlling these variables, air circulation free of contaminants and drying time reduction.</p> Copyright (c) Firewall, Tráfico de datos, Segu Implementación de políticas de tráfico en una arquitectura de red para garantizar la seguridad de acceso y servicios en la PUCESE. 2021-07-03T16:55:35-05:00 Wiston Cevallos Wilson Gustavo Chango Sailema <p>Nowadays, every company or institution must have a network architecture that allows to improve its security. It is for this reason that the main objective of this research is to design a prototype network architecture to ensure the security of access and services of the Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador Sede Esmeraldas (PUCESE). For the collection of information and development of this research, qualitative research was used, in which an interview was conducted with the network administrator using dichotomous questions; to demonstrate the results of the virtual practice according to the proposed network prototype, the Pfsense firewall was used for its high degree of security, user-friendly interface and for being open source. The result of this research showed that the current network architecture of the institution does not have an additional Internet service provider in case there is any failure in the service of the main provider, nor does it have another firewall that allows having high availability redundancy in its services. Finally, this research allows concluding that the proposed redundant network architecture prototype allows improving the security of the network architecture that the institution currently has, by having an additional Internet service provider, a load balancer with fault tolerance can be implemented, ensuring that the network service continues to operate in case there is any failure in the main WAN interface or it is disconnected; also if the main firewall is breached, the second firewall would replace it so that the network continues to be protected.</p> Copyright (c) Simulation of an active indirect hybrid dehydrator using ANSYS software 2021-08-13T11:46:31-05:00 José Omar Cabrera Escobar Francisco Jurado David Vera <p>This research simulated the behavior of an active indirect hybrid dehydrator with the atmospheric conditions of the city of Riobamba because there is a need to dehydrate fruits and vegetables that in times of overproduction do not reach the market. Develops a methodology that allows a good approximation of the solution. It starts with the design of the dehydrator prototype and then undergoes a meshing process, once a good quality mesh is obtained, the physical models that are going to be used in the simulation are selected, then the physical properties and conditions are entered. of contour that corresponds to the climatic conditions of the city of Riobamba, for its later simulation; After simulating the prototype, it is verified that the curve of physical variables to be calculated has stabilized and the residual curves are below the set value. If it complies with these two steps, it can be determined that the simulation is correct. For the validation of the results obtained in the simulation, data from a similar investigation are used. It is necessary to carry out the simulation to be able to determine if the designed dehydrator can work in the optimal range of temperatures for dehydration.</p> 2021-08-25T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE INFLUENCE OF THE DRIVING CYCLE, TYPE OF VEHICLE AND TRAVEL CONDITIONS IN THE CINEMATIC VARIABLES OF THE ROUTES IN URBAN BUSES. CASE STUDY IBARRA - ECUADOR 2021-09-01T13:43:21-05:00 Rommel Imbaquingo Navarrete Ramiro Rosero Añazco Fredy Rosero Obando Zamir Mera Rosero Fausto Tapia Gudiño Jordan Ramirez Martínez <p>Latin American cities have pollution and traffic problems, due to the lack of research and planning in the transport sector. In Ecuador, the characteristics of the transport fleets and their kinematics in the city have not been determined. This study analyzes in detail the kinematic characteristics of each public transport route in the city of Ibarra-Ecuador, through the use of GPS georeferencing equipment for each second of travel. 22 urban bus routes were monitored evaluating 186 buses in 832 trips. It was obtained that the average speed, acceleration and deceleration depend mainly on three factors: route, city sector and vehicle model. Other factors such as operator, age of driver, travel times and the time slot without presentation, greater significance in the influence of the kinematic variables under study. So it is not considered within the research study</p> Copyright (c) Advanced Oxidation as an Alternative Treatment for Wastewater. A Review 2021-08-18T10:42:30-05:00 Miguel Angel López Ramírez Olaya Pirene Castellanos Onorio Fabiola Lango Reynoso María del Refugio Castañeda Chávez Jesús Montoya Mendoza Cinthya Alejandra Sosa Villalobos Benigno Ortiz Muñiz <p>Every year millions of cubic meters of wastewater are discharged into water bodies, which are treated in an inadequate way, these procedures being inefficient to achieve what is required by law or for use within industrial processes. In these cases, and due to the scarcity of water, the use of advanced oxidation processes is being used as an alternative treatment, which are based on physicochemical processes capable of producing profound changes in the chemical structure of pollutants, involving the generation and the use of transitory species with great oxidizing power, mainly the hydroxyl radical, which can be generated by photochemical means or by other forms of energy, and is highly effective in the oxidation of organic matter. This review aims to perform an analysis of the influence of treatments on the decontamination process.</p> 2021-09-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE Design and construction of a low-density plastic crushing and granulating machine as a recycling tool 2021-06-07T23:54:15-05:00 Oscar Gonzales <p>The objective of this titling work is the design and construction of a low density PET plastic recycling and granulating machine, which will be used for shearing PET plastics, in order to provide a good quality tool by means of the implementation of different elements that will constitute this prototype such as transmission shafts, bearing selection, gears, shear blades, reduction motor selection, support structure, the selection of electrical and electronic elements can also be found for the automation of the processes, checking that all these parameters meet the objectives of this work. You can find the drawings of each designed element, the electrical drawings with the programmable logic controller (PLC) and the plastic crusher assembly.</p> Copyright (c) DISEÑO, EVALUACIÓN Y VALIDACIÓN DE UN PROCESO ESTANDARIZADO DE TEÑIDO EN DEGRADÉ PARA PIEZAS DE FIBRA DE ALPACA: CASO ANDES YARN S.A.C. 2021-06-03T11:25:38-05:00 SAMANTA LARCO ANA LUCIA PAZ PAZ <p>In this project, a standardized and semi-automated line was implementated to dye degraded alpaca fiber parts at Andes Yarn S.A.C which allows to increase the productivity of the degraded dyeing line and improve the quality of the service offered. This improvement proposal consists of a mechanical-robotic system with a PLC control system. The process in which it was implemented has three units, the first preparation of the textile part in which the piece enters with the customer's requirement, is marked and moisturized so that it can be dyed, the second degraded dyeing unit in which the dyeing of the piece is performed as such according to the tone requested by the customer and the third textile finishing unit, in which the piece is rinsed, centrifuged and dried to go through quality control. This standardized process ranges from preparing the part to be dyed until it is stored after it has dried after dyeing and is designed to obtain uniformly dyed parts, without defects in degraded and standardizing the finish between the parts of the same order batch so the components were sized and equipment selected for a compact, semi-automatic, modular and easy-to-operate system. This proposal provides a solution for textile dyeing companies that maintain a limited production process manual and artisanal with high possibility of reprocesses, obtaining a standardized process by controlling the parameters of temperature, time and volume of water as well as the execution of parameterized upstream and downstream movements in the immersion of the part standardizing the dyeing technique allowing to obtain more homogeneous results in a greater number of pieces instead of dyeing. The preliminary results indicate that a degraded dyeing process can be obtained with greater productive capacity that guarantees the quality of the finish of the part, establishing that it allows to stop relying on the expertise and experience of the operator in performing a manual/artisanal dyeing process, increasing variety, replicability and productivity.</p> Copyright (c) Artificial intelligence in banana value chain: a bibliometric analysis 2021-06-01T12:58:31-05:00 Estefani Almeyda <p>This paper presents a systematic review and bibliometric analysis of research works worldwide regarding predictive models using Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology in Banana Value Chain (BVC). The methodology of this systematic review used 7 databases, and exclusion criteria were applied. 52 journal or conference articles were selected, which have been published in the last 5 years (2015 to 2020). Then, a bibliometric analysis was developed using bibliometric indicators to measure scientific productivity such as the number of publications by year, total cites by publication, total citations per paper, H-index of the journal, h-index of the author, etc. As a result, there is accelerated growth in the number of publications. Furthermore, the research team present: the most cited publication; the journal, institutions, and country most productive; and the 11 research areas which have been developed by the scientific community around the world. Finally, this review work concludes the top banana exporting country in the world does not belong to the top 4 most productive countries that publish related to AI in BVC in the last 5 years.</p> Copyright (c) Solution based on free software tools for the implementation of online teleworking in Cuban companies 2021-05-31T12:35:09-05:00 Rudibel Perdigón Llanes <p>Nowadays the adoption of teleworking is a topic of interest for companies and businesses, however, its use in developing countries such as Cuba is incipient mainly due to economic and technological restrictions that hinder its implementation. The objective of this research is to develop a solution to implement online teleworking in Cuban companies through the use of free software tools. The scientific methods used were the synthetic analytical, the historical logical, the theoretical triangulation and the experimental method. Performance and security tests were realized to validate the proposed solution in the real environment of a medium-sized Cuban agribusiness company using the tools Wireshark, nmap, hping3, hydra, iPerf3 and the PING command. The results obtained showed that the solution guarantees the remote access of teleworkers to the company's digital applications in a secure way and with acceptable performance indexes in correspondence with the limited technological resources of the organization.</p> Copyright (c) Methodology for the application of a business intelligence framework in the management of electricity supply in Peruvian companies 2021-06-01T12:57:23-05:00 Redy Risco Ramos Daniel Pérez Aguilar Luis Casaverde Pacherrez Edilberto Vásquez Díaz <p>This work shows a method based on Business Intelligence for solving questions and problems of companies in the electricity sector. For this, methodologies used by specialists were investigated, three methods were chosen and evaluated and of them, the CRISP-DM (Cross-Industry Standard Process for Data Mining) methodology was used as a reference. Making unconventional use of a commercial BI platform, the methodology was applied to a real case study: an agro-industrial company. After the application of the methodology and the descriptive, diagnostic, and prescriptive analyzes, information and knowledge were found that allowed to propose the deployment of corrective measures that will improve the management of the company's electricity supply, showing that these tools not only have application in commercial matters but also in the management of electricity supply.</p> Copyright (c) Análisis y detección de objetos en un partido de fútbol 2021-05-31T10:30:53-05:00 Jaime Veintimilla-Reyes <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>This application is developed using OpenCV on Python for the analysis of objects within a video of a football match. The process consisted of working with several elements such as the players, the ball and the field lines to achieve a joint detection of all these elements.</p> <p>The work presents the development of this application with a step-by-step explanation of the processes carried out, and the results that have been obtained when applying techniques for contour and color, morphological operations and together with it the use of Artificial Intelligence models. The tools that were used are YOLO, OpenCV and Tensorflow. Finally, the application was run with a video of a FA CUP 2020 of England match where Manchester United and Brighton teams played.</p> </div> </div> </div> Copyright (c) The CONSTRUCTION OF THE BODYWORK OF THE COMPETITION VEHICLE FORMULA STUDENTS FROM NATURAL FIBER COMPOSITE MATERIALS 2021-05-27T15:11:33-05:00 Cristian Paredes Christian Bautista Patricio Mena <p>The present work describes the development of a body for the Student formula vehicle, using animal fiber (horsemane) and vegetable fiber (cabuya) as reinforcements adhered to a polyester resin matrix. Prior to the construction of the body, the behavior of the material to be used was analyzed by combining the reinforcements by means of different layers and subsequently subjecting them to tensile test, bending test and free dart drop impact test according to ASTM standards. In the design of the body, CAD software was used that allows it to be evaluated under real aerodynamic conditions and to determine the most suitable geometry. The layers were deposited manually to shape the pieces and a weight was applied to prevent the fibers from separating; once the pieces were cured and extracted from the mold, they were polished, to later deposit a base protection layer and polyurethane paint respectively. Once the bodywork was finished, the results obtained were favorable because the material presented excellent mechanical characteristics to the different efforts, reducing the mass by 41.95%, in relation to the 2012 bodywork that served as a reference, and that was manufactured with fiberglass and polyester resin.</p> Copyright (c) Nutritional energy in pos COVID-19 time in Peru 2021-07-29T15:09:07-05:00 Laura Stefany Velásquez-Quispe Carlini Alberto Ortiz-Meza Ulises Gonzalo Calizaya-Mamani Andrea Alejandra Zapana-Calderón Gabriela Cristina Chire-Fajardo <p>The current COVID-19 pandemic is a disease that affects everyone. The Peruvian government has promoted the use of physical barriers; however, the immune system is an important defense against the virus that has not yet been motivated. The objectives were: to know the COVID-19 disease and its behavior; to know the nutritional diet of the population; to define the population at risk and to make food proposals in time of pandemic in Peru. For this, we used the information sources of scientists and science institutions. The results were: the main characteristics of the disease and its effect on the population at different ages and risk groups; described the feeding in six different regions of Peru, showing high simple carbohydrate intake and unbalanced nutritional energy, identified the nutrients of the biodiversity resources; defined the population with the risk; presented a diet for patients at home, those in critical condition and those who passed the disease; as well as general recommendations to the population that includes a comprehensive energy to achieve a healthy life. Culminates highlighting the importance of the role of the Peruvian State to promote a healthy life for the population.</p> 2021-08-19T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE Architectures of Energy Harvesting Systems 2021-06-01T09:06:56-05:00 Carlos Gordón Fabian Salazar Maritza Núñez Julio Cuji <p>This article develops the literary review of the architectures of energy harvesting systems, whose objective is to identify parameters: frequency, type of antenna, architecture (elements), among others. The methodology used has four stages: a) Search for documentation, 10 systems were obtained, which were designated with the letter "S" accompanied by the number of the article found, b) Reading of scientific documents, carried out in two stages; the first with readings between 20 and 30 minutes and the second at intervals of 60 to 150 minutes. c) Extraction of information and architecture of the systems, where the stages of each system are detailed (which vary from 2 to 4), the working frequencies (300 KHz to 3.43 GHz; the 2.45 GHz being the most used in systems for harvesting radio frequency energy). In addition to using multiplier and rectifier circuits in certain systems in different configurations to later be stored in batteries or directly applied in devices. d) Documentation of the information extracted. Finally, after completing the literary review, it was observed that, in most of the articles reviewed, the systems consist of 3 stages: antenna, coupling and rectification with frequency ranges from 1.8 to 2.4 GHz; therefore, it does not require a large number of elements and is simple to implement.</p> Copyright (c) Linkage scenarios of relational databases and ontologies: a systematic mapping 2021-05-18T15:21:20-05:00 Yoan Antonio Lopez Rodriguez Yusniel Hidalgo Delgado Nemury Silega Martinez <p>Relational databases are one of the most used data sources. However, as a storage source, they present a group of shortcomings. It is complex to store semantic knowledge in relational databases. To solve the deficiencies in knowledge representation of relational databases, one trend has been to use ontologies. Ontologies possess a richer semantic and are closer to the end user vocabulary than relational database schemas. The objective of the present research was to carry out a systematic mapping about the scenarios where relational databases and ontologies are linked to provide a better integration, query, and visualization of stored data. The mapping was carried out by applying a methodological proposal established in the literature. As outcomes of the research, it was detected that the mapping of relational databases to ontologies and the ontologies usage for the integration of heterogeneous data sources were the most common scenarios. Likewise, trends and challenges were identified in each scenario, which might deserve further research efforts in the future.</p> 2021-08-27T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE Applications of materials reinforced with natural fiber in the automotive area 2021-05-09T23:01:32-05:00 ANDRES MORENO CONSTANTE <p>Concern about the depletion of fossil fuel reserves, increasing global warming has led to increased research on the substitution of synthetic fibers for natural fibers, and, the amount of research on natural fibers have an important role to play towards a sustainable and environmentally friendly future. In addition, products based on natural fibers have increased substantially. This article was applied the PRISMA methodology for the review of the available literature, which allows identifying relevant articles based on natural fibers and their application in the automotive industry, from recognized databases. The approach was provided to identify the elements formed in the automobile as indicators used by the authors for this analysis. Some properties required by simulation have been obtained from the literature, such as the physical and mechanical properties of the shaped materials for this type of automotive applications and multiple solutions. In this document, a review on current applications of natural fiber composites in different uses within the automobile has been presented along with some information on the future scope of research in the industry.</p> Copyright (c) Removal of Heavy Metals (Cr+6, Ni, Zn) from Leachates of the Sanitary Landfill of the City of Veracruz, Mexico with Reactive Permeable Silica Sand Barriers 2021-06-01T12:59:24-05:00 Manuel Alberto Susunaga Miranda Bertha Maria Estévez Garrido Benigno Ortíz Muñiz Rodrigo Manuel Susunaga Estévez <p>The use of Permeable Reactive Barriers as a material for the removal of heavy metals from the leachates of the Sanitary Landfills has been verified for various materials, the Silica Sand from the coasts of the municipality of Alvarado Veracruz in Mexico have the characteristics of size and composition Required to be used for this purpose, samples of leachate were collected from the Sanitary Landfill of the City of Veracruz and the concentrations of Ni, Cr<sup>+6</sup> and Zn were determined were respectively 0.0818, 0.186 and 0.224 mg/l, three columns were built of acrylic and were filled with 20, 30 and 40 cm of washed and dried Silica Sand, treated and stabilized leachate was passed through the porous medium at a flow of 1.7 ml/s, taking samples at 40.75, 115 , 165 and 235 seconds for each column and the efficiency for the removal of these heavy metals was measured and a significant reduction of these pollutants was found, ranging from 76 to 93%. for Nickel, from 44 to 81 % in the case of hexavalent Chromium and from 65 to 92% for Zinc for a maximum time of 235 seconds, which indicates that this material can be used in the remediation of leachate.</p> 2021-07-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE Inhibition of lipid oxidation in ground meat by an extract of majagua flower (Talipariti elatum Sw.) 2021-05-21T11:14:43-05:00 Dairon Iglesias Guevara Rocio Cartaya Quintero <p>Increasing the shelf life of meat products is one of the fundamental objectives of the industry. For these reasons, the objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of a hydroalcoholic extract of majagua flower in the inhibition of lipid oxidation in ground pork. This was added at concentrations of 0.5; 1.5 and 3% m-v to the meat samples. The inhibition of lipid oxidation was carried out through the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) method after being stored for three days at 10 ° C. All the concentrations evaluated showed an important inhibition of the formation of TBARS, being greater as the concentration of the same increased. The minimum concentration (51 mg AGE / kg of meat) was able to inhibit the formation of TBARS by 61.7%.</p> Copyright (c) ANÁLISIS DE LA VULNERABILIDAD SOCIAL EN CASO DE UN EVENTO SÍSMICO EN EL CENTRO HISTÓRICO DE LA CIUDAD DE QUITO 2021-04-01T14:59:23-05:00 Steven Marcelo Martínez Unigarro <p>El análisis de la vulnerabilidad social en caso de un evento sísmico, es un tema que amplía los conocimientos e inquietudes sobre los desastres naturales y en este caso, las consecuencias sociales que trae a la población. Este estudio requiere verificar la vulnerabilidad social en el CHQ, sus consecuencias desde la sociedad y como está debería de actuar frente a la existencia de un acontecimiento sísmico. La investigación se realizará a través de demostraciones gráficas de las propiedades sociales, urbanas y sísmicas del área de análisis. Con base de antecedentes del área de estudio más la actualidad, se recrea una matriz de evaluación de vulnerabilidad social considerando diversas cambiantes de vulnerabilidad como la residencia, turismo, demografía, economía y salud, del mismo modo, se investiga a la sociedad en peligro para conocer su papel en caso de existir un acontecimiento sísmico de enorme intensidad. Identificando los peligros presentes, se implementará tablas de valoración, el cual dejará saber el nivel de peligro de la ciudadanía e inmuebles. Una vez obtenidos los resultados se determinará cuáles podrían ser las reacciones de los habitantes, las consecuencias en la sociedad, con un enfoque en la salud psicológica y su evaluación dentro de la vulnerabilidad social.</p> Copyright (c) Importance of reference manager in the management of scientific information in university theses students 2021-03-29T11:24:33-05:00 Lloy Pinedo <p>Managing scientific information in the research process is a great challenge for university thesis students due to the difficulty of systematizing and structuring the excess of information available in different digital or physical sources. The objective of the study was to analyze the importance of reference manager as a technological tool for the management of scientific information in university theses students. We carried out a bibliographic review by searching electronic databases of scientific articles published in journals indexed to Latindex Catalog, Scielo and Scopus between the years 2016 and 2020. The results of the review describe the characteristics, functionalities, aspects and studies main ones on the benefits that reference manager provide to manage scientific information. We conclude that functions such as the organization of information, bibliographic citation and referencing, and collaboration between researchers provided by reference manager, constitute important resources for university thesis students.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) Concentration and exposure to asbestos fibers in automotive workshops in Quito-Ecuador 2021-04-07T16:23:29-05:00 Tania Crisanto Perrazo Julio Morales Vela Margarita Haro-Robayo <p>In Ecuador, the number of cars grew from 1,690,824 in 2010 to 2,065,975 in 2013. In Quito in 2014 approximately 445,000 cars circulated, all of them subject to maintenance. The objective of this work to determine the initial concentration and the time of exposure to asbestos of the maintenance workers of the brake system in the small-scale workshops of Quito. The study was in two stages: shoe cleaning and packing. The methodology used was quantitative, through the application of a survey to determine the number of automotive services offered, choosing at the end a sample of three workshops. To establish the concentration, the NIOSH 7400 method was applied in counting the number of asbestos fibers that are produced in an eight-hour workday. It was found that in the cleaning process the three workshops comply with the Ecuadorian Technical Regulation RTE INEN 052:2011 Occupational Safety and Hygiene for the use of asbestos in work activities, whose value is 0.1 fiber/cm<sup>3</sup>, while in the shoe packing process, one of the studied workshops does not comply with the regulations. It was concluded that the study workshops do not take the necessary occupational health and safety measures required by the RTE INEN 052:2011 for the maintenance of the brake system.</p> Copyright (c) ANALYSIS OF URBAN VULNERABILITY IN THE FACE OF A SEISMIC PHENOMENON IN THE HISTORICAL CENTER OF THE CITY OF QUITO 2021-02-27T15:38:52-05:00 Coralía Michilena <p>The analysis of social vulnerability in the event of a seismic event is a topic that broadens knowledge and concerns about natural disasters and in this case, the social consequences that it brings to the population. This study requires verifying the social vulnerability in the CHQ, its consequences from society and how it should act in the event of a seismic event. The investigation will be carried out through graphic demonstrations of the social, urban and seismic properties of the area of ​​analysis. Based on the background of the study area plus the present time, a social vulnerability assessment matrix is ​​recreated considering various vulnerability changes such as residence, tourism, demography, economy and health, in the same way, the society in danger is investigated to know their role in the event of a seismic event of enormous intensity. Identifying the dangers present, assessment tables will be implemented, which will let us know the level of danger for citizens and real estate. Once the results are obtained, it will be determined what could be the reactions of the inhabitants, the consequences in society, with a focus on psychological health and its evaluation within social vulnerability.</p> Copyright (c) Efficiency in the removal of organic matter by wormfilters (Eisenia foetida) in domestic wastewater for rural areas 2021-03-02T11:01:14-05:00 Jonathan Gustavo Castillo Sánchez Jessica Estefanía Chimbo Solórzano <p>Inadequate management of domestic wastewater in rural areas, the discharge of which to water bodies without prior treatment, is a major problem of environmental pollution, as well as a risk to public health. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency in the removal of organic matter by lombrifilters in domestic wastewater in a rural area. Under experimental conditions, the wormfilter was designed using as a theoretical basis the Tohá treatment system, created by Dr. José Tohá, which consisted of four strata: sawdaught + <em>Eisenia foetida</em>, activated charcoal, gravel and river stones. The concentration of organic matter of the tributary was evaluated obtaining high concentrations of BOD<sub>5</sub>, COD, TSS and TS. T1 achieved the highest efficiency percentages with a volumetric flow of 1.8×10<sup>-2</sup> l/s and TRH of 0.92 h obtaining 52.25 % for BOD<sub>5</sub> and COD, 66.74 % TSS and 52.91 % TS. In this way, it was determined that the implementation of wormfilters based on <em>Eisenia foetida</em> for the removal of organic matter, represents an ecological and innovative treatment system that requires a low investment, is efficient and friendly to the environment.</p> 2021-04-05T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE Influencia de diferentes progenies de palma aceitera (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) sobre la germinación. 2021-02-22T13:36:07-05:00 SILVIA MADELEIN ZAMBRANO MARCILLO <p><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">El Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIAP) principal productor y comercializador de palma aceitera ( </span></span><em><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Elaeis guineensis</span></span></em> Jacq) seeds in the Ecuador, has different parents of Deli Dura type and Pisífera type for obtain the hybrid INIAP – Tenera, The present investigation had as objective to evaluate the influence of 20 progenies (Dura x Pisífera) on the germination of the seeds. Resulting for total germination that the female parents D2, D4, D6, D8, D9 y D10 crossed with the pisifera P1 showed significant statistical differences, with respect to the combination of these with the Pisifera P2. In germination with optimal standard were observed statistical differences between the combinations of the progenitors Dura D1, D8 y D9 with the pisiferas P1 y P2, when these female parents were crossed with P1 they achieved a higher percentage of optimal germination than when they were crossed with P2. of the 10 parents Duras studied, seven of them when crossing with P1 obtained average optimal germination higher than 50%; in return only two of the Duras (D3 y D5) evaluated and crossed with P2 achieved optimal germination equal&nbsp; or higher than 50%. These results show that the percentage of germination of seed Dura x Pisifera has a high relationship with the male parent used.</p> Copyright (c) Dimensional analysis applied to jacketed shell and tube heat exchangers modeling 2021-06-01T12:56:16-05:00 Andres Adrian Sánchez-Escalona Yanán Camaraza-Medina Yoalbys Retirado-Mediaceja Ever Góngora-Leyva Manuel Vega-Almaguer <p>Dimensional analysis was utilized on this research to establish a shortcut model for predicting hydrogen sulphide gas discharge temperature in jacketed shell and tube heat exchangers. Since the equipment belongs to an online industrial facility, the passive experimental method was applied. Selection of the heat transfer process parameters was followed by application of the Buckingham Pi-theorem and the repeating-variables technique. After formulation of the dimensionless groups, approximation of the explicit model equation was carried out through a least-squares multivariate linear regression. The model predictive ability performance was appraised by comparing predictions versus measured discharge temperatures, hence attaining a Pearson correlation of <br />97.5 %, a mean absolute error of 2.1 K, and 1.7 % maximum deviations. The explicit equation that was obtained is pertinent to studied heat exchangers, when 0.55 ≤ ṁ<sub>1</sub> ≤ 0.60, 1.06 ≤ ṁ<sub>2</sub> ≤ 1.09, and 0.22 ≤ ṁ<sub>3</sub> ≤ 0.24 (fluids flowrate, kg/s). It can be used as an alternative calculation method for quick anticipation of the equipment performance, which overcomes computation of the overall heat transfer coefficients.</p> 2021-07-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE Gelled emulsions enriched with chickpea flour as a potential substitute for animal fat 2021-05-21T11:14:04-05:00 Melisa, G. Britez Fabiana A. Rolhaiser Carina L. Fernández Ricardo A. Fogar Mara Cristina Romero <p>The aim of the study was to develop gelled oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions, formulated with flax oil and chickpea flour with adequate structural and technological properties to be used as substitutes for animal fat. For this, two formulations were made, one without antioxidant and the other with the most widely used synthetic antioxidant in the industry. The chickpea flour and gelatin were hydrated for 3 hours with stirring at 3000 r. p. m., then they were heated for 30 minutes at 90 °C, cooled to 30 °C and processed again at 3000 r. p. m. for 30 seconds, while the oil phase was slowly incorporated with the emulsifying agent. The mixtures were placed in containers, allowed to stabilize at 25 °C for 30 minutes and then refrigerated for 24 hours. The syneresis, thermal stability, lipid oxidation, and infrared spectra of the samples were determined. Some significant differences can be observed for lipid oxidation (p &lt;0.05), however, syneresis and thermal stability did not show differences (p&gt; 0.05), with emulsions showing great water and fat retention capacity. This can be attributed to the protein structure resulting from heating the emulsion to cause gelation. The gelled emulsions obtained have adequate structural and technological properties, with lipid oxidation values under limit of detection of 1.59 mg MDA / kg sample. Given the characteristics of the emulsion obtained, a new field of application of technological strategies opens up to obtain animal fat substitutes as a healthy fat ingredient in meat products.</p> 2021-07-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE Policies based on ISO 27001: 2013 and its influence on information security management in municipalities of Peru 2021-03-10T13:20:54-05:00 Shonerly Bustamante García Miguel Ángel Valles Coral Immer Elías Cuellar Rodríguez Danny Lévano Rodríguez <p>Information security management within an organization must be a well-defined process, as it involves a huge effort from users, area managers and other servers to know how to respond to suspicious events and how to manage identified vulnerabilities. The objective of this research was to improve information security management in a Peruvian district municipality, through the implementation of a policy model under ISO 27001: 2013. For this, a preexperimental investigation was carried out with a sample of 30 workers, to whom a questionnaire was applied to measure the degree of satisfaction with the implanted model. On average, more than 90 % of those surveyed recognized improvements in the municipality, marking a great difference between the pre and postest, from 49 % to 96 %. It is concluded that the security policy model, based on three fundamental pillars: confidentiality, integrity, and availability, improved information security management, guaranteeing adequate data protection.</p> 2021-04-05T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE Cumplimiento de los principios de la norma ISO 9001:2008 y su adaptación a ISO 9001:2015 2021-01-16T19:55:40-05:00 Lizeth Alfonsina Portilla Villareal Martha Ramírez-Valdivia Lorena Alexandra Portilla Villareal <p>This work evaluates the level of performance of the quality management principles perceived by managers and employees of two coffee-production companies: one certified and one non-certified. Both companies are located in the city of Pasto, Nariño, Colombia. The evaluation was based in the principles defined by the ISO 9001:2008 with an approximation to the ISO 9001:2015. The variation on levels of perception was analyzed; besides, the study evaluated if the changes of the ISO 9001:2015 required major changes in the instrument designed and used. The comparison of the companies results required a quantitative study with a non-experimental design. An exploratory, descriptive, observational, and transversal study was applied for the independent units of observation. This is consistent with a case study, given the selection of the units of analysis. The level of perception was evaluated by means of a questionnaire. The main results show differences among the perception of employees from both companies for the quality management principles: process approach, leadership, engagement of people, and customer focus.</p> Copyright (c) Cereal bars based on quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), cañihua (Chenopodium pallidicaule), and heminic iron for children 2021-01-09T01:47:16-05:00 Orestes Daniel Adrianzén Guerrero Anadela Julca Neira Lenin Quiñones Huantangari Jeimis Royler Yalta Meza Luis Omar Carbajal García <p>Peru has one of the greatest biodiversities on the planet, which catalogues it as an authentic food pantry. The objective of the research was to develop cereal bars based on quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), cañihua (C. pallidicaule) and heminic iron for children. An experimental design was used, which was the combination of two cereal flours (quinoa and cañihua) in proportions (25%, 50% and 75%) and supplemented with heminic iron (5%, 10% and 15%). The nine samples were evaluated, for the determination of the nutritional characteristics it was carried out laboratory analyses and the sensorial ones with panelists of the I.E.I N° 1279 and the I.E N° 17678 of the district of Chirinos - San Ignacio, by means of an appropriate instrument. They obtained 68% of carbohydrates, more than 10.84% of proteins and more than 15.48mg of iron, as well as acceptability, according to Friedman's test; the sample that had more acceptability for the initial and primary level is the sample M3 and it was the one that had more quantity of iron, covering 87.2% of the total requirement of iron in children, whose formulation is quinoa 75%, cañihua 25% and heminic iron 15%. It was possible to develop cereal bars with adequate nutritional value and good acceptability for the parameters of color, smell, flavor and appearance; for this reason it is considered a viable alternative to reduce anemia and malnutrition in the Cajamarca region.</p> Copyright (c) Diseño de un sistema de control de inventarios de una tienda juguetes 2021-01-08T09:40:53-05:00 Neyfe Sablón Cossío <p>In the toy store in the city of Puyo, inconsistencies were detected in the control of merchandise, which can undermine the development of the company, consequently the objective of this article was to design an inventory control system for a toy store. Between November 2018 and February 2019, a stage of characterization of the real situation of inventory management in the company was carried out, and another stage of design of the inventory system. For the analysis of inventory management in the toy store, the basic procedures of this theme were combined. It was identified in the company that: the merchandise is not encrypted, there is an absence of a storage system that facilitates the organization of the merchandise, and the available stock could not be identified. In addition, the inventory parameters that were the basis for the design of the automated system were determined. Starting from an adequate inventory management, a timely supply of the products for sale in the company will be guaranteed and in the minimization of the total cost of logistics activities in inventory control, ensuring better profitability and customer service.</p> Copyright (c) Analysis of criminal behavior and determining factors of crimes of greater connotation in the Santo Domingo city. 2021-01-08T11:10:49-05:00 WALTER MORA MURILLO MOISES FILIBERTO MORA MURILLO <p>Crime has always been a latent problem that hinders the tranquility of people within my city and the country, so this work was born with the idea of ​​obtaining a better understanding of crime in the city of Santo Domingo, considering its relationship with Regarding variables that can be qualitative as well as quantitative that would describe their future behavior, then to address this problem, a statistical analysis was carried out through the application of multivariate techniques with the help of criminal records provided by the city police, this information We worked under a descriptive approach, taking advantage of all the information obtained. The development of the work began with a factorial analysis to group the variables according to factors the use of the statistical computer tool through SPSS, then a multiple linear regression analysis was carried out with respect to the variable "number of suspects". a multinomial logistic regression analysis considering the variable "Crimes" and its relationship with demographic, spatial, temporal and crime characterization variables. At the end of the analysis, a classification tree was carried out, in order to obtain a more complete description of the criminal behavior.</p> Copyright (c) URBAN FORM AND URBAN ECO-EFFICIENCY - AGRICULTURAL AS AN INDICATOR FOR SUSTAINABLE URBAN DEVELOPMENT, IN THE PROVINCE OF HUANCAYO – 2020 2020-12-21T19:11:45-05:00 Miguel Angel Beltrán Palomares <p>The Urban Form confers a spatial arrangement of cities; Urban-Agricultural Eco-efficiency is to effectively use natural resources and use efficient models of the productive cycle reducing ecological impacts for sustainability and planning, determining and relating these concepts in the province of Huancayo is the objective of the research. Methodology: the model was used NRTEE, (1999) [Eec= value of the product or service/environmental influence] , developed through Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) for Urban-Agricultural Eco-efficiency. Urban Form: current land use maps were used; and two-tailed r-Pearson and t-Student [26;2.05] statistical tests. Results: Urban Shape: compactness ratio 0.27, shape ratio 0.21, elasticity ratio 5.47, population density 753.09 inhabitants/km2; Input-Urban Indicators: water consumption 5889116.31Mgl/year, energy consumption 2062019.23Mw/year, food consumption 2664.56Ton/year; Output – Urban Indicators: emission of gases 40335.11Ton/year, economic collection 279.35Mll/year, discharge of wastewater 90581.38Mgl/year; Environmental-Agricultural Costs: consumption of water in the agricultural sector 3348.34Mgl/year, consumption of fertilizers 69.14Ton/year, consumption of phytosanitary products 46Ton/year; Economic-Agricultural Outputs: agricultural production of 4779.79kg/year, income from agricultural land 6390.3s./year, gross value of production 4854.35s./year. The Agricultural Eco-efficiency [Eec-Ag] = 0.89 and Urban Eco-efficiency [Eec-Ur] = 0.98, coefficient of relation r = -0.13 and tc = 0.64. Conclusion: the districts of the province of Huancayo present an Eco-efficient Agricultural - Urban surface, and their statistical relationship does not depend directly on both.</p> Copyright (c) ENVIRONMENTAL ATTITUDE IN THE CONSERVATION OF THE NATURAL RESOURCES OF THE ADULT POPULATION OF THE CENTRO POBLADO NIJANDARIS - CHANCHAMAYO – JUNÍN 2020-12-19T15:11:10-05:00 María Julieta De la Vega Fernández <p>The environmental attitude is a psychological tendency expressed by the evaluative response towards the environment and natural resources are the naturally valuable products for development and continuity towards sustainability; relating both concepts in the Nijandaris town center is the main objective of the research. A probability sampling was carried out at age [30 - 60 years], a questionnaire of 20 questions/cu was applied; validated by the Likert scale [3 level/cu] Pearson ratio coefficient and t-student. Conclusion: the inhabitants of Nijandaris present a good environmental attitude 55.1%, regular 33.2% and poor 11.7%; in the conservation of natural resources, 46.7% always do it, 37.2% sometimes and 16.8% never; the relationship between both is r=0.67 and t-student=6.25 calculated &gt; t-student=1.98. In its dimensions: the association between affective attitude and conserving flora and fauna obtained r=0.38 and t=2.88; in the cognitive attitude and conserve the water and the soil, he obtained r=0.42 and t=3.21, and last, in the conative attitude and conserves the air, he had r=0.62 and t=5.47; Therefore, we affirm that there is environmental attitudinal concern towards the conservation of natural resources in the Nijandaris Town Center.</p> Copyright (c) SVC Expansion of transmission systems based on the optimal location of SVC 2020-12-18T02:28:00-05:00 Yhauquiri Israel Chiza Santillan <p><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">La presente se basa en un modelo de optimización con el fin de implementar equipos de compensación reactiva SVC a los sistemas eléctricos de potencia mediante una metodología que busca la reducción de los costos asociados a la instalación de estos equipos, tomando en cuenta varios criterios de expansión del sistema de transmisión, para así establecer el resultado de los aspectos técnicos y económicos del sistema eléctrico.</span></span></p> <p><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Los flujos óptimos de potencia AC (FOP-AC) se ejecutan con la finalidad de mejorar la proyección de la expansión de los sistemas de transmisión, ya que estos son capaces de proporcionar una mayor precisión que los flujos de potencia de red, para lo cual los FOP-AC tienen como función objetivo la reducción de costos y pérdidas de potencia al implementar SVC y nuevas líneas de transmisión al sistema eléctrico, dichas nuevas implementaciones ocasionaran una readecuación de los flujos de potencia en el sistema lo provoca una mejoría de los perfiles de voltaje en los casos de estudio para esta investigación.</span></span></p> <p><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">La metodología del control de voltaje y redistribución de los flujos en las líneas de transmisión tiene como objetivo principal alcanzar una mejora en las variables de calidad y eficiencia de los sistemas eléctricos.</span></span></p> Copyright (c) Viability of micro electrical networks with high penetration of renewable resources in urban areas: Case study of residential condominiums 2021-02-21T10:58:30-05:00 Danny Javier Trujillo Sandoval Fabricio Ismael Mosquera Velásquez Edwin Marcelo García Torres <p>This study addresses the implementation of electrical micro-grids in urban areas as a response to the need for the insertion of renewable energies in different societies. In a first phase, the energy consumption profile of a condominium with a residential, commercial type load is characterized. and community, addressing the construction of said profile by lifting real loads and statistical criteria of use and coincidence. In the second phase, the natural resources, wind speed and solar radiation available in the study area are analyzed through the specialized software Homer Pro with latitude and longitude coordinates, subsequently the viability of the renewable electricity generation elements is analyzed and defined use, a possible generator set and its use of fuel are also proposed in order to complement the micro-grid in aspects of inertia and stability. With the energy demand and generation resources raised, architectural alternatives of a potential micro-network for the condominium are designed, simulations are carried out for isolated and interconnected cases with real values ​​of the environment and an economic analysis of the implementation, obtaining the viability of the micro network.</p> 2021-04-05T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE Speed profile prediction model of rural roads in flat terrain in Costa Rica 2021-02-24T10:05:47-05:00 Domingo E. Delgado Martínez Liosber Medina García José M. Ulate Zárate René A. García Depestre <p>For some time, a commonly used engineering practice has been to evaluate the influence of the geometric design of roads on road safety by analyzing geometric design consistency. When evaluating geometric design consistency, it is necessary to know the operating speed profiles of the road to be analyzed. To this end, a variety of models of operating speed profiles are used, which are designed for the specific conditions of a particular region or country. For any analysis of highway geometric design, it is important to have information related to the horizontal and vertical layout of the project, as well as to the operating speed of vehicles. However, one limitation, which is often a source of error, is determining the operating speed of the vehicles. The aim of this paper is to develop models for predicting vehicle operating speed in Costa Rica by considering the characteristics of the road geometric design and of the existing vehicles. The procedure followed in the model included a series of steps, including from the analysis of the roads in the region to the development of models for predicting the speed profiles, as well as its validation. For the first time, different models are proposed for rural national routes in flat terrain in Costa Rica. The study demonstrates that the proposed equations provide for lower estimations errors, if compared to international models.</p> 2021-04-05T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE Comparison of descriptive sensory methods: flash profile and CATA questions to characterize muña infusions (Minthostachys mollis) 2021-05-03T15:07:12-05:00 Reynaldo Justino Silva Paz Gabriela N. Pichiuza Gonzales Amparo Eccoña Sota <p>This study compares two descriptive methods based on consumers' perceptions of the sensory profile of Andean Mint (Muña) herbal teas. Participants evaluated five Andean Mint beverages using flash profile (FP) methodology (n=20) and Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) questions (n=105). For data analysis, generalized procruster analysis (GPA) was used for the PF and the Cochran Q test with correspondence analysis for the CATA questions. In addition, the RV coefficient was used to compare the sensory maps generated by both methods, using the R software and XLSTAT-test version. The results of the flash profile and CATA questions showed the formation of four groups, the first group consisting of samples D and E; the second, third and fourth groups, A, B and C, respectively. The RV coefficient was 0.94, indicating a very high similarity between both methods. These results demonstrate a high accuracy and reproducibility of sensory information obtained by consumers applying descriptive sensory methods in foods. Flash profiling is slower and more labor-intensive, making it suitable for exploratory studies with a smaller number of consumers, while CATA questions are faster and less labor-intensive, making it suitable for studies with a larger group of consumers.</p> 2021-07-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Enfoque UTE Evaluation of different empirical formulas for calculating the concentration time in the urban basin of the Belico and Cubanicay rivers, city of Santa Clara 2021-06-01T13:01:28-05:00 Carlos Lázaro Castillo García Diego Emilio Abreu Franco Michael Alvarez González <p>The concentration time is an essential parameter for the use of the rain-runoff models that obtain the maximum runoff expense at a point in a basin. There are various empirical formulas for its estimation worldwide, despite this, there is no general rule when choosing the appropriate one. In the present work, formulas used in the calculation of this parameter were compared from the urban basin of the Bélico river in the city of Santa Clara with the closing point in the city's North Ring Road. A balance was made of the results obtained and criteria were issued about the advantages and disadvantages of the methods described. A threshold of the maximum and minimum values of each empirical formula used was proposed, which allowed future considerations in projects to rectify the urban riverbed and its associated urban stormwater drainage.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> 2021-07-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE Comparison of two descriptive sensory methods to characterize infusions of muña (Minthostachys mollis) 2020-11-25T10:12:56-05:00 Reynaldo Justino Silva Paz <p>The present study compares two methods of drawing up the descriptive profile detected in consumer perceptions. Consumers evaluated five infusions of stump using FP (Flash profile) methodology (n = 20) and CATA questions (check all that apply or Check-All-That-Apply) (n = 105) to generate the profile sensory infusion of muña. Use the RV coefficient to compare the sample sensory maps obtained in the two descriptive methods using the R and XLSTAT software - trial version. The results using the flash profile and the CATA questions, evidenced the formation of four groups, the first group consisting of samples D and E; the second, third and fourth group by A, B and C, respectively. The RV coefficient was 0.94, indicating a high similarity, precision and reproducibility of the sensory information obtained by consumers between the flash profile and the CATA questions. The flash profile is slower and more laborious, and better for exploratory studies with fewer consumers, while CATA is faster and less labor-intensive, and therefore more suitable for larger groups of consumers.</p> Copyright (c) Determination of lead levels in blood in workers of battery factories located in Guayaquil-Ecuador 2020-12-02T10:51:51-05:00 Kathya Rivera Beatriz Pernía <p>Lead is one of the most toxic heavy metals and its occupational exposure can generate plumbemia. For this reason, the objective of this investigation was to generate a baseline of lead concentrations in the blood of a group of battery factory workers in Guayaquil-Ecuador and of a control group not exposed to the metal at work, to establish the existence of occupational risk between sexes, ages, and jobs positions. For this, blood samples were taken from the workers and the control group. The samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry with a graphite furnace. 100 % of the workers presented Pb in an average concentration of 16.22 ± 6.82 µg / dL higher than the World Health Organization value, but lower than the limit established by Occupational Health and Safety Assessment of 40 µg / dL, also, the value was higher than of the control group (0.68 ± 0.15 µg / dL). Men presented higher levels of Pb than women and these values ​​varied depending on the job in the factory. In conclusion, 4.55 % of the workers did not present a risk of lead poisoning, 13.64 % low risk, 78.79 % medium risk, and only 3.00 % high risk.</p> 2021-04-05T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE Formulation of food diets for children in the Cajamarca region, using linear programming 2020-11-19T00:43:50-05:00 Lenin Quiñones Huatangari María Alina Cueva Ríos <p>In 2019, the region of Cajamarca has the second highest rate of chronic malnutrition in the population under five years of age with 27.4 percent. In this sense, the objective of the work was to formulate food diets for children in the Cajamarca region, using linear programming. The research was descriptive and consisted in applying the mathematical model of diets proposed by Dantzing; fifty-nine (59) foods produced in the region were considered for the formulation of the diets, and the recommendations given by the FAO regarding the amount of energy, protein and fat that children should consume were also taken into account, and finally the Octave software was used to solve the mathematical problem. This article shows the adaptation of the model that allows the formulation of (minimum cost) food diets for children in the Cajamarca region. Using the model to determine an adequate food diet to be consumed by a child under five years, it was obtained that the minimum optimal cost would be S /. 0.7, thus ensuring the nutritional requirements. In addition, the amount that should consume 1.97 (49.7%) of banana flour and 2,00064 (50.4%) of cocoa flour.</p> Copyright (c) Effect of frying on the bioactive components of the native potato (Solanum tuberosum sp.) Puka Ambrosio 2020-11-16T15:02:59-05:00 Silvia Melissa Garcia Torres Gabriela Cristina Chire Fajardo Milber Oswaldo Ureña Peralta <p><em>In this investigation, with the response surface method (3<sup>3</sup>), the maximum retention of ascorbic acid in potato Puka Ambrosio subjected to frying was determined. It was tested with 160, 170 and 180 ° C, 150, 180 and 210 seconds and 2, 3 and 4 mm of flake thickness. In 2 mm thick flakes subjected to 170 ° C and 200 seconds of frying, 87.34 percent ascorbic acid (d. d. b.) was retained. The thickness and the interaction between it and time had a significant effect (p &lt;0.05) on retention. The potato and its fried flakes had, respectively, on average: 21 ± 1.64 and 18.4 ± 2.87 mg / 100g of ascorbic acid (d.d.b.); 27.1 ± 2.10 and 21.1 ± 3.3 mg / 100 g of vitamin C (d.d. b.) 69 ± 0.03 and 22.2 ± 0.03 percent moisture; 1 ± 0.09 and 21.9 ± 0.03 of crude fat (d. b.); 331.8 ± 96.76 and 596.9 ± 21.92 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalent / 100 g of total phenolic compounds (d.d.b.); 6423.8 ± 57.25 and 8308.9 µg of Trolox equivalent / g of antioxidant capacity (d.d.b.); and 58.1 ± 1.73 and 33.6 ± 5.01 mg of cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalent / 100 g of total anthocyanins (d.d. b.).</em></p> Copyright (c) Experimental tests and numerical analysis of the structure of the alternative composite material for the repair of flight surfaces in aircraft 2021-02-28T13:34:15-05:00 César Arroba Arroba Manuel Telenchana Flores Juan Paredes Salinas Salomón Fiallo Ortega Henry Vaca Ortega <p>Nowadays, polymeric matrix composite materials are used in multiple applications. One of the important areas of application is in the aeronautical sector, due to the relatively low density of the combined materials; these compounds have good mechanical properties, comparable to metallic materials, but providing additional benefits. The objective of this work is to carry out the experimental tests and the numerical analysis of the structure of the alternative composite material to be used to repair of the flight surfaces of CIDFAE aircraft. A widely extended vacuum bagging process was used to obtain a more homogeneous compound, thus reducing defects in processing, better controlling the fiber fraction and the overall thickness of the compound. Specimens of epoxy resin reinforced with layers of flat fabric of three different fibers of: carbon, glass and aramid, in different orientations, were made, which were tested for traction, bending and impact to determine their mechanical properties. It has been shown that the results obtained by analytical methodology and the finite element method are approximate to the results obtained with destructive tests. The experimental results show that the tensile strength values are higher in epoxy resin materials reinforced with 4 layers of carbon fiber in orientation 0 ° -90 °.</p> 2021-04-05T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE Design of a Computer Vision System to Real-time Classification of Lemon 2020-11-05T12:20:17-05:00 Johonathan Salazar Campos <p><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">La automatización de los procesos alimentarios aumenta la calidad, productividad y economía de las empresas. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Este estudio tuvo como objetivo el desarrollo de un Sistema de Visión por Computador (CVS) para clasificar los limones en tiempo real según su diámetro. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">El CVS consistió en un software, codificado en lenguaje de programación Java, que cubre la adquisición, preprocesamiento, segmentación, descripción, reconocimiento e interpretación de las imágenes. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Los criterios de clasificación estaban de acuerdo con la norma CODEX STAN 213 para lima-limón. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">El CVS alcanzó un error del 0% en la clasificación del diámetro de los limones y requirió 0.33 segundos como tiempo de procesamiento para detectar y clasificar cada limón. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">El CVS mostró un alto desempeño en la clasificación automática de limones según su diámetro. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Este CVS podría evitar las desventajas de la clasificación manual.</span></span></p> Copyright (c) Analysis of criminal behavior and determining factors of crimes of greater connotation in the Santo Domingo city. 2020-10-29T13:46:48-05:00 WALTER MORA MURILLO MOISES FILIBERTO MORA MURILLO <p>Crime has always been a latent problem that hinders the tranquility of people within my city and the country, so this work was born with the idea of ​​obtaining a better understanding of crime in the city of Santo Domingo, considering its relationship with Regarding variables that can be qualitative as well as quantitative that would describe their future behavior, then to address this problem, a statistical analysis was carried out through the application of multivariate techniques with the help of criminal records provided by the city police, this information We worked under a descriptive approach, taking advantage of all the information obtained. The development of the work began with a factorial analysis to group the variables according to factors the use of the statistical computer tool through SPSS, then a multiple linear regression analysis was carried out with respect to the variable "number of suspects". a multinomial logistic regression analysis considering the variable "Crimes" and its relationship with demographic, spatial, temporal and crime characterization variables. At the end of the analysis, a classification tree was carried out, in order to obtain a more complete description of the criminal behavior.</p> Copyright (c) Biomass Biomass potential and kinetics of drying model of Piptocoma discolor (pigüe) as a source of renewable energy source in Ecuador. 2020-10-12T11:29:21-05:00 Juan González Juan Elías González Rivera Billy Coronel Espinoza Viviana Quevedo Tumailli Deny Oliva Merencio Morillo Robles Campo Hernán Uvidia Cabadiana <p>Pigüe (Piptocoma discolor) has great importance because it is a native species of secondary forests, of rapid growth, which makes it ideal for a sustainable forest. This tree has a high predominance in the Amazon, especially in the Ecuadorian part. The residues of the processes of transformation of the wood of the Pigüe, do not have an alternative application to produce energy from these. In the approach of this work it was confirmed that the information on its potential of biomass and energy value, is scarce. The aim of this article was to obtain fresh biomass and the kinetics of its drying. We worked in the four cantons of the province of Pastaza, with 20 plots of 400 m2 and 600 m2, with an average of 15 to 20 trees, whose diameters, at breast height, ranged from 10 to 33 cm. It was established that the average number of trees per hectare was 1274, that the amount of fresh biomass obtained from the 100,987 hectares covered is 41,097,686.87 tons, which means that it contributes with 49.72% of water and 50.28% of solid matter. As for the kinetic model for the drying of the wood of the Pigüe, a R2 = 0.9855 was obtained, with some parameters of a = 1.1318, k = 0.0637765, n = 0.560617 and b = -0.193993, based on a standard error of 0.0301682 and residual self-correction of 0.182239. In terms of energy potential, using 100% of the biomass produced, 13.5 GW of thermal energy can be aspired to.</p> <p><strong><em>Key Words</em></strong>: Biomass, Renewable Energy Source, Biofuel, <em>Piptocoma discolor</em></p> Copyright (c) Parametric and Non-parametric Mathematical Modelling Techniques: A Practical Case of an Electrical Machine Identification 2020-09-28T13:42:03-05:00 Oscar Gonzales <p>Mathematical modeling is a very important feature concerning the analysis and control of dynamic systems. Also, system identification is an approach for building mathematical expressions from experimental data taken from processes. In this context, the state of the art describes several modeling and identification techniques which are powerful tools to determine systems behavior through time. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the main techniques for modeling and identification from a parametric and no parametric perspective. Experimental data are taken from an electrical machine, a DC motor from a didactic platform. The paper concludes with the solutions provided by a proper mathematical model.</p> Copyright (c) Environmental evaluation at the Cement Commercialization Company of Camagüey 2020-09-25T12:53:40-05:00 Daimy Godínez-Caraballo <p>The main ones problematic environmental generated in the production process and of commercialization of the packed cement or to bulk, they are appreciated in the nonfulfillment of the environmental norms on the part of the operators where the cement is stored to bulk, for the emission of powders of cement of the ferro silos in the one discharges, in the contamination by pouring, and for the atmospheric contamination and the acoustics. For it, this work was guided to identify and to value the derived environmental impacts of the load operations and it discharges from cement to bulk in the Comercializadora of Cement Camagüey (ECOCEM). As starting point the environmental diagnosis was used carried out to the entity, that which allowed the identification and evaluation of the environmental aspects, this served as base to establish the monitoring stations. The atmospheric emissions were characterized and made a valuation of the impacts generated by the processes of the entity. The results evidence the necessity to adopt measures to reduce or to eliminate the identified environmental impacts, that which coincides with that outlined in the environmental politics of the Commercial Company of the Cement.</p> Copyright (c) La Transición energética 2020-10-19T10:01:52-05:00 ANDRES CAMPANA DIAZ <p>Since 2007, the Government of Ecuador established in agenda-setting, a new energy policy, highlighting transition from an initial scenario based on hydrocarbons, to a later one, where renewable or low carbon energies, take a leading role in mix of energy production in country. In addition to the decarbonization of the electricity sector, rising of energy security through the implementation of energy efficiency plans and demand management, and increasing environmental tolerance, through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, were also introduced based on the Energy Trilemma, put forward by World Energy Council. Analytical framework employed to determine the success or failure of the policy was Kameyama´s and Kawamoto´s (2018), where all proposed categories were examined, according to their respective policy instruments, for subsequent contrast with measure indicators. Along with research, the failure of the policy was demonstrated in each of its categories, ground on evidence.</p> Copyright (c) CAPITAL DE TRABAJO EL CAPITAL DE TRABAJO Y SU RELACIÓN CON LAS NIIF PARA PYMES EN EMPRESAS COMERCIALIZADORAS DE PLÁSTICOS EN EL ECUADOR. 2020-09-11T16:20:54-05:00 diana iler flores <p>The present research work has the purpose of evaluating the Working Capital and its relationship with the IFRS for SMEs in plastics trading companies, due to the economic situation that is going through worldwide, companies need to optimize the working capital, forcing to focus on using their own resources and developing new financing options. In order to obtain a better result in our analysis, it was carried out through studies of descriptive and documentary research methods with a mixed approach, qualitative in order to study the behavior of working capital and quantitative because work study techniques were applied that The results were related to the financial analysis of the IFRS for SMEs. As a result of the research, the purpose of the research was to disseminate financial tools that help small entrepreneurs to efficiently keep their financial statements and thereby make their businesses grow and become part of solvent companies that contribute with their productivity to the development of the economy Through correct application of IFRS for SMEs, it affects the Working Capital of plastics trading companies.</p> Copyright (c) Análisis numérico del comportamiento del flujo en la sección de la garganta de una tobera cónica experimental 2020-09-11T16:18:05-05:00 San Luis Baudilio Tolentino Masgo María Alejandra Parco Leonardo Lacruz Vicente Marcano John Ferreira Simón Caraballo Jorge Mírez <p>The flow pattern in supersonic nozzles is defined by the aerodynamic profiles of the geometry of the internal walls, among other parameters, the throat being a critical section. In the present work, the objective is to analyze the behavior of the flow in the straight section of the throat of an experimental conical nozzle of a solid fuel probe rocket engine. The over-expanded flow was simulated with the ANSYS-Fluent code in a 2D computational domain, using the RANS model and the Menter turbulence model, and the Sutherland equation for viscosity as a function of the temperature. Five case studies were performed for the throat length in the range of 1-10 mm. Fluctuations of Mach number, pressure and temperature, oblique shock waves in the throat section were obtained for the length of 10 mm; for shorter lengths the intensity of the shock magnitude decreased. It is concluded that, for the throat length of 1 mm, the flow is transonic without the presence of oblique shocks. In the diverging section, shock waves vary in intensity and change position.</p> Copyright (c) ADVANTAGES OF THE RADIAL AXIAL INDUCTION MACHINE THROUGH THE STUDY OF DIMENSIONAL EQUATIONS AND THE SPECIFIC TORQUE 2020-09-06T18:31:46-05:00 LISBETH LOZANO <p>The present investigation focused on synthesizing the advantages that an axial flow machine has over a radial flow machine. The objective was to study by means of the dimensional equations and graphs the torque density and the influence of the number of poles on the torque of both machines. It was concluded that the torque of the axial machine depends on its outer diameter, being more efficient than a radial machine. In addition, in cases where large axial machines cannot be placed, the number of stages is redesigned and their diameter is decreased. While in the case of radial machines this is not possible, but a modification of the space is needed. This work is justified to inform more about the advantages of the axial flow machine, because it is at the forefront of a great solution in cases where it is possible to install motors with very high specific torque and less weight. In addition, they are compatible with various applications, from the car to wind power generators, and have the great advantage that they are not as maintenance-friendly.</p> Copyright (c) Condiciones inseguras previstas de las políticas públicas ambientales: Contexto cooperativas de reciclaje del Caribe Colombiano 2020-09-02T01:19:36-05:00 CARLOS ALBERTO SEVERICHE SIERRA <p>Se describieron las condiciones inseguras previstas de las políticas públicas ambientales en cooperativas de recicladores. El tipo de investigación descriptiva y de campo, bajo un diseño no experimental, transeccional, la población corresponde a las cooperativas de recicladores, por lo que la muestra seleccionada es de cien (100) recicladores agremiados del Caribe Colombiano. Se empleó la observación como técnica de investigación y el cuestionario como instrumento de recolección de datos, el mismo estuvo constituido por ítems bajo una escala de actitud tipo Likert, con cinco alternativas de respuestas. Los indicadores materiales o herramientas defectuosas junto a los sistemas de avisos incorrectos a los actores dieron resultados de alto cumplimiento lo cual es muestra de una propensión de los mismos a favorecer la implementación política públicas dirigidas al desarrollo de evitar las condiciones inseguras de trabajo, con apoyo de la normatividad vigente. Se hace inmediato el diseño, planificación e implementación de un sistema de orden y limpieza, este será muy beneficioso debido a que disminuyen los riesgos de accidentalidad y se fortalece la productividad.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) Design and construction of a hammer mill to produce value-added food from the carrot (Daucus carota) 2020-09-22T23:49:29-05:00 Cristian Javier Patiño Vidal Cristina Alejandra Muñoz Shugulí Marcelo Alexander Patiño Vidal Jorge Andrés Ocampo Jiménez Eduardo Antonio Muñoz Jácome <p>Milling is the most used unit operation in the industry to transform food as grains, vegetables and meats to products with small size. In this context, the design and construction of a small-scale hammer mill were made in the present study with the aim of reduce the size of dehydrated carrot for obtaining a value-added food. Mill parameters as force, torque and potency were determined by theoretical calculations, while that the operation parameters as milling coefficient and yield were determined by milling and sieving process of carrot. The necessary force of the equipment to mill the carrot was 5820 kg/m*s<sup>2</sup>, while the required torque and potency by motor to generate the cuts through the hammers were 34,92 kg/m<sup>2</sup>*s<sup>2</sup> and 989,28 kg*m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>3</sup>, respectively. Yield of 90 % and milling coefficient of 10 in the hammer mill allowed to reduce the size of the carrot from 5 cm to 0,5 cm. These results demonstrate that designed and constructed hammer mill in the present work allows to reduce pieces of dehydrated carrot to an ideal size for consuming as snack.</p> Copyright (c) Survey of the amount of trans fatty acids present in pastry products elaborated at bakery stores in Quito 2020-10-08T16:30:41-05:00 María Lorena Goetschel <p><em>Through this study, the amount of trans fatty acids (TFA) in “mille feuille pastries” was investigate in Quito.&nbsp; The work was executed in three stages: in the first one, surveys were performed to 32 bakeries in Quito which helped to identify the margarine brands used as raw material with the correspondent suppliers as well as the baking conditions. All this information became the basis of this study. During the second stage, the trans-fat content in the mille feuille samples was analyzed by gas chromatography, the results showed 0,29% to 0,46% (percentage of fat) which is equivalent to 0,05% to 0,11% (in 100 grams of product) and do not exceed the limit of 2% established by the Ministry of Public Health in the Agreement No. 4439. The third stage of this work consisted on baking standardized puff pastry doughs to evaluate the influence of the type of margarine and baking conditions (temperatures 186°C±6°C, 165°C±8°C and 147°C±9°C during 14 minutes) on the content of TFA resulting on a non-significant difference amongst the treatments.</em></p> Copyright (c) Autoconfiguration with Global Addresses Using IEEE 802.15.4 Standard in Multi-hop Networks 2020-11-11T09:16:39-05:00 Carlos Egas Acosta David Cali Cristian Espinosa <p>Wireless sensor networks continue to attract a lot of attention from academia and industry promoting large-scale deployments in applications related to the Internet of Things (IoT). Unfortunately, a network containing a large number of sensor nodes also leads to difficulty in the configuring process and assignment of identifiers to nodes. Various approaches have been proposed to solve problems of auto-configuration in Wireless sensor networks, however, still, there are some issues remaining related to automatic assign identifiers A cluster-based hierarchical global address allocation scheme is proposed for a wireless sensor network. The proposal uses the IEEE 802.15.4 protocol and aims to reduce the latency of the identifier assignments and reduce the network level processes to be performed at the node. The address allocation process assigns each node a unique global address, which allows the node to have end-to-end connectivity without network-level involvement. The scenario of adding new nodes to the network or nodes that leave it is contemplated. Finally, the proposed scheme is evaluated experimentally, verifying the correct operation of the algorithm proposed in the implemented prototype.</p> 2021-01-04T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE Estudio numérico de un intercambiador de calor helicoidal para el enfriamiento del mosto en el proceso de elaboración de cerveza artesanal 2020-08-24T12:13:31-05:00 LUIS FERNANDO TOAPANTA RAMOS <p>The present work aims to study the behavior of a heat exchanger with a helical tube and shell, for cooling the wort in the process of craft beer production, using the methodology of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) by finite volumes for the modeling of the heat exchanger, which allows us to understand the behavior of the fluid through equations that describe the movement of these, using numerical methods and computer techniques. The software's k-épsilon turbulence model was used for the simulation. By means of the simulation it was obtained that the variation of the mass flow of the must is obtained better results in the obtaining of a smaller exit temperature, where a variation of 15.16°C exists, whereas, varying the temperature of entrance of the water, a variation of 2.71°C to 0.01°C hardly exists.</p> Copyright (c) Influence of a higher fairing on the pulling force of a truck 2020-10-21T10:11:01-05:00 David Paul Pachacama Gualotuña <p>The consumption of diesel fuel in the country represented 36.61% of the demand for oil derivatives in 2019, which is why it seeks to propose savings alternatives in the land freight transport sector. For this reason, the influence on the drag force generated by the air when the vehicle moves on a highway was analyzed through the incorporation of an upper cabin fairing (windbreaker) in a medium-duty truck. This effect was estimated using the one-dimensional drag force equation and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, estimating a reduction of 8,734% in the drag force when used in the upper cabin fairing, this is complemented by the study made of fuel consumption on the highway where there is a saving of 4.63% with this accessory.</p> Copyright (c) Heat transfer incremental on a jacketed coolers system through optimization of the water flowrates 2020-08-21T22:02:25-05:00 Andres Adrian Sánchez-Escalona <p>This research proposed an optimized water distribution scheme in order to increase the heat transfer on a hydrogen sulphide gas coolers system. The system is comprised by two jacketed shell and tube heat exchangers, installed in a series-parallel arrangement. Each equipment operates with three streams, hence two major thermal communications are present. The water flowrates optimization was performed through genetic algorithms, using a model based on the ɛ-NTU method for simulation of the heat exchangers. The heat transfer incremental was estimated within the range 3695 to <br>10514 W, while the gas temperature reduction at the system outlet was projected between 2,9 and 9,8 K. Calculated heat recovery varied from 3,90 to 22,16%, averaging 12,44%. Multivariate linear regression was implemented for determination of the functions that solves the studied problem from a technological point of view.</p> Copyright (c) la Performance measurement of the tree tomato food chain: case study 2020-08-18T13:03:43-05:00 Ximena Rojas-Lema <p>The aim of this article was to present and discuss the performance measurement results of the tree tomato food chain (Cyphomandra betaceae Sendt) with operations in the Ecuadorian territory. From the food quality approach, efficiency and effectiveness indicators were used in order to assess the quality of the process and product (fruit), respectively. This work used the case study as the research methodology to test the theory. The efficiency levels obtained showed adequate management of the process quality in the stages of the chain; the product quality indicators such as skin color and pulp color index, titratable acidity, pH, soluble solids, maturity index and fruit’s loss of moisture were analyzed; the compliance of the physicochemical indicators highlighted the effectiveness of each stage of the process, which placed the product within the quality limits allowed for consumption. The research is still limited and needs a broader application for the generalization of the measurement proposal of food chains with similar characteristics. However, the proposed performance measurement methodology brings balance and dynamism to the chain's development process; while contributing with key parameters that standardize internal operations and raise levels of joint performance.</p> Copyright (c) Review of the state of the art of two-phase flow patterns inside a horizontal tube 2020-08-16T12:16:12-05:00 William Quitiaquez C.A. Isaza-Roldán Eduardo Cortez Karen Anchapaxi Patricio Quitiaquez César Nieto-Londoño Fernando Toapanta-Ramos <p>This document shows a review of the literature on the different flow patterns found in horizontal pipes, considering hydrocarbon-type refrigerants as working fluid. These refrigerants are a replacement for conventional refrigerants because they have an ozone depletion potential of 0 and a global warming potential of 3, therefore, they do not present a significant environmental impact. After a brief description of the flow patterns, the different flow pattern maps that can be presented are indicated. The R290 and R600a refrigerants are proposed as an alternative for the replacement of R22 and R134a in refrigeration systems, showing an energy saving of 29.14 % and the R290 refrigerant uses only 48% of the mass that R22 uses. The document also identifies regulations on the use of refrigerants, gaps in the literature, and introduces opportunities for future work.</p> Copyright (c) Multi-stage solar desalination system for water production in coastal areas of Ecuador 2020-08-13T15:37:30-05:00 Marcelo Moya <p>A solar desalination system with heat recovery has been developed for coastal areas of Ecuador with a shortage of fresh water. The prototype consists of a 3 stage distillation tower connected to a thermosiphon flat plate solar collector. The modular design of the equipment allows water production to be varied, from a few liters to more than a cubic meter per day. The system is simple and can be quickly disassembled, greatly facilitating its operation and maintenance. The average monthly production of the desalination unit varies between 4.3 and 5.8 liters per day (2.44 and 3.29 L/m<sup>2</sup>). A simulation program was created in Matlab-Simulink to predict the temperature profiles, distillate output, and heat flows in the unit. The simulation results were very satisfactory, with a small variation between theoretical and experimental data. After verifying its accuracy and validity, the simulation was used to analyze modifications that improve yield and system performance.</p> Copyright (c) New control method for the industrial process of cookies manufacturing 2020-08-11T21:12:53-05:00 Milber Oswaldo Ureña-Peralta <p>The Biostructured Process Control Method (BPCM) was applied in the industrial manufacture of cookies. The control biostructure, designed considering the characteristics of the process, was made up of five sub-processes (mixing, molding, baking, sandwiching and packaging) and three sub-processes as part of the mixing sub-process; also, 16 control parameters were identified. Control variable data were evaluated over a five-month period. The control was performed according to the efficacies of the sub-processes and control variables, for which target values were set. During the evaluation period, the process achieved between 95% and 98.1% efficacy, with the company’s requirements being 95% as an internal standard. Opportunities for improvement were identified in sub-processes with lower efficacies. The BCPM is a new method similar to a dashboard like the Balance Score Card, with a quantitative control based on compliance with standards.</p> Copyright (c) Harina de cefalotórax de camarón en dietas alimenticia de pollos Brolier Cobb-500 en etapa inicial 2020-08-10T15:22:31-05:00 Diana Carolina Cedeño Alcivar <p>Feed conversion in early stage Cobb-500 broiler chickens was determined by the inclusion of shrimp cephalothorax meal. The by-product was obtained from the shrimp company DUFFER (Montecristi, Manabí). A completely randomized design was applied with three treatments T1 (38%), T2 (40%) and T3 (42%) and three repetitions. The experimental unit was 14.69 kg of shrimp cephalothorax meal. Bromatological parameters (moisture, fiber, ash and protein), microbiological (aerobic mesophiles and Salmonella) and the feed conversion factor were evaluated using the equation FC = AC / PPV. The% humidity in the three treatments presented values ​​below the allowed limit (13%), %fiber and %ash, treatment 3 (42%) presented the upper value of the allowed limit (5%) and (8%), respectively. The protein analysis was within the allowed limit (20%). The count of CFU/g of aerobic mesophiles did not exceed the allowed limits (1.2 x 106), established in the NTE INEN 1829 (2014). The feed conversion factor showed that by including 38, 40 and 42% a weight gain of 1.81 is obtained; 1.82 and 1.83, respectively. It is concluded that the inclusion of shrimp cephalothorax meal efficiently influences the diet of Cobb-500 broiler chickens, increasing their weight.</p> Copyright (c) New control method for the industrial process of cookies manufacturing 2020-08-07T16:24:57-05:00 Gabriela Cristina Chire-Fajardo <p>The Biostructured Process Control Method (BPCM) was applied in the industrial manufacture of cookies. The control biostructure, designed considering the characteristics of the process, was made up of five sub-processes (mixing, molding, baking, sandwiching and packaging) and three sub-processes as part of the mixing sub-process; also, 16 control parameters were identified. Control variable data were evaluated over a five-month period. The control was performed according to the efficacies of the sub-processes and control variables, for which target values were set. During the evaluation period, the process achieved between 95% and 98.1% efficacy, with the company’s requirements being 95% as an internal standard. Opportunities for improvement were identified in sub-processes with lower efficacies. The BCPM is a new method similar to a dashboard like the Balance Score Card, with a quantitative control based on compliance with standards.</p> Copyright (c) Biomass Potential and Kinetics of Drying Model of Piptocoma discolor (pigüe) as a Source of Renewable Energy Source in Ecuador 2020-10-19T09:47:07-05:00 Juan Elías González Billy Coronel Espinoza Viviana Quevedo Tumailli Hernán Uvidia Cabadiana Deny Oliva M. Carlos Jesús Morón Morillo Robles Campo <p>The importance of <em>Piptocoma discolor</em> is a predominantly fast-growing native species of secondary forest ideal for a sustainable forest due to its predominance in the Amazon of Ecuador and Latin America. Currently it is wood and its waste does not have an alternative to produce electricity. Scarce information on its biomass potential and energy value. The objective was to obtain fresh biomass and drying kinetics, we worked in the four cantons of the Pastaza province with 20 plots of 400 m<sup>2</sup> and 600 m<sup>2</sup> that had an average of 15 to 20 trees, whose chest height diameters ranged from 10 and 33 cm., Establishing the following values: a) Average number of trees per hectare (1274 NA2/ha); b) Biomass in 100 987 hectares with an average of 41 097 686.87 tons, which means that it contributes with 49.72 % of water and 50.28 % of solid matter; c) A kinetic model of R2 = 0.9855, the estimate of a = 1.1318, k = 0.0637765, n = 0.560617 and b = -0.193993, based on a standard error of 0.0301682 and residual autocorrection of 0.182239 on drying kinetics; and d) Total energy means more than 13.5 GW of thermal energy using 100 % biomass.</p> 2021-01-04T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE Design of a micro-network for recharging electric vehicles in the commercial sector. 2020-08-03T13:28:08-05:00 dario gonzalez <p><strong>Abstract </strong>This document examines the investigation of a microgrid for recharging electric vehicles. Numerical methods are very useful when modeling an electrical energy system since we will know the behavior that the system will have in the face of a representative change in its demand, when introducing a large load such as the charging stations, the voltage in our system will reduce and by Therefore the power, the system will suffer an imbalance between generation and demand, and the objective of the system is to maintain a constant frequency and this will be affected by the increase in demand, with our analysis we will know the percentage of voltage drop and see solutions To compensate for that voltage drop, one solution is to implement a capacitor bank at specific nodes to assist the power electrical system in frequency regulation, but that is a very separate analysis that this document focuses on seeing the percentage of voltage drop, we will observe the system a and its behavior of having implemented this load in the system, this study can ap licarse to any electrical power system.</p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p><strong><em>Index Terms</em></strong><strong>— Micro Grid,</strong> <strong>Electrical Power System, Charging Station. </strong></p> Copyright (c) ELECTRICAL ENERGY QUALITY ANALYSIS IN INTELLIGENT MICRO NETWORKS BASED ON THE MANAGEMENT OF ITS PRIMARY RESOURCES 2020-07-30T23:31:53-05:00 Katherine Andrade Granja <p>As centuries of new technological innovations, which is directly related to the use of electricity, the high production and demand for energy quality globally, is the part of preferential analysis in relation to the creation of micro-networks in the innovative years, the increase in society is important for the consumption of energy that is rising , the analysis of actions for the increase and analysis of new power generation plants, the same that are being limited to the production of high-impact reserves, for the reasons defined, this article aims to establish a management model for distributed primary resources of an intelligent micro-network based on a policy of demand response such as the valuation of critical peaks , that allow the improvement of energy quality indicators, it is intended to carry out adequate studies for the quality of electrical service, reliability of coefficients based on the ISO50001 standard, with respect to initial and future conditions, to carry out distributed power generation, we will have a model of management of the distributed resources of a micro-network that allows the best development of energy quality in the country.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) The Economic valuation of the water environmental service of the community La Pita 2020-07-30T07:03:19-05:00 Isa Delgado <p>Water resource presents serious supply and management problems. In La Pita community (Manabí-Ecuador) there is a wide range of anthropic activities, for which the water resource is extracted directly from the mountains, therefore, this research aims to assess the water environmental service of the La Pita community from the micro basin of the Carrizal river. The contingent valuation method was applied and through surveys the socioeconomic characteristics of the inhabitants of La Pita were determined. After collecting the information, the Logit model was applied to establish the economic value of the water service. 24 water sources that supply the 32 homes where the surveys were applied were identified, each source was georeferenced using the ArcGis 10.4.1 Geographic Information System. About water consumption, in La Pita 65.63% of the inhabitants consume between 0.5 and 3 m<sup>3</sup> of water per month. The economic valuation of the water service in La Pita is 195.00 USD per month. This study has shown that it is possible to value environmental services and generate proposals focused on improving the quality of life in rural areas</p> Copyright (c) Management of the resources distributed in a virtual plant, which allows determining the cost of electrical energy. 2020-07-27T19:37:03-05:00 Edison Agreda Cuenca <p>The implementation and management of a virtual power plant require processes which integrate the different types of conventional and unconventional generation, in the same way to enter electrical markets requires optimal operation and to be competitive in these, optimization can be carried out by means of different mathematical models, which take variables from the virtual power plant to carry out said optimization and comply with all the technical requirements that allow its integration into the electricity markets. By analyzing investigations by different authors, it was possible to get to know that there are several methods to have an optimization of a virtual power plant and that this can be integrated into electricity markets obtaining profits that are reflected in the operation of the plant.</p> Copyright (c) Impacto de la penetración de generación fotovoltaica en la estabilidad transitoria del Sep 2020-07-27T19:23:40-05:00 Alex Chamba <p>Con acelerado desarrollo de la tecnología cada vez se hace más frecuente la implementación de generación fotovoltaica en distintas naciones, por su constante reducción de costo en la producción de los panales, esto hace más accesible a países más pequeños poder implementar fuentes de generación renovable con menor costo de inversión que hace una década, y con un elevado beneficio para el planeta, ya que se de alguna manera se contribuye a la reducción de la contaminación, para ello es importante analizar qué tan beneficioso puede llegar a ser este tipo de fuente generadora, ya que ecológicamente va un paso adelante, pero del aspecto técnico no tiende a ser elogiado, en pequeñas cantidades de penetración no puede ser perjudicial, pero cuando se habla de una integración elevada esta puede tener distintos efectos, en el caso de la estabilidad transitoria se analiza con simulaciones distintas perturbaciones en el sistema y poder corroborar si una elevada penetración de este tipo podría ser viable de acuerdo al sistema, ya que el sistema parablemente acepte un límite de esta generación para que pueda garantizar la demanda requerida sin presentar inconvenientes.</p> Copyright (c) Automated large scale cleaning of aquaculture raceways 2020-08-17T11:20:45-05:00 Greg Wheatley Willem Pelser Rong Situ Azad Hamzehpour <p>In modern industry, minimising cost is a very important part of production. Aquaculture production often occurs in long raceways. The raceways are often stained by the product in the form of a scum line that forms throughout the process. Currently, it costs a local company approximately AU$565 to clean a single raceway. A high-pressure water system and its supporting frame were proposed to aid in the cleaning process. The cleaning effectiveness of high-pressure water at different impingement angles and stand- off distances was determined. It was found that the best combination was 90° of impingement and a stand-off distance of 120 mm. This combination caused the high-pressure water to completely clean the sample in a single pass travelling at 50 mm s<sup>-1</sup> with no pre-wetting of the sample. Further, a frame was designed from 6061 aluminium, with a total weight of 36 kg. The machine requires one person to push the frame along the raceway. The new operating cost was reduced to AU$100. The manufacture and materials cost were estimated to be as low as $1000. It greatly reduces the cost of cleaning the raceways and, in turn, increases profitability.</p> Copyright (c) Características de la Arena Sílica de Alvarado, Veracruz, México como material para Barreras Reactivas Permeables para la Remediación de Acuíferos contaminados con Lixiviados de Basureros No Controlados 2020-07-25T21:11:51-05:00 Manuel Alberto Susunaga Miranda Bertha Maria Estévez Garrido Rodrigo Manuel Susunaga Estévez <p>En este artículo se caracteriza la arena sílica de las costas del municipio de Alvarado, Veracruz, México y comparar sus propiedades con los materiales usados para las Barreras Reactivas Permeables y que permitan su uso como una solución para la remediación de acuíferos contaminados con lixiviados de basureros no controlados, mediante análisis granulométrico, determinación de humedad y concentración de Sílice y Fierro, obteniendo partículas con diámetro de 0.707 mm, humedad relativa de 0.52% y concentración de SiO<sub>2</sub> y de Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> 87.38% y 2.72% respectivamente, lo que comparando con materiales reactivos en uso cumple con los criterios para ser usado como Barrera para la Remediación de Acuíferos con lixiviados</p> Copyright (c) State of art: control Strategies for microgrids with Distributed energy resources 2020-07-25T17:14:20-05:00 Sandra Gualotuña <p><strong>Abstract:</strong></p> <p>The present document aims to be a recompilation o the different methods that have been used though the years to improve the microgrid performance in its different operation modes, and each characteristics of the grid. For the implementation of control strategies for microgrids in order to improve some aspects of the migro grid connected o islanded here will be presented many types of control strategies. Through this document the strategies Will be explained and will be given many ideas to be consider for the implementation of any control strategy according to the loads type, the parameter to be stabilized.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> microgrid, control strategy, voltage, frequency, power.</p> Copyright (c) Diseño y construcción de una cámara de envejecimiento acelerado para ensayos de corrosión en pinturas, recubrimientos y otros materiales 2020-07-22T21:20:23-05:00 José Omar Cabrera Escobar <p>The objective was the design and construction of an accelerated aging chamber for corrosion tests on paints, coatings and other materials. The NTE INEN 1032-84, ASTM G154 - 06 and G 151 - 00 standards were used as the basis for carrying out the project and meeting the stated objectives, combining various criteria of each standard. The prototype is made of AISI 304 stainless steel and different accessories such as UV lamps, among others. Finally, it was concluded with the validation of the equipment comparing the data of an uncoated plate tested in the chamber with the data obtained in another investigation, finding that there is an approximate error of 2%, validating the chamber. The specimens were exposed inside the chamber for 200 hours by specifications of the aforementioned standards, working with alternate cycles of light and dark, appearing both day and night, thus achieving visible results such as the loss of weight of all the Exposed plaques, discoloration, and rusting of up to 33% of non-corrosive paint, which is indicative of corrosion, in addition to the presence of rust and blistering on the surface of the specimens. Concluding that the built-in accelerated aging chamber acts in the same way as professional cameras.</p> Copyright (c) State of the Art of Turbine Model in Transient Stability Study 2020-07-22T16:42:02-05:00 Oscar Rojas <p><em>Transient stability assessment is a dynamic safety analysis of power systems and basically assesses the ability of the system to remain in equilibrium under a contingency in the SEP. Therefore, the assessment of transient stability is becoming an indispensable requirement for the security of energy systems. Blackouts that have arisen in developed countries have shown the most frequent great need for comprehensive studies of transient stability. The analysis of the transient stability implies a meticulous study that is carried out step by step. In you can see the step study of each machine in the system. In the SEP it is constantly subjected to disturbances, only the fact of turning on an appliance can be considered as a disturbance, however, being so small compared to the size of the system, they are insignificant.</em></p> Copyright (c) Survey of Requirements, Protocols, and Challenges in LWSN 2020-07-19T20:13:35-05:00 carlos roberto egas Juan Rivera <p>Wireless sensor networks are applicable in different topologies, a special case is the linear topology which is present in the monitoring of large-scale linear infrastructures. Linear topology requirements differ from other topologies. The architectures and protocols for wireless sensor networks are references that are modified depending on the particular application, these architectures and protocols are very complex when applied to linear topologies with thousands of nodes. This article discusses the existing standards and protocols applicable to linear wireless sensor networks, defines its very particular characteristics and how existing protocols can satisfy the requirements of networks with linear topology. Then we present our vision related to linear Wireless sensor networks, medium access control, routing, transport and the specific requirements of this type of networks. Finally, we identify the challenges for the existing protocols and some challenges to the new protocols design to linear topology.</p> Copyright (c) la Application of a quality management system in the dairy plant “Ecolac” 2020-07-18T19:15:33-05:00 Byron Herrera Chávez <p>The consumption of milk and dairy products in the world population is growing significantly. The demand of the consumers to acquire safe and quality products, causes that the medium and small companies, have the urgent necessity to implement Quality Management Systems (QMS), in such a way that it allows them to enter the highly competitive markets. This research analyzes the effects of the application of the QMS on the organoleptic, physical-chemical and microbiological parameters of raw and pasteurized milk. The samples were taken in the processes of raw material reception, pasteurization and storage, and the analyses were performed in triplicate for each of the samples. For the analysis of the data a student t test was applied, to determine the differences after the application of the QMS. The results indicate that the application of QMS had positive effects on the physicochemical parameter of acidity and on the microbiological load of mesophilic aerobes in the milk reception process. On the other hand, not effects on organoleptic characteristics, density, pH, fat and total coliforms growth were evidenced. These findings are important since they can be replicated in other dairy processing plants.</p> Copyright (c) Efficient Prediction and Analysis of the possible evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 applying the SEIR model in Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas, Ecuador 2020-08-25T12:00:28-05:00 Moisés Filiberto Mora Murillo Walter Alfredo Mora Murillo Digvijay Pandey <p>In Ecuador, in the Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas province, a Special Operations Committee (SOC) was created to take containment measures against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2). This research deals with an analysis of the possible spread of the SARS-COV-2 virus causing the infectious disease caused by new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) using the Susceptible, Exposed, Infected and Recovered (SEIR) model as a prediction method according to the rigor of the containment measures evaluated. with the acceptability of people through a survey (95 %, CI) in which three parameters (α) severity of containment measures, (k) social impact of the pandemic and (β) transmission rate, are determined, which we then used as β (t) with initial value of β = 1. All this considering the rapid proliferation of the virus in the province and having an average of α = 3.23 (95 % CI: 3 - 4) and for k = 4.10 (95 % CI: 4 - 5) that the authorities will use to mitigate the spread of the virus, as well as future outbreaks of the disease.</p> 2020-10-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE Route design for solid waste collection using graph theory and the algorithm of the Traveling Agent in dynamic programming, in the municipality of Santo Domingo, Río Verde parish, Ecuador 2020-07-15T22:56:01-05:00 Moisés Filiberto Mora Murillo Walter Alfredo Mora Murillo Luis Xavier Orbea Hinojosa Arlys Michel Lastre Aleaga Gabriel Estuardo Cevallos Uve Marc Jorba Cuscó Digvijay Pandey <p>In Santo Domingo de los Tsa´chilas province, Ecuador, the population grows proportionally to the territorial extension in urban parishes and rural parishes; therefore, the conception of solid domestic waste has increased exponentially. It has a background that in the canton, the distribution of routes for the collection waste has not been treated technically in recent years, nor has it been explored or sustained categorically since 2011; This year, the contract with the company in charge of the collection ends. This research aims to apply graph theory to the sector and generate new routes using python software by applying the Traveler Agent Problem (TSP) in dynamic programming, applying parametric techniques to compare the usual route with the new route and test the hypothesis in the Río Verde parish.</p> Copyright (c) Numerical analysis of the flow behavior in the throat section of an experimental conical nozzle 2020-08-31T10:39:34-05:00 San Luis Baudilio Tolentino Masgo Maria Alejandra Parco Simón Caraballo Leonardo Lacruz Vicente Marcano John Ferreira Jorge Mírez <p>The flow pattern in supersonic nozzles is defined by the aerodynamic profiles of the geometry of the internal walls, among other parameters, the throat being a critical section. In the present work, the objective is to analyze the behavior of the flow in the straight section of the throat of an experimental conical nozzle of a solid fuel probe rocket engine. The over-expanded flow was simulated with the ANSYS-Fluent code in a 2D computational domain, using the RANS model and the Menter turbulence model, and the Sutherland equation for viscosity as a function of the temperature. Five case studies were performed for the throat length in the range of 1-10 mm. Fluctuations of Mach number, pressure and temperature, oblique shock waves in the throat section were obtained for the length of 10 mm; for shorter lengths the intensity of the shock magnitude decreased. It is concluded that, for the throat length of 1 mm, the flow is transonic without the presence of oblique shocks. In the diverging section, shock waves vary in intensity and change position.</p> 2021-01-04T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE Effects of applying saturated steam as an Organic Sterilization System (OSS) in mirasol chili pepper (Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum) and panca chili pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) 2020-09-22T23:21:48-05:00 Américo Guevara Pérez Elizabeth Villanueva-Quejia Diana Nolazco Cama Gabriela Llontop Keidy Cancino Chávez <p>It was determined the influence of weight, temperature and time of injection of saturated steam as an organic sterilization system (OSS), on the microbial load, proximal analysis and capsaicin content in mirasol chili pepper and panca chili pepper. Work was done with 3 and 4 kg of chili pepper, 100 and 105 °C (20 and 25 kPa), for 2 and 3 minutes. The pre and post analyzes were: count of viable mesophilic aerobes, total coliforms, <em>E. coli</em>,<em> Salmonella</em>, molds and yeasts, proximal and capsaicin content. The samples containing 3 kg of mirasol chili pepper, subjected to 105 °C for 3 minutes and the ones containing 3 and 4 kg of panca chili pepper to 105 °C for 3 minutes, achieved a greater reduction of mesophilic aerobes and molds. The statistical evaluation found interactions between the variables: weight and temperature in mirasol chili pepper; weight, temperature and time in panca chili pepper, on the reduction of mesophilic aerobes and molds; influencing the proximal composition and content reduction of capsaicin from 863.2 to 751.9 ppm (mirasol chili pepper) and 405.6 to 315.1 ppm (panca chili pepper); showing that the OSS treatment is an efficient method in microbial decontamination process.</p> 2021-07-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Enfoque UTE Characteristics of Silica Sand from Alvarado, Veracruz, Mexico as material for Permeable Reactive Barriers for the Remediation of Aquifers contaminated with leachates from uncontrolled landfills 2020-08-22T11:38:59-05:00 Manuel Alberto Susunaga Miranda Bertha María Estévez-Garrido Rodrigo Manuel Susunaga-Estévez <p>This article characterizes the silica sand from the coasts of the municipality of Alvarado, Veracruz, Mexico and compares its properties with the materials used for the Permeable Reactive Barriers and that allow its use as a solution for the remediation of aquifers contaminated with leachate from uncontrolled landfills, by granulometric analysis, determination of humidity and concentration of Silica and Iron, obtaining particles with a diameter of 0.707 mm, relative humidity of 0.52% and concentration of SiO<sub>2</sub> and Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> 87.38% and 2.72% respectively, which comparing with reactive materials in use meets the criteria to be used as a Barrier for the Remediation of Aquifers contaminated with leachates.</p> 2020-10-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE Impacto del Laboratorio Social de Vinculación realizada por la Comunidad de la UIDE en la Parroquia de Llano Chico Quito, Septiembre – Diciembre 2019 2020-07-09T10:48:30-05:00 Denny Guanuche <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Este proyecto tuvo como objeto contribuir con técnicos automotrices la divulgación de la importancia de la seguridad y salud industrial en cuatro talleres artesanales de mecánica automotriz, además de formar a los gestores de dichos talleres en el área administrativa. El proyecto se dio a cabo en la parroquia de Llano Chico ubicado al noreste del Distrito Metropolitano de Quito. Para la ejecución del proyecto se realizó un plan de capacitación sobre equipos de protección personal e implementación de seguridad industrial por parte de estudiantes y docentes de la Universidad Internacional Del Ecuador como estrategia para reducir el índice de accidentes laborales. Los resultados de las capacitaciones por medio de evaluaciones y verificaciones indican que los establecimientos seleccionados implementaron las respectivas normas de seguridad reflejando así un ambiente seguro tanto para los trabajadores como para los clientes de la comunidad.</span></p> Copyright (c) The Soil fertility management for the production of gulupa for its exportation (Passiflora edulis Sims) in production areas of Caldas region 2020-07-09T09:20:05-05:00 Alvaro Hernán Cortés Duque <p>The department of Caldas is the fifth coffee producer in Colombia; however, gulupa (<em>Passiflora edulis Sims</em>) has emerged in the last five years. The incorporation of technologies such as automation, greenhouses, planting distances and fertigation has put a production potential of 33Mg/ha. The objective of this work is to evaluate the response of the gulupa farming, to the application of fertilizers, through a fertigation system; the following treatments were established: fertigation, fertilizers in solid form with irrigation and application of fertilizers in solid form without irrigation. With the information collected from production to date (kg/ha), an analysis of variance was applied for a randomized block arrangement with three repetitions. The analysis allows inferring, that there is variability with 95% reliability, in addition the 5% LMS test was applied to compare the treatments. In addition, it allows establishing that fertigation compared to traditional fertilization treatments, establish significant differences. The results indicate that fertigation is a high efficiency technology, compared to the traditional practice of solid fertilizer applications to the soil.</p> Copyright (c)