https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/issue/feed Enfoque UTE 2020-05-26T15:10:00-05:00 Comité Editorial enfoque@ute.edu.ec Open Journal Systems <h3>Enfoque UTE - Scientific Engineering Journal</h3> <p>Enfoque UTE is a scientific journal that publishes research papers in engineering and related areas. The journal is aimed at the community of teachers, researchers, undergraduate and graduate students in general.</p> <p>It is clearly oriented towards an international audience and receives collaborations in both English and Spanish, with authors, reviewers and collaborators in general, from all regions and with a great diversity of approaches.</p> <p>Enfoque UTE firmly believes in the free dissemination of scientific knowledge, which is why it guarantees that its content and its services in general will be totally free for readers, authors and the general public.</p> <p>In its 11 years of life, the magazine has published more than 300 engineering research papers, serving more than 800 authors. All this has been achieved thanks to the selfless participation of its team of editors, reviewers and contributors, as well as the permanent support of the Universidad UTE, which funds the activities of the journal.</p> <p>Enfoque UTE is registered and indexed in several of the main international databases such as Web Of Science (ESCI), Redalyc, Scielo, REDIB, Latindex, DOAJ, OAJI, MIAR, Periódica, BibLat, Google Scholar, among many others.</p> https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/661 The KINETIC STUDY OF POLYPHENOLOXIDASE IN DIFFERENT COFFEE VARIETIES 2020-05-26T15:10:00-05:00 Felipe Arturo Jadán Piedra fjadan@utm.edu.ec <p>En este trabajo, se estudió la cinética enzimática de la Polifenoloxidasa (PPO) en diferentes variedades de café arábico, (Tipico, Caturra, Salchimor). Se evaluaron el pH y la temperatura óptimos de la PPO, su actividad enzimática (U) y la constante de Michaelis Menten. Para determinar la actividad enzimática se utilizó un espectrofotómetro UV-Visible modelo JENWAY 7305 con una longitud de onda de 410nm. Se determinó que la temperatura y el pH óptimo de la PPO fue 50 C° y 7.0 respectivamente, siendo constante en las variedades estudiadas. Se estudió la afinidad de la enzima por el sustrato, así como la actividad de la PPO utilizando catecol como sustrato: Los resultados en las diferentes variedades fueron Tipico&nbsp; K<sub>M</sub> =(0.622*10-<sup>1 </sup>Mm y 6234,32 U/mL);Salchimor K<sub>M</sub>=(0.822*10-<sup>1</sup> mM y 5612.10 U/mL);y Caturra K<sub>M</sub>=(0.933 *10-<sup>1</sup> Mm y 3710.86 U/mL).</p> <p>Finalmente se evaluó la oxidación del catecol (sustrato) observando el tiempo de desaparición que se estableció en 160 s para la variedad con la actividad más alta.</p> <p>En este trabajo, se estudió la cinética enzimática de la Polifenoloxidasa (PPO) en diferentes variedades de café arábico, (Tipico, Caturra, Salchimor). Se evaluaron el pH y la temperatura óptimos de la PPO, su actividad enzimática (U) y la constante de Michaelis Menten. Para determinar la actividad enzimática se utilizó un espectrofotómetro UV-Visible modelo JENWAY 7305 con una longitud de onda de 410nm. Se determinó que la temperatura y el pH óptimo de la PPO fue 50 C° y 7.0 respectivamente, siendo constante en las variedades estudiadas. Se estudió la afinidad de la enzima por el sustrato, así como la actividad de la PPO utilizando catecol como sustrato: Los resultados en las diferentes variedades fueron Tipico&nbsp; K<sub>M</sub> =(0.622*10-<sup>1 </sup>Mm y 6234,32 U/mL);Salchimor K<sub>M</sub>=(0.822*10-<sup>1</sup> mM y 5612.10 U/mL);y Caturra K<sub>M</sub>=(0.933 *10-<sup>1</sup> Mm y 3710.86 U/mL).</p> <p>Finalmente se evaluó la oxidación del catecol (sustrato) observando el tiempo de desaparición que se estableció en 160 s para la variedad con la actividad más alta.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/660 Evaluation of an experimental induced ignition engine under different gasoline 2020-05-25T16:48:25-05:00 Edilberto Antonio Llanes Cedeño antonio.llanes@uisek.edu.ec <p>The Ignition Internal Combustion Engine induced (MEP), is a thermal machine that allows mechanical power to be obtained from the chemical energy of a fuel. The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of an experimental MEP through the balance of energy and exergy, under the individual use of the three gasoline sold in Ecuador (Super, Extra and Ecopais). The experimental methodology consisted of starting under the individual use of gasoline until reaching its maximum power at engine speed, where measurements of temperature, specific fuel consumption and the air-fuel ratio were taken for a time of 3 minutes. The results show an energy efficiency of 11.31% for Super gasoline, 10.75% for Extra gasoline and 10.39% for Ecopaís gasoline. Regarding exergy efficiency, 58.81% was established for Super gasoline, 58.89% for Extra gasoline and 59.19% for Ecopaís gasoline. The results allow us to conclude that there is an exergy potential for improvement (PEM) that may be an opportunity to increase energy efficiency.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/659 Thermo-energetic analysis of the steam generation system in a 49 MW power plant 2020-05-24T01:27:02-05:00 Yoalbys Retirado Mediaceja yoalbys2013@gmail.com <p>In the work carries out a comprehensive thermo-energetic analysis of the steam generation system of a 49 MW thermal power plant, which has not been rigorously studied from an energy point of view. In a algorithm synthesizes the methodology for calculating the gross thermal and exergetic performances of the boilers that comprise it, aspects that have not been interrelated in previous studies. The results show a high degree the harnessing of thermal energy and a low capacity for using the exergy available in the facilities, caused by the deterioration of some of its operationals parameters and by irreversibilities inherent in the process of transforming water into steam. The thermal and exergetic yields of the system amounted to 90,106 and 45,491%, respectively. The proposed algorithm foresees the calculation and the comparison of the real thermo-energetic parameters of the boilers with the nominal ones and the scientific and technical-organizational actions to develop out to achieve superior thermo-exergetic performances. Its future implementation will take into account the analysis of the net thermal yields, the economic-environmental indicators and the energy-operational optimization of the boilers.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/658 Manufacture material characteristic analysis of original and alternative auto parts. Case Study: Brake Disc 2020-05-24T00:44:26-05:00 Jaime `Antamba Guasgua jaantambagu@uide.edu.ec Vladimir Azanza edazanzalu@uide.edu.ec Gorky Reyes gureyesca@uide.edu.ec Alvaro Remache alremachech@uide.edu.ec Soraya Ruiz soruizru@uide.edu.ec <p>All powered vehicles have a braking system adopted according to the type of vehicle and work for which they are designed. In Ecuador, there is a great variety of auto parts that are proposed as alternative replacement, varying in cost and quality. This research aims to quantitatively analyze the characteristics of the brake disc material between original and alternate auto parts. This research analyzes three brake disc samples (A, B, C) from different manufacturing sources, using the ASTM E415-08 spectrometry test and the metallography test under the ASTM A247-16A standard. The spectrometry detects 15 elements in each sample, the carbon equivalent of sample A is 18% and 20% higher in relation to sample B and C, which significantly influences the microstructure. The metallographic tests indicate a pearlitic matrix in each sample, however, there is a different distribution and size of the graphite flakes. According to the SAE J431 standard, each auto part meets the material conditions for the brake disc function.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/657 an Aquaponic systems for the sustainable development of rural areas in Manabí 2020-05-22T16:26:29-05:00 Isa Delgado isazamar92@gmail.com <p>Aquaponics is an integrated multitrophic system that combines recirculating elements from aquaculture and hydroponics. The objective of this research is to evaluate the production of two aquaponic systems for the sustainable development of rural areas in Manabí. The first system built was the floating root system in a 2: 1 ratio (two plants per fish), 60 lettuce plants (<em>Lactuca sativa</em>) and 30 tilapias (<em>Oreochromis sp</em>) were grown. The second system was nutrient layer (NFT), with a ratio of 1: 1, lettuce and celery (<em>Apium graveolens</em>) (15 plants of each species) and 30 Nile tilapia (<em>Oreochromis niloticus</em>) were grown. Analysis of the physicochemical parameters of the water was carried out in both systems obtaining adequate levels for the development of the food to be produced (turbidity, color, pH, nitrates, ammonium, calcium and carbonate hardness); dissolved oxygen, nitrites and phosphates presented levels outside the optimal ranges; however, 100% survival of the cultivated products was achieved. The growth rate (TC) of lettuce and tilapia was calculated. Aquaponic systems were shown to be a sustainable production practice, with floating root being the system with the best results.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/656 The Services supply capacities of the mobile operators of the Republic of Ecuador. 2020-05-16T11:26:21-05:00 German Leon leon.german1987@hotmail.com <p><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Este artículo analiza la distribución del mercado entre los operadores de telecomunicaciones en la República del Ecuador, los tipos más extendidos de servicios de telecomunicaciones proporcionados por los operadores de telecomunicaciones, así como el costo de estos servicios.</span></span></p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/655 Environmental impacts on the littoral coastal strip by anthropic action in the city of Trujillo, Peru 2020-05-13T06:21:29-05:00 CARLOS BOCANEGRA GARCÍA carlosbocanegragarcia2020@gmail.com BILMIA VENEROS URBINA bilmia.venurbi@gmail.com Zoila Gladis Culquichicón Malpica culquichiconzoila@gmail.com <p>This research describes and analyzes the impacts of the anthropic transformation of the coastal strip of the city of Trujillo, due to the systematic construction and expansion of a rigid structure called the sand retaining mole in the port of Salaverry. The main impacts are related to the modification of the coastline, along with the destruction of beaches and the alteration of ecosystems. Erosion as a phenomenon has been affecting many coastal areas, but in this particular one the problem has increased and seems not to stop even knowing all the aspects and climatic impacts that this may generate, destabilizing natural habitats and changing the behavior of the tides. Directing them to unforeseen areas. With the problems raised, the impacts of the anthropic transformation of the strip and its consequences due to the construction of the retaining mole are described and analyzed. Satellite images, photographs and hydrographic charts were used for the respective analysis, seeking to raise awareness and encourage scientists, authorities and the general public to conserve the coast and save it.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/654 COMPARISON OF THE RADIAL AND AXIAL INDUCTION MACHINE THROUGH THE STUDY OF DIMENSIONAL EQUATIONS, SPECIFIC TORQUE AND TORQUE DENSITY 2020-05-10T23:57:38-05:00 LISBETH LOZANO lis.lozano21@gmail.com RODOLFO BERRIOS rberrios.rb14@gmail.com <p>The most used motors in the industry are three-phase alternating current. They are not only used in constant speed electric drives, but they have practically displaced direct current ones thanks to the frequency inverters. Axial flow motors have certain advantages over radial flow motors. The present investigation focused on comparing electric induction machines by means of their dimensional equations. The influence of the number of poles on the torque to be obtained was studied. The respective graphs of the specific torque and torque density were made as a function of the Kr factor. It was concluded that the torque of the axial machine depends on its outer diameter. In cases where large axial machines cannot be placed, it is redesigned by increasing the number of stages. Thus, it is in front of a great solution in cases where you want to install motors with very high specific torque and less weight. In addition, they are compatible with various applications, from the car to wind power generators, and have the great advantage that they do not require as much maintenance.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/653 Thermo-energetic analysis of the steam generation system in a 36 MW power plant 2020-05-11T11:03:01-05:00 Yoalbys Retirado Mediaceja yoalbys2013@gmail.com <p>In the work carries out a comprehensive thermo-energetic analysis of the steam generation system of a 36 MW thermal power plant, which has not been rigorously studied from an energy point of view. In a algorithm synthesizes the methodology for calculating the gross thermal and exergetic performances of the boilers that comprise it, aspects that have not been interrelated in previous studies. The results show a high degree the harnessing of thermal energy and a low capacity for using the exergy available in the facilities, caused by the deterioration of some of its operationals parameters and by irreversibilities inherent in the process of transforming water into steam. The thermal and exergetic yields of the system amounted to 90,106 and 45,490%, respectively. The proposed algorithm foresees the calculation and the comparison of the real thermo-energetic parameters of the boilers with the nominal ones and the scientific and technical-organizational actions to develop out to achieve superior thermo-exergetic performances. Its future implementation will take into account the analysis of the net thermal yields, the economic-environmental indicators and the energy-operational optimization of the boilers.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/652 Mass trapping of Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) using light and sex-pheromone traps in cotton 2020-04-27T08:53:45-05:00 Muhammad Arshad makuaf@gmail.com <p>The pink bollworm, <em>Pectinophora gossypiella</em> (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is an important insect pest of the cotton crop worldwide. The effectiveness of sex-pheromone and light traps was evaluated for the monitoring of adult <em>P. gossypiella</em> in Bt cotton field for the years 2017-18 at southern Punjab, Pakistan. The sampling of infested bolls was done to record the damage level of <em>P. gossypiella</em>. The sex-pheromone traps captured approximately 2-3 times more adults than light traps in all locations for both study years. For sex-pheromone traps, temperature showed negative and strong relation with trap catches. Fewer bolls were infested in plots where sex-pheromone traps were installed (7.0-9.0%) compared to check plots (32-37%). Therefore, the pheromone trapping proved an effective and eco-friendly tool for the monitoring and management of <em>P. gossypiella</em>. Our findings are helpful to improve adult <em>P. gossypiella</em> monitoring and should be considered while developing an integrated pest management program for this pest.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/649 Simulation of an all-terrain vehicle driving experience using virtual reality 2020-05-11T10:55:52-05:00 Luis Cuautle Gutiérrez luis.cuautle@upaep.mx José de Jesús Cordero Guridi josejesus.cordero@upaep.mx Johannes Carrillo Aguilar johannes.carrillo@upaep.edu.mx Eduardo Lebano Pérez eduardo.lebano@upaep.mx <p>The present work consists of the creation of a virtual driving experience of an all-terrain vehicle that includes the use of an industrial robot in order to promote engineering careers at a private Mexican university. In its development, a product design and development methodology was used that consisted of virtualizing the route, in this case an off-road track, using computer-aided design and the Unity platform. The robot programming consisted of simulating seven physical movements of the path. For the validation of the experience, a questionnaire was created with 13 items that covered visual aspects such as the recreation of the vehicle's interior, the route such as curves, ascents and descents, and the general experience in terms of duration, sounds and similarity. to a real environment. It was applied to a non-probabilistic sample for the convenience of undergraduate students and was validated based on its Cronbach alpha value. The findings show that the participant's experience and physical integrity are the strengths achieved with this development, a situation that allows its use for the stated purposes.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/648 Artificial Intelligence System for Braking Control of a Car 2020-04-14T22:19:52-05:00 Iván Ernesto Yánez ZUrita ivan.yanez@ute.edu.ec <p>An Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithm based on neural networks is developed, which allows you to control the braking system of a car. For this, a simulation model is used to test the neural network algorithm, the parameters for entering the neural network are the speed of the car and the distance or proximity to the car that goes ahead called the safety distance, as an output parameter. It has the information to activate the brake system. Other parameters used in the weighting of the error function associated with the RN are the driving mode, for example the fact of driving fast or slow, or for example when driving fast, apply the brakes more frequently. In the first instance, the algorithm learns from the human the driving mode, forward speed, braking, proximity to the front vehicle, then the algorithm must be tested in unknown situations and verify the learning capacity.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/647 Performance SQL Database Management Systems: MariaDB and PostgreSQL 2020-04-13T12:31:12-05:00 ANABEL ELENA PILICITA GARRIDO anabelpilicita@gmail.com <p>El almacenamiento de información en las bases de datos es un tema importante para toda organización en la actualidad. Son los Sistemas Gestores de Bases de Datos conocidos como SGDB encargados de ocultar la complejidad que conlleva la administración de las base de datos. Es común que cada día sean almacenados millones y millones de datos más aún porque en la actualidad existen nuevas tendencias y exigencias para el procesamiento de grandes volúmenes de datos a gran velocidad. Por lo tanto, es indispensable que los SGBD tengan un correcto rendimiento para hacer frente a estas nuevas exigencias. El presente trabajo muestra los resultados obtenidos al realizar pruebas de rendimiento en los Sistemas Gestores de Base de Datos MariaDB y PostgreSQL, aplicando la arquitectura de tres capas para los escenarios de prueba. Ambos SGBD son potentes y muy utilizados por diferentes sistemas. Los resultados obtenidos están relacionados con la cantidad de peticiones por segundo procesadas por estos sistemas. En este caso MariaDB fue superior que PostgreSQL a medida que aumentó la cantidad de usuarios que realizaban en diferentes escenarios gracias a sus motores de búsqueda que generan mejores velocidades para el procesamiento de datos. &nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/646 Plan de Ahorro Energético en el Hogar de Alumnos de la Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Ambientales de la Universidad Internacional SEK 2020-04-12T21:47:17-05:00 Walberto Efraín Gallegos Eras walbertogallegos@gmail.com <p>Los recursos energéticos que posee el país merecen que se consuman de manera correcta y adecuada. Esto no solo representa un ahorro económico para el país sino ayuda indispensable para el cuidado del ambiente. El presente trabajo reúne un análisis de la eficiencia del consumo de la energía eléctrica en los hogares de 22 alumnos de séptimo semestre de la carrera de Ingeniería Ambiental y quinto semestre de la carrera de Biotecnología de la Universidad Internacional SEK durante los años 2018 - 2019. El registro o factura consumo mensual en KWH para los dos años, permite elaborar la tendencia del consumo y conocer el inventario de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI) de cada una de las familias. Este estudio del ahorro energético, se realiza siguiendo la guía metodológica para la aplicación de la Norma NTE INEN ISO/IEC 14064- 1:2006, para los gases de efecto invernadero de organizaciones, se realiza utilizando el factor de emisión para la actividad eléctrica que es de 0,319 kg CO2 /KWH. De esta manera y con ayuda de gráficas se evalua el comportamiento del consumo de las 22 familias, constatando una elevada emisión de gases de efecto invernadero y un alto consumo en un curso con 60645,14 KWH en comparación con el otro curso que fue de 44793 KWH. Este estudio nos permite consolidar la educación ambiental en hogares ecuatorianos para beneficio de la sociedad.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/645 Identifying stakeholders in a smart lab using conceptual techniques for collaborative inquiry SAS2 2020-04-10T13:02:42-05:00 Pablo F. Ordoñez-Ordoñez pfordonez@unl.edu.ec Hernán L. Torres Carrión hltorres@unl.edu.ec Oscar Cumbicus oscar.cumbicus@unl.edu.ec José Benavides jose.benavides@unl.edu.ec María del Cisne Ruilova maria.ruilova.s@unl.edu.ec Cristian Narváez cristian.narvaez@unl.edu.ec <p>This article is the result of the analysis of stakeholders for the project called "Smart Environment for the joint training macro-lab at the Faculty of Energy of the Universidad Nacional de Loja Smart Lab " using collaborative research and applying the techniques Nominal Identification, Social Analysis CLIP (Collaboration, Conflict, Legitimacy, Interests, Power) and Force Field, as established in the SAS<sup>2 </sup>A Guide to Collaborative Inquiry and Social Engagement. The results obtained from the research made it possible to find the stakeholders involved in the project and the relationships that exist among them, involving factors such as gains, losses, influences and driving forces; thus making it possible to know the elements that counteract the fact that students reflect low learning results in the mastery of practical processes, which prevents agile links in professional practice. Finally, it was demonstrated that by using these techniques, short-term decisions can be made, avoiding risks that could be very expensive for the execution of the project</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/644 Physical-chemical characterization and quality of compost produced in Rupa Rupa-Huánuco 2020-04-06T15:26:43-05:00 nelino florida rofner nelinof@hotmail.com <p>Cocoa and coffee are important crops in the area and are managed under organic production standards, and the use of organic fertilizers is high, especially compost. For this reason, physical-chemical indicators were evaluated and the quality of the compost produced with different inputs and marketed in the Rupa Rupa district, Huánuco-Peru region, was determined. It is a non-experimental correlational investigation with statistical adjustment of completely randomized design, the treatments are the identified compost: Alborada compost (CAL), M&amp;F Organic compost (CMF), municipal waste compost (CML), compost from the Divisoria cooperative (CCD) and formulated commercial compost (CCF). Physical (humidity) and chemical indicators (ashes, pH, MO, N, P2O5, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) were evaluated and the quality was determined according to the Colombian technical standard (NTC 5167) , the Chilean official standard (NOCh 2880) and the quality standards of the World Health Organization-OMS. The Results show no differences in the physical-chemical indicators, except for the N levels and according to the NTC and the OMS correspond to good quality compost and the NOCh classifies them as medium quality compost. In conclusion, the evaluated compost that is marketed in the district is of medium quality and the norm that best determines the quality is the NOCh</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/643 Comparative analysis of the asphaltene stabilizing efficiency of Anacardium occidentale peel oil and commercial products 2020-05-08T10:37:14-05:00 Tomás Darío Marín Velásquez tmarin@udo.edu.ve Dany Day Josefina Arriojas Tocuyo arriojasd@gmail.com <p>The research objective was to compare the inhibiting and stabilizing efficiency of asphaltenes from <em>Anacardium occidentale</em> (CNSL) husk oil mixtures in diesel and commercial dispersant products, to evaluate the oil as an alternative anti-asphaltenes chemical treatment of crude oil. The precipitation flocculation onset with n-heptane and the dispersion point by addition of xylene were determined, both by direct observation of asphaltenes floc formation under an optical microscope. The experimental design used was factorial, with four response variables (flocculation onset, inhibitory activity, instability index and stabilization efficiency) and two experimental factors (product and dose). Five products with CNSL and three commercial products, all in doses 2, 4, 6 and 8 µl in 10 ml of a medium crude oil sample, were evaluated. The statistical analysis was based on multifactorial ANOVA and Fisher's minimal significant difference test (LSD) with α = 0.05. It was obtained that the two experimental factors significantly influenced the individual response variables and also their interactions. The products with CNSL were more efficient as inhibitors and the commercial ones more efficient as stabilizers.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/642 Comparative study for vegetative propagation of Chondracanthus Chamissoi “Yuyo” on three types of substrate in a controlled environment and its viability in the Moquegua region 2020-04-12T15:25:49-05:00 JOSE CARLOS ZAPATA ROJAS zapatarojasjosecarlos@gmail.com Alejandro Marcelo Gonzales Vargas alejandromgonzales@outlook.com SHEYLA AMANDA ZEVALLOS FERIA amandazevallosferia@gmail.com <p>The research compares the vegetative propagation of Chondracanthus Chamissoi, commonly called "Yuyo" in Peru on three different types of substrate, under laboratory controlled conditions. The substrates used for comparison were; TA; clam leaflet, TB; Fruit mesh, CT; cape of propylene and TP; Concholepas concholepas shell.</p> <p>According to the study, there was better survival in TB; determining the formation of (DFS) from 20 to 23 days, according to the results, the vegetative propagation strategy is viable for commercial escalation in the coast of Moquegua, Peru.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/641 Estudio Experimental study on the low power CO2 laser cutting of natural fibers reinforced plastic composite 2020-04-03T10:52:34-05:00 Cristian Fabian Pérez cf.perez@uta.edu.ec <p>The application of plastics reinforced with natural fibers in the industry can be increased using faster and more flexible technologies, such as laser cutting. The anisotropic nature and the degree of combustion of natural fibers in these types of compounds make laser processing very challenging. This study deals with the cutting performance of a low power CO2 laser to cut polymer composite plates (matrix of polyester and epoxy resin) reinforced with natural fibers (Abaca and rice husk) with an average thickness of 3 mm. An experimental DOE design and an ANOVA analysis of variance were used to determine the significant and influential parameters in the quality of cut and the thermal effect on the material. The processing parameters were the cutting power, cutting speed and type of thermoset matrix. The cuts with a minimum zone affected by heat, of approximately 600 mm and a minimum Ra of 3.18 μm, were achieved by working with 76 W and 14 mm/s of power and cutting speed respectively in the composite material of reinforced polyester matrix with rice fiber.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/640 A Tag Recommendation Hybrid Model for Social Tagging Systems 2020-05-08T11:01:27-05:00 Elías Portilla Olvera eliasolvera@gmail.com <p style="margin: 0px 41.2px 0px 37.79px; text-indent: 0cm;"><span lang="EN-US" style="margin: 0px; line-height: 105%;"><span style="font-family: Arial;">Social tagging consists of classifying Web resources using words or tags freely chosen by users. The simplicity and openness of social tagging systems to organize resources is the key to your success on the Web. There are numerous approaches to facilitate the labeling process for the user, allowing them to reuse labels and thus optimizing their limited reading and writing time. This document presents a simple way to supplement, with the user's labeling history, a prior approach to recommending tags based solely on the content of the resource to be labeled, thus creating a hybrid recommendation model.</span></span></p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/638 Un A Tag Recommendation Hybrid Model for Social Tagging Systems 2020-03-23T09:21:22-05:00 Elías Portilla Olvera eliasolvera@gmail.com <p style="margin: 0px 41.2px 0px 37.79px; text-indent: 0cm;"><span lang="EN-US" style="margin: 0px; line-height: 105%;"><span style="font-family: Arial;">Social tagging consists of classifying Web resources using words or tags freely chosen by users. The simplicity and openness of social tagging systems to organize resources is the key to your success on the Web. There are numerous approaches to facilitate the labeling process for the user, allowing them to reuse labels and thus optimizing their limited reading and writing time. This document presents a simple way to supplement, with the user's labeling history, a prior approach to recommending tags based solely on the content of the resource to be labeled, thus creating a hybrid recommendation model.</span></span></p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/637 the Analysis of the fuel pressure rail based on fuel alternatives and on-route working ranges. 2020-04-03T10:11:49-05:00 Juan Carlos Rocha carlos.rocha@uisek.edu.ec <p>This research was carried out in order to generate reengineering on auto parts, where the work of the fuel pressure rail was evaluated using appropriate handling techniques and ecological fuels to evaluate the optimization from its geometry. In the first part of this work, route tests are carried out in driving cycles to obtain the pressure data within the fuel rail, then the simulation is applied in the CAD / CAE program to then validate it in its geometry and of biodiesel B5. The simulation showed that the original design of the fuel rail of the test vehicle has deficiencies, in the flow of fuel within the duct was not distributed evenly across all the outputs of the rail causing the performance to decrease. On the other hand, the data obtained with biodiesel showed that with this fuel the pressure in the rail was lower than when using normal diesel. In conclusion, through the redesign of the rail, the measures were shortened by 10% of all its components, thus reducing the aforementioned failures from to the simulation.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/636 Deformations evaluations and forecast in Turbo Generator 5 in the thermic-energetic plant of Nuevitas, Camagüey 2020-04-03T10:08:12-05:00 Michael Alvarez González michael@vc.hidro.cu <p>The evaluation, analysis and deformations forecast in the Turbo Generator 5 of the water heater-energy plant of Nuevitas, it was the main objective of this research. For they were carried out it chronologically geodesic surveying to establishment control record distributed in same period to specific marks along the structure. Finite Elements Method used these data in the physical-numeric models, it allowed evaluate the load-deformation process and floor-structures interaction. After achieving, the historical record of stress-strain plane state, forecast deformations was proposing for the support structure by ARIMA’s models to evaluate in short term the not-alienations permissible future registered systematically in the axes of the mechanical system rotors in the plant.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/635 Development of a solid formulation methodology for Beauveria bassiana with local inputs in Lima - Perú 2020-03-19T14:29:18-05:00 David Adrián Hidalgo daadhima@gmail.com <p>The commercial strain of <em>Beauveria bassiana</em> CCB-LE265 produced by SENASA was morphologically characterized and a susceptibility test was performed on <em>Galleria melonella</em> to know the initial conditions of the conidia. Starting from 20 formulas made with local inputs (Bentonite, kaolinite, diatom, Chinese talc, citric acid, egg albumin and cornstarch), nine were preselected by wetting test for 30 seconds, allowing pellet (water soluble granule) to melt and release the content in the field. The quality control of the pellets was performed (spore concentration, conidia forming units, germination percentage and bioassays) at the time of its preparation and 2 months later. For the experimental analysis a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement was used. The best formulation material was the industrial talc, followed by diatomea earth. The heartburn was not considered in this study, however it was notory the decrease in conidia survival by acidifying the medium.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/634 2020-05-16T11:47:14-05:00 Manuel Fernando Quiñones mfquinonez@utpl.edu.ec <p>The current trend is to connect everything to network to be monitored and controlled remotely through own technologies of the IoT concept. One of the problems is to connect the devices to a network, using technologies with sufficient coverage and capacity, so this article shows the development of a mobile gateway for IoT applications under the Android platform evaluated in 4G mobile networks. The IoT mobile gateway sends the data collected from sensors by selecting the MQTT and HTTP protocols, to IoT platforms on the Internet. The architecture was composed of temperature, luminosity and pressure sensors that are integrated into a sensor node that performs the functions of data collection, processing and then via Bluetooth is sent to an Android smartphone where an application that performs the mobile gateway function is running, here data network are sent through the 4G LTE network to the IoT platforms of Ubidots and Watson IoT. Subsequently, tests were carried out with various metrics such as latency, energy consumption and connection costs. It concludes that IoT mobile gateway has better performance under MQTT protocol compared to HTTP.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/633 Artificial neural network to estimate an index of water quality 2020-04-01T08:43:05-05:00 Lenin Quiñones Huatangari lenin.quinones@unj.edu.pe Luis Ochoa Toledo luis.ochoa@icat.unam.mx Nicolás Kemper Valverde nicolas.kemper@icat.unam.mx Oscar Gamarra Torres oscar.gamarra@untrm.edu.pe José Bazán Correa jbazanc@yahoo.com Jorge Delgado Soto jorge_delgado@unj.edu.pe <p>The artificial neural network (RNA) is a computational model that emulates the biological neural system in information processing. The originating models are suitable for the purpose of describing long-term specifics, in addition to nonlinear relationships. This tool is used to predict physical chemical and microbiological parameters that influence water quality. The United States National Sanitation Foundation proposed a water quality index, known as the NSF WQI. This article describes the design, training and use of the three-layer neural perceptron neural model for the calculation of the NSF WQI of the Utcubamba River and its tributaries. Using the Matlab software and applying the Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm, the optimal RNA architecture was found to be 6-12-1, plus the percentage for the training, validation, and test sets of 70&nbsp;%, 10&nbsp;%, and 20 % respectively. RNA performance has been evaluated using the root of the root mean square error (RMSE) and the correlation coefficient (R). High correlations (greater than 0.94) were made between the measured and predicted values. Finally, the RNA proposal offers a useful alternative for the calculation and prediction of the water quality index in relation to dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical demand for oxygen (BOD), nitrates, fecal coliforms, potential for hydrogen ions (pH) and turbidity.</p> 2020-04-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/632 La HUELLA DE CARBONO EN UN EDIFICIO DE UNA EMPRESA DE TECNOLOGÍA 2020-03-10T07:18:44-05:00 Walberto Efraín Gallegos Eras walbertogallegos@gmail.com <p>ABSTRACT</p> <p>An energetic review was developed in a building occupied by technology company, this is a enabling company of the 4th Industrial Revolution IT (Information Technologies), which located in the north city of Quito. The main was&nbsp; to know the impact in terms of CO2 emissions of the Carbon Footprint in a technology company. that are currently in a broad growth of the Ecuadorian economy. The methodology applied was NORMA NTE INEN ISO 14064-1: 2010, Scope 1 and Scope 2, ISO 50001:2012 Energy Management System , chapter 4.4.3 Determining the scope of the EnMs and Executive Decree 2393 from Ecuador, By tabulating the data, the main energy consumers, which were: office equipment, air conditioning system and lighting, according to Scope 1 Fixed installations, for the base year 2017 was 0.96 t CO2 and Scope 2 based on energy consumption was 90.23 t CO2e. An analysis of the lighting efficiency is carried out in comparison with the levels defined by job position according to Executive Decree 2393. Once the users of energy consumption have been identified, an action plan for energy management is established.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/631 Manufacture material characteristic analysis of original and alternative auto parts. Case Study: Brake Disc 2020-05-11T10:40:44-05:00 Jaime Antamba Guasgua jaantambagu@uide.edu.ec <p style="margin: 0px 37.73px 0px 37.79px; line-height: normal; text-indent: 0cm;"><span lang="EN-US" style="margin: 0px;"><span style="font-family: Arial; font-size: small;">All powered vehicles have a braking system adopted according to the type of vehicle and work for which they are designed. In Ecuador, there is a great variety of auto parts that are proposed as alternative replacement, varying in cost and quality. This research aims to quantitatively analyze the characteristics of the brake disc material between original and alternate auto parts. This research analyzes three brake disc samples (A, B, C) from different manufacturing sources, using the ASTM E415-08 spectrometry test and the metallography test under the ASTM A247-16A standard. The spectrometry detects 15 elements in each sample, the carbon equivalent of sample A is 18% and 20% higher in relation to sample B and C, which significantly influences the microstructure. The metallographic tests indicate a pearlitic matrix in each sample, however, there is a different distribution and size of the graphite flakes. According to the SAE J341 standard, each auto part meets the material conditions for the brake disc function.</span></span></p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/630 Mecanismos cinéticos de la cementación de iones cobre (Cu++) con granallas de zinc 2020-04-09T13:49:45-05:00 José Luis Guerreros Lazo jguerrerosl@uncp.edu.pe <p>The residual aqueous solutions of the hydrometallurgical processes of oxidized copper ores, have considerable concentrations of copper ions (Cu ++) that affect the environment, which can be recovered to a large extent by the process of cementation with granules of zinc, so that the Copper ion concentration (Cu ++) in residual aqueous solutions is below the permissible limits. For this reason, the kinetic mechanisms of the cementation of copper ions (Cu ++) with zinc granules in the laboratories of the Yauris metallurgical plant of the UNCP were studied, with a sample prepared from copper sulphate pentahydrate with a concentration of 1 g / l of copper and a pH of 3.5; controlling the cementation times of 60, 120 and 180 minutes at room temperature, obtaining 47.3%, 77.8% and 87.8% of copper deposited respectively, these results demonstrate that it is possible to recover copper ions (Cu ++) from diluted solutions containing ions copper (Cu ++) by means of cementation with zinc blasting, with an optimal maximum recovery time of 166.6 minutes, given the limited diffusion of the cupric ion through the solid layer formed from the reaction zone to the interface.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/626 Un Design and construction of an auxiliary lighting system for a Pregio 2009 van 2020-03-06T15:56:25-05:00 Alex Chimbio alex.edu1997@gmail.com <p>The lighting system of a vehicle plays a very important role in driving, especially when this activity takes place in low light conditions, since the driver must have a wide field of vision. An ineffective lighting, you can be the cause of car accidents, for these reasons, this work focuses on the design and construction of an auxiliary lighting system, based on the 2019 Kia Pregio van. The objective of this system is to improve the angle of lighting, so as to increase the intensity of the lights, improving the driver's field of vision, or provide an emergency lighting source, in case a main halogen fails.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/625 Web Proxy Server Under Java Platform as Technological Support in Distance and Virtual Education 2020-03-12T14:12:57-05:00 José Augusto Cadena Moreano jose.cadena@utc.edu.ec Manuel Willam Villa Quishpe manuel.villa@utc.edu.ec <p>The research paper poses a new option to the configuration of a web proxy server under the Java platform using the http protocol in the direction of Distance Education and Virtual in the Technical University of Ambato (UTA), which allows them to perform their administration and configuration of a more friendly and easy to use. In the web proxy server using the http protocol, there was a testing scenario suggested, which helps you see the ease for the work done, which allowed for the analysis of data from users who surf on the internet at the address, for the transmission of information to be an efficient and rapid manner, through the network LAN and MAN. The web proxy server; were analyzed, configured to be able to check through their implementation which is the best option for navigation, the parameters that were analyzed are the following: browsing speed, downloading programs, videos, and access to different pages. It presents scenarios which will allow us to create tests with which will be established in peak times when surfing the web and after when there is less traffic on the network.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/623 Development of a solid formulation methodology for Beauveria bassiana with local inputs 2020-03-03T13:41:24-05:00 David Adrián Hidalgo daadhima@gmail.com <p>The commercial strain of <em>Beauveria bassiana</em> CCB-LE265 produced by SENASA was morphologically characterized and a susceptibility test was performed on <em>Galleria melonella</em> to know the initial conditions of the conidia. Starting from 20 formulas made with local inputs (Bentonite, kaolinite, diatom, Chinese talc, citric acid, egg albumin and cornstarch), nine were preselected by wetting test for 30 seconds, allowing pellet (water soluble granule) to melt and release the content in the field. The quality control of the pellets was performed (spore concentration, conidia forming units, germination percentage and bioassays) at the time of its preparation and 2 months later. For the experimental analysis a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement was used. The best formulation material was the industrial talc, followed by diatomea earth. The heartburn was not considered in this study, however it was notory the decrease in conidia survival by acidifying the medium.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/621 Third-party management in software development: proposal of a methodology 2020-04-01T08:41:27-05:00 Yeison Núñez-Sánchez ynunezs664@ulacit.ed.cr Antonio González-Torres agonzalez@ulacit.ac.cr <p>Outsourcing allows organizations to reduce costs, optimize the use of resources, provide added value in services and goods, and concentrate on achieving the strategic objectives of the business. However, many software projects have failed due to the lack of knowledge of the factors involved in its planning. Some of these elements are poor communication with the supplier, weak monitoring of the status of tasks, lack of active participation of users and stakeholders at all stages of the process, and software quality assurance. Consequently, this research aims to aid the management of the outsourcing process and proposes a methodology for its management during system development. The methodology comprises 7 phases, each one with its inputs, tasks, and outputs, which are used by the following stages. In summary, it synthesizes the best practices for the management of third parties.</p> 2020-04-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/620 Methodology of forensic analysis in the collection of digital evidences for informatic crimes. 2020-03-03T09:04:14-05:00 Mauricio Alexander Quimiz cvquimiz1989@gmail.com Jonathan Rodolfo Delgado Cedeño jrdelgado@utm.edu.ec Jose Manuel Moran Tubay jmoran@utm.edu.ec Alejandra Marielena Gorozabel Alcivar agorozabel@utm.edu.ec <p>At present, technological advances and the use of information technologies, as well as the accelerated use and growth of electronic equipment has allowed organizations to increase in aspects related to the economy, processes and services offered to the community. With this evolutionary change, security risks arise that affect information systems and organizations vulnerable to the materialization of computer crimes. All this entails a difficulty in the collection of digital evidence that identifies Who? When? and how was the attack perpetrated? This paper analyzes the subjects involved in the scenario of a computer crime and the methodologies that are applied for the collection and custody of digital evidence. In addition, it presents a literary review that offers the subjects that are present and knows the characteristics necessary to identify and relate suspicious activities with a computer crime. It also raises a technical and legal protocol that serves as a guide for the collection and custody of digital evidence.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/619 Calculation of Voltage Distribution along the Insulator Strings of a 500 kV Transmission Line Based on Finite Element Method 2020-03-16T12:39:13-05:00 JUAN DAVID RAMIREZ juan.ramirezd@epn.edu.ec Krissia Cabezas krissiadalina10@outlook.com Pedro Jiménez davidldu34@gmail.com Raúl Canelos raul.canelos@epn.edu.ec Bolívar Escobar bolivar.escobar@epn.edu.ec <p>This paper presents the voltage distributions along the insulator strings of a 500 kV overhead transmission line of Ecuador. The electrostatic problem related to the voltage distribution was solved using the Finite Element Method. A 1: 1 scale drawing is done on a CAD type drawing tool and then exported to the FEMM program that solves the problem and the results related to the voltages in the insulator string are obtained. The voltage differences in the different insulators that constitute a string are appreciated and the difference between the strings determined by the geometric location in the solution space is observed</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/618 Implementation of a protective layer based on carnauba wax for polyurethane paint applied to steel plates in different proportions 2020-03-05T15:52:44-05:00 Andy Joel Condo Camalle ajcondo@espe.edu.ec <p>At present, the aesthetics of the car is an important factor in the automotive field. For this reason the painting of a vehicle must be impeccable demonstrating good care. To keep the paint flawless, use different protection waxes. Being one of the most used in the automotive market that contains carnauba base. In this work, the behavior analysis of carnauba wax with different percentages in its composition was performed. Through its visual analysis, the effectiveness of the wax was determined with a 10% concentration of carnauba. The 10% carnauba wax solution will guarantee greater protection efficiency in a vehicle's paint. Extending in this way its effective protection against external agents.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/617 Effect of two nitrogen and potassium levels through fertirrigation in the initial growth phase of avocado var. Hass plants 2020-03-18T10:39:00-05:00 Juan Pablo Gaona juanpaiq@hotmail.com LAURA VIVIANA VÁSQUEZ lvvasquez@uce.edu.ec CARLOS EDUARDO MORALES cemorales@uce.edu.ec WILLIAM FERNANDO VIERA william.viera@iniap.gob.ec PABLO FRANCISCO VITERI pablo.viteri@iniap.gob.ec ANDREA VERÓNICA SOTOMAYOR andrea.sotomayor@iniap.gob.ec LORENA ANABEL MEDINA lorena.medina@iica.int PAUL RICARDO MEJIA paulmejbon@hotmail.com YAMIL EVERALDO CARTAGENA yamil.cartagena@iniap.gob.ec <p>Currently, the cultivation of avocado var. Hass is becoming important in Ecuador; however, there is little information regarding the nutritional management of this crop, resulting in crops with low productivity and poor fruit quality. Due to the high demand for nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) of this crop and the scarce information regarding nutritional and irrigation management, this research aimed to determine the effect of two doses of N and K in the initial growth phase. The trial was implemented using avocado plants var. Hass and treatments were applied using a fertigation system. The experiment was carried out in the Tumbaco Experimental Farm of INIAP, using a completely randomized design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement, having four treatments resulting from the interaction of two levels of nitrogen and potassium and four replications. The comparison of 5% DMS means was performed when there were significant differences. The variables analyzed were: plant height, stem diameter, greenery index, leaf area and foliar nutrient concentration. Based on the results obtained, significant differences were observed in the variables: greenery index and nutrient concentration.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/614 IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SILICON HOLLOW FIBER IN THE BACK SEAT OF A FAMILY SEDAN TO IMPROVE THE COMFORT OF ITS OCCUPANTS 2020-03-06T15:24:33-05:00 Esteban Josue Bonilla Borja estebanjosuebb@gmail.com <p>Today, the ergonomics of the driver and passengers is very relevant at the time of construction. This is the case of vehicle seats and their manufacturing materials. The aim is to replace the material that makes up the back of a car seat in order to improve ergonomics, allowing a new driving experience and comfort for its users. The present research considers the improvement of the back seat material, to determine the possible replacement of the common sponge by hollow siliconized fiber. This allows to extend the life of the seat, being a healthier product. The results obtained in the analysis of the two samples were favorable, visualizing that the hollow siliconized fiber is more effective for the absorption of energy, is more ergonomic and more hygienic, for the implementation in the back seat of the vehicle.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/613 F, GR Effect of two nitrogen and potassium levels in sweet granadilla (passiflora ligularis) varied Colombiana under fertigation at Tumbaco valley 2020-03-18T10:37:59-05:00 Juan Pablo Gaona juanpaiq@hotmail.com LAURA VIVIANA VÁSQUEZ lvvasquez@uce.edu.ec SANDRA PATRICIA AGUAYO spaguayo@uce.edu.ec WILLIAM FERNANDO VIERA william.viera@iniap.gob.ec PABLO FRANCISCO VITERI pablo.viteri@iniap.gob.ec ANDREA VERÓNICA SOTOMAYOR andrea.sotomayor@iniap.gob.ec LORENA ANABEL MEDINA lorena.medina@iica.int PAUL RICARDO MEJIA paulmejbon@hotmail.com YAMIL EVERALDO CARTAGENA yamil.cartagena@iniap.gob.ec <p>The cultivation of sweet passion fruit is currently becoming important in the northern part of Ecuador, however there is little information on the nutritional management of this fruit, which leads to problems of low yield and poor fruit quality. Due to the high demand for nitrogen and potassium from the crop, this research aimed to study two levels of these nutrients in the growth phase. Plants of variety Colombian will be used and the treatments will be applied through a fertiirrigation system. The experiment was carried out in the Tumbaco Experimental Farm of INIAP, using a completely random design (DCA) in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement, having four treatments resulting from the interaction of the levels of nitrogen and potassium with four replications. Results detected that high doses of nitrogen and potassium (200 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and their interaction had the highest values ​​in the analyzed variables: plant height (1.74 m), stem diameter (10.46 mm), index of greenery (59.07 SPAD), leaf area (151.03 cm2) and foliar concentration of nutrients (4.13% N and 4.10% K).</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/611 Environmental impact of a heavy machinery workshop 2020-03-12T15:20:03-05:00 Cristhan Andres Sornoza Solorzano csornoza7883@outlook.com <p>The maintenance and repair of heavy machinery are ways to prevent negative impacts on the environment, since they ensure the reliability of the machines during their operation. This can result in a reduction in shutdowns due to the occurrence of different types of failures such as: fuel and lubricant spills due to pipe breakage, joint fractures, hydrocarbon outflows due to looseness or improper adjustment of joints, gas emissions harmful to the atmosphere caused by the malfunction of the power system, accidents at work, etc. In some of the centers, environmental management standards are not considered, since generally the volumes of activities are carried out on few machinery. One of the most common environmental difficulties associated with maintenance processes is related to the dumping of waste classified as dangerous. The research aims to determine the extent to which workers in a heavy machinery maintenance workshop know the environmental regulations established under the provisions of ISO 14001/2015 and the consequences that result from their non-observance.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/610 Implementation of an alert system against engine overheating in vehicles multipoint injection 2020-03-06T15:46:35-05:00 Pablo Felipe Guayllas Guamán pab800@live.com <p>Temperature in a vehicle is a fundamental factor for its proper operation. When a fault is generated on the original temperature sensor may cause engine damage due to overheating. By implementing a system that compares the data provided by an LM35 temperature sensor and a Hall effect sensor to count rpm in real time. An Arduino processes the data and constantly informs the driver by means of an LCD. When exceeding a critical temperature, a hearing alarm will be issued and a vehicle injector will be disabled. The system is effective in its purpose of alerting the driver. And it is suitable for deployment in vehicles with multipoint injection due to its low cost.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/605 Analysis and evaluation of conservation techniques to IV range vegetables 2020-03-16T20:13:03-05:00 Christian Franco-Crespo franco.crespo.ec@gmail.com Maryuri Analuisa maryurianaluisa20@gmail.com <p>Actually, the trend for the consumption of minimally processed foods such as vegetables and fruits of the IV range grows as changes in consumption habits and accelerated rhythms of life. Conservation methods support the safety and quality of food, as well as the preservation of its nutritional and sensory properties. In this sense, the evaluation of combined conservation methods is proposed to observe its effect on three vegetables of the IV range: lettuce, cherry tomato and carrot. The combined ones correspond to the type of cut of the vegetables, variation of the conservation of ascorbic acid between 150 and 500 ppm and application of vacuum packaging up to 0.5 atm. As a result, in samples maintained at 4 ° C, an increase in the shelf life of 11 days for lettuce, 19 for cherry tomato 18 for carrot was achieved, so that an increase between 19% was obtained and 70% the useful life of the analyzed samples, in comparison with data reached by other authors. In conclusion it is mentioned that the use of combined techniques is an alternative to improve the conservation of vegetables.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/609 Modeling of the variation of the electrical conductivity of the leachate of cocoa with different fermentation index 2020-03-16T19:57:41-05:00 Jorge Luis Miguel Loo Miranda jloomiranda@gmail.com Gabriela Cristina Chire Fajardo gchire@lamolina.edu.pe Milber Oswaldo Ureña Peralta moup@lamolina.edu.pe <p>This study linked the fermentation index of two varieties of cocoa beans: CCN 51 and ICS 6 with electrical conductivity (EC) of the water where they were immersed using a laboratory conductimeter. Mixtures of 11 fermented cocoa beans and unfermented were performed in order to obtain fermentation index from 0% (unfermented beans) to that reached by the fermented cocoa beans. Immersion times tested for determination of the electrical conductivity were 90 and 180 minutes. The results of electrical conductivity for CCN 51 and ICS 6 were 56.1 ± 12.0 to 1375.0 ± 28.0 mS/cm and 150.0 ± 19.9 to 1199.3 ± 44.5 mS/cm, respectively. Subsequent conductivity values ​​did not represent significant increases over time. The relationship between the fermentation index and electrical conductivity for CCN 51 showed positive trend, achieving a R<sup>2 </sup>= 63.1%. The following function by regression: EC (<sub>CCN-51</sub>) = 1196 + 10.83 * (FI) – 0.06 *(FI)<sup>2</sup> got a model with significant adjustment to be used to determine its fermentation index.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/608 Evaluation of the population of Shark Sphyrna zygaena in Ecuadorian waters for 2008-2012 2020-04-09T13:30:40-05:00 carmen cabanilla carpio lilcabanilla1@gmail.com <p>Globally, the role of sharks within the ecosystem is recognized, however, fishing activity has affected in recent years their populations; associated with a slow growth rate, long-livedness, late sexual maturity and low reproduction rate. In view of this CITES* I determine as a priority to know the condition of the different stocks of <em>Sphyrna zygaena </em>around the world, this study describes its spatial distribution in Ecuadorian waters, based on data from the commercial fleet (2008-2012), two time scales were selected for analysis, the first on a monthly basis , the second considered spatial distribution. The estimate of the number of cohorts was supported in a maximum function of plausibility based on a multinomial distribution, total length frequencies (LT) revealed that the number of cohorts changes dynamically over time. <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/the">The</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/average">average</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/size">size</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/values">values</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/estimated">estimated</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/by">by</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/the">the</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/cohort">cohort</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/analysis">analysis</a>, <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/i">I</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/determine">determine</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/that">that</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/for">for</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/the">the</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/year">year</a> 2013,<a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/the">the</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/minimum">minimum</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/size">size</a> captured <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/was">was</a> 129.16 <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/cm">cm</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/corresponding">corresponding</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/to">to</a> females captured <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/in">in</a> 2012. While the captured males corresponded to 199 cm (LT), although in general terms, organisms are captured above 200 cm of (LT).</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/607 UDP protocol implementation for communication and control of the water level in storage tanks 2020-02-21T14:47:17-05:00 Carlos David Velasco cvelascog@est.ups.edu.ec <p>The objective of this paper was to implement and industrial network of real-time the UDP protocols found in the transport layer, and the analysis of each layer of the project’s OSI model, remotely activating different actuators to control the water level in different tanks, a wired connection between the computer and PLC devices and a wireless network as a medium. The advantages of being able to automate the actuators, is in the simplicity of this type of protocol since it is simple to apply and improve control times, simplifies the response by being concentrated in key points, additionally described as traffic Data form our network behaves.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/606 análisis Data traffic analysis using UDP communication for an automated industrial network with Wireshark 2020-02-21T14:40:35-05:00 david javier serrano dserranop@est.ups.edu.ec <p>This document deals with the use of the Wireshark tool to capture the flow of data transferred between an industrial automation process connected to a PLC in combination with a hosted AD-HOC network which is configured on a laptop as a server for three laptops more than they form the industrial process, making use of the Sockets library which helps us to exchange any data flow in a reliable and orderly way. Berkeley Socket API (The application programming interface, also known by the acronym API, application programming interface, is a set of subroutines, functions and procedures offered by a certain library to be used by other software as an abstraction layer). In this capture a filter is used based on a port number agreed by all processes, the interface that serves as a means of connection and the UDP protocol. The packets captured by the tool are displayed by layers and each layer with their respective data fields.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/604 Datta Traffic Control Trough Wireless Networks 2020-02-20T16:42:01-05:00 Steven Fitzgerald Rios Medina nevetsrm@hotmail.com Juan Esteban Guacollantes jguacollantesa@est.ups.edu.ec Jessica Paola Ramirez jessica_ramirezg@ieee.org <p>El siguiente documento tiene el propósito de mostrar un<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1"> </a>ejemplo de la optimización de datos que se puede lograr mediante el proceso del control del tráfico de los mismos, para lo cual se propone la opción de crear por medio de las comunicaciones inalámbricas, en este caso se eligió el protocolo UDP (User Datagram Protocol, y haciendo uso del programa wireshark, el cual permitirá visualizar los datos en modo real, mientras se realizan los procesos de funcionamiento del sistema, simulados con PLCS y Computadores</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1"></a>&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/603 Energía Solar para cocción: Caso de estudio de un Horno Solar con Seguidor económico y eficiente 2020-02-03T10:28:07-05:00 Dorian Oswaldo Mora Sánchez dorian.mora@gmail.com Agustín Rubén Amagua Puga aamagua@ute.edu.ec Diana Carolina Zúñiga Cabrera zcdc48777@ute.edu.ec <p>Solar energy can be taken in advantage in many ways, and one of them is through solar ovens. These devices offer an option for the replacement of fossil fuels during cooking of food through solar energy. The present article tries to show if it is possible to design an economical and efficient solar oven with tracker, and therefore it is presented the results of the first step of a project for the development of an economical and efficient solar oven for small applications due to its small size, weight and cost. The methodology used was based on the development of a prototype using previously programmed photocells sensors, which capture the sun's rays and move looking for sunlight. Through the implementation of sensors and the Arduino free software microcontroller, it was possible to obtain data on the internal and external temperature of the oven to estimate the effectiveness of the oven in terms of the time it takes to heat food. Finally, positive results were obtained with the solar oven, recording different temperature data according to the meteorological factors present in the city of Quito (Ecuador) where the tests were carried out.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/602 Assessment of postharvest microbiological quality of peruvian cocoa bean (Theobroma cacao L.) 2020-03-16T19:42:01-05:00 Gabriela Cristina Chire-Fajardo gchire@lamolina.edu.pe <p>Cocoa is used in the manufacture of different products. In processing, fermenting microorganisms such as yeast and bacteria use the high nutrient content of cocoa. This research evaluated the microbiological quality of cocoa seeds under two treatments: A (fermentation and drying) and B (sun drying).&nbsp; Total aerobic mesophilic (TAM), molds and yeasts count, and Salmonella were quantified in fresh cocoa seeds and two treatments. The results were: TAM showed counts of 5.61 ± 2.04; 3.79 ± 0.17; and 2.49 ± 0.21 log CFU/g, respectively (p &gt; 0.05); molds showed counts of 2.83 ± 2.59; 1.23 ± 0.32; and 1.35 ± 0.49 log CFU/g respectively (p &gt; 0.05) and for yeast counts were of 4.20 ± 0.23; 1.81 ± 2.42 and 2.39 ± 0.55 log CFU/g, respectively (p &gt; 0.05). To confirm microbiological values, each treatment was performed by the farmer and yeast contamination was found in treatments A and B (2.59 ± 2.26 log CFU/g and 2.86 ± 1.16 log CFU/g) (p &gt; 0.05). However, Salmonella was not detected in any of the processes. These findings indicate that there must be strict microbiological monitoring of the products, otherwise they would not be within the limits allowed for the consumer health.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/601 CFD Analysis of a solar flat plate collector with different cross sections 2020-04-01T08:42:17-05:00 Anthony Xavier Andrade Cando aandradec1@est.ups.edu.ec William Quitiaquez Sarzosa wquitiaquez@ups.edu.ec Luis Fernando Toapanta ltoapanta@ups.edu.ec <p>Low and medium solar heating systems used for domestic and industrial applications, such as water and space heating, usually utilize solar flat plate collectors in order to absorb solar thermal energy converting it into heat and then transferring the heat to a fluid (usually water or air) that flows through it. The aim of this study is to evaluate the solar flat plate collector’s efficiency and the fluid behavior inside the pipeline with three different cross sections, whose hydraulic diameters are 10, 5.12 and 6.16 mm, by using ANSYS Fluent. The results obtained from the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool showed that the collector with the Type I cross section reached temperatures up to 330 K at the pipe outlet obtaining an efficiency of 68&nbsp;%, higher than those of Types II and III, whose efficiencies were 51&nbsp;% and 60&nbsp;%, respectively. Type I cross section also presented the lowest values in both speed and pressure drop, these being 0.266 m/s and 108.3 Pa, respectively.</p> 2020-04-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/600 Experimental designs applied in vegetables extracts: a review 2020-03-16T19:13:20-05:00 Ronald Bravo ronaldbra95@gmail.com <p>The use of experimental designs is one of the main tools of the researchers, given that it is a set of statistical techniques that generate data from which they can answer the questions raised by the experimenter accepting or rejecting a hypothesis or idea. The purpose of this review is to present the different experimental designs used in the area of plant extracts, because this is a topic of great interest in several areas of knowledge especially in the agro-industrial area.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/599 ENRUTAMIENTO OPTIMO DE INFORMACIÓN DE PMU’S AL PRESENTA UNA CONTINGENCIA EN UNA LÍNEA CON TECNOLOGÍA WAM. 2020-01-23T07:42:43-05:00 Nicolas Maximiliano Mendez max_138_2@hotmail.com <p>En la presente investigación se buscó un algoritmo que nos permite enviar la información de las PMU’s en el caso de que el línea se vea comprometida evitando la perdida de información y maximizando al confiabilidad del sistema eléctrico de potencia. El enrutamiento de la información en el caso de presentarse una contingencia se basa en el mismo algoritmo para pérdidas de líneas por corto circuito, la tecnología que se está usando es el sistema WAM debido a la capacidad y la velocidad de procesamiento de información en la red.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/598 Localización de fallas en líneas de transmisión utilizando el método de dos extremos sincronizados 2020-01-23T07:36:04-05:00 dario alvaro alvaro dalvarot@gmail.com <p>En el siguiente artículo se detallara sobre la localización de fallas en sistemas de transmisión usando el método de dos extremos sincronizados, la investigación se ha desarrollado enfatizando el campo de la localización de fallas como parte fundamental, cada fallas producida en una línea de transmisión forma parte de &nbsp;una de las principales causas por lo cual el sistema de potencia podría presentar falencias y tendría que salir fuera de servicio, por lo cual es necesario desarrollar algún mecanismos que este en capacidades de &nbsp;localizar el punto de falla exacto en líneas de transmisión dando lugar al punto de origen de la falla, un PMU está considerado como una de las tecnologías emergentes de suma importancia en cuanto a la recepción de fasores como voltaje y corriente en los sistemas de energía de los últimos tiempos, con el método expuesto se podrá localizar la falla de manera oportuna y maximizar la observabilidad del sistema eléctrico. Este método estará probado en el sistema de 9 barras de la IEEE, simulando una línea con problemas y la distancia a la que se estima ocurre la falla.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/597 Transient Analysis in Power Electrical Systems Considering Dynamic Interconnections with HVDC Systems in Wind Generators 2020-03-04T11:49:03-05:00 Orlando Alexander Alvarez Lastra www.alvarez_orlando_b1@hotmail.com <p>This article takes the main characteristics of high voltage in direct current, its components, how it works and its applications, for this we remember that electric power systems have more and more unconventional renewable energies as sources of generation, the majority being solar energy and relevant photovoltaic, in this sense the implementation in large quantities of these types of generation in the system can affect the stability of the frequency. The SEP is present in conditions of response to a fault or disturbance, the inertia of the machines is one of them, this acts as the first response, so it is a fundamental part of the recovery of the frequency, therefore, Study of the stability of the system is essential in wind and photovoltaic generation sources that do not have inertia. Therefore, this article focuses on developing a frequency stability simulation model in HVDC systems using Matlab and Power Factory software, resulting in frequency behavior in the event of a system failure, so that the simulation is Carry out the models proposed by IEEE by varying the electrical control characteristics of each type of wind generator.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/596 Efecto de la componente DC en cortocircuitos aplicados a protecciones de distancias 2020-01-23T07:38:21-05:00 johan sebastian vásconez sefas2011@gmail.com <p>This article analyzes the effect of the DC component in short circuits associated with distance protections and their relationship. In other words, it allows us to ask ourselves the question of the impact that failures or short circuits cause in distance protection. This study of the behavior of the CC component in the face of a short circuit takes into account the variations that can be obtained at different angles at the exact moment of the failure and see its effects on the system.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/594 Estimation of the cost of energy Estimación del costo de la energía en micro redes mediante programación líneal 2020-01-23T07:39:37-05:00 Galo Alexander Larco x.ander15@hotmail.com <p>El aumento de la población y el desarrollo industrial, han obligado a que exista una mayor demanda energética, esto obliga a las empresas generadoras a aumentar su infraestructura de producción de energía, lo cual es muy costoso, por esta razón se busca implementar políticas de respuesta a la demanda (RD), incluyendo generación distribuida (GD), así se logrará un consumo energético más eficiente, ya que se podrán trasladar cargas no representativas de horarios pico de consumo, a otros periodos de tiempo. Además, se puede implementar sistemas de gestión energética (GE), es decir, adoptar políticas en donde se haga una planificación de consumo óptimo y esta sea aplicada a la industria o al sistema eléctrico en general, esta política ayudaría a la empresa a que mejore su competitividad, ya que los gastos por consumo energético se reducirían, al tener equipos más eficientes.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/593 Optimal Location of Transformers in Electrical Distribution Networks Using Geographic Information Systems 2020-02-28T15:43:52-05:00 Stanislao Pinzón spinzon@est.ups.edu.ec Stéfany Yánez syanezr@est.ups.edu.ec Milton Ruiz mruizm@ups.edu.ec <p>This research shows a heuristic model for the design of scalable and reliable electrical distribution networks. The algorithms presented allow to optimize the location of transformation centers using on their database geographic information systems from which it is possible to define user locations, candidate sites, possible routes for the deployment of the electricity grid and, in general, data for the reconstruction of the scenario. The model employs clustering and triangulation methods, as well as algorithms for creating a minimally expanding tree and the consequent site assignment for transformer placement. After setting the optimal locations for the transformer site, the algorithms compute voltage drops in secondary circuits, required transformation capability, execution times, and coverage achieved. The results obtained are adjusted to the requirements of an actual distribution power grid and show a good performance on the proposed scenario.</p> 2020-01-31T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/592 SURFACE TEMPERATURE AND STATES OF THE VEGETATION OF THE FOREST OF Polylepis spp, DISTRICT OF SAN MARCOS DE ROCCHAC, HUANCAVELICA – PERU 2020-04-09T13:02:27-05:00 Bimael Justo Quispe bjqrforesamb@gmail.com <p>The effect of surface temperature on the state of vegetation and relate it is the goal of research in forest <em>Polylepis spp</em>. Methodology: 9 satellite images of the Sensor Landsat 8 OLI/TIRs, assessed by remote sensing, using Pearson correlation r, t student and statistical assumptions used. Result: the relations during the 9 months of the year 2018 - 2019 between LST - NDVI r=0.11, t=0.29; LST - NDWI r=-0.43, t=1.27; LST - SAVI r=0.13, t=0.34 and LST - MSI r=0.56, t=1.77 and the average ratio of the 9 images classified in Jenks Natural Breaks values between LST - NDVI r=0.99, t=47.12; LST - NDWI r=-0.98, t=28.93; LST - SAVI r=-0.99, t=65.39 and LST - MSI r=0.99, t=30.39; and the effect of “TVX” for NDVI(East:-0.0778/0.0549; West:0.6434/-0.0120), NDWI(West:-0.6128/-0.0463; East:0.3057/0.0474), SAVI(West:0.4089/0.0232; East:-0.0073/-0.0011) and MSI(East:0.5565/0.1856; West:1.3993/0.0362). Conclusion: during the 9 months there is no statistical correlation and average 9 images classified in Jenks Natural Breaks if there is a correlation; TVX confirm the influence of temperature on the surface state of vegetation within the forest through time.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/590 Optimization of nano-composites by Genetic Algorithm to achieve maximum strength 2020-02-21T15:16:20-05:00 Saeid seydi esfahlan seydi.saeed415@gmail.com <p>The purpose of the present study was to investigate the optimization of Nano composite by genetic algorithm to achieve the highest strength. Nanocomposite-reinforced polymeric nanocomposites, due to their unique mechanical / thermal properties, are widely used in various industries such as automotive, aerospace, packaging, sports, plastic, electrical and so on. Predicting the mechanical properties, these materials are experimentally and theoretically performed. In this research, the genetic optimization algorithm is use to select the most optimal one among the numerous modes of nanocomposites. The objective function, the optimal state selection, has constructed using numerical equations solved and proven in valid scientific papers. The ultimate goal of this method is to select the best state of the nanocomposite compositions without any real tests and without the time and cost. Instead of repeated and costly experiments, networking &nbsp;as well as optimization of nanocomposite compounds were used, according to the study. The results of reaserch showed that increasing the mass percentage of nanocomposite elasticity models leads to better yield. Also, by increasing the length-to-diameter ratio, the tensile strength of the nanocomposite can be increased. The use of high density polyethylene material also has a significant impact on the improvement of elasticity models. By examining the three optimal values ​​obtained, for polyethylenes with different elasticity models, was found that the mass percentage was almost constant. Given this, it can be said that whatever the ratio of length to diameter is high, Better elasticity models will be achieved.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/589 Optimal Location of Transformers in Electrical Distribution Networks Using Geographic Information Systems 2020-01-16T09:44:27-05:00 Stanislao Pinzón spinzon@est.ups.edu.ec Stéfany Yánez syanezr@est.ups.edu.ec Milton Ruiz mruizm@ups.edu.ec <p>This research shows a heuristic model for the design of scalable and reliable electrical distribution networks. The algorithms presented allow to optimize the location of transformation centers using on their database geographic information systems from which it is possible to define user locations, candidate sites, possible routes for the deployment of the electricity grid and, in general, data for the reconstruction of the scenario. The model employs clustering and triangulation methods, as well as algorithms for creating a minimally expanding tree and the consequent site assignment for transformer placement. After setting the optimal locations for the transformer site, the algorithms compute voltage drops in secondary circuits, required transformation capability, execution times, and coverage achieved. The results obtained are adjusted to the requirements of an actual distribution power grid and show a good performance on the proposed scenario.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/587 Alternative Under Frecuency Load Disconection Methodology Based on Semi-Adaptative Model 2020-02-28T15:44:16-05:00 Diego Carrión dcarrion@ups.edu.ec Alex Ayo aayo@est.ups.edu.ec Jorge Wilson González jorgew.gonzalez@upb.edu.co <p>Stability analysis in electrical power systems is based on the study in dynamic state of the voltage and frequency, since at the moment that there is some contingency it fluctuates drastically due to the primary and secondary controls of the voltage and frequency to the power systems that act on the generators. In order to solve the possible stability problems that may arise in power systems, various techniques have been developed that act on the generating machines for their protection as well as on the loads for the power cut. The present investigation proposes an alternative methodology for load disconnection by low frequency as an option to save the power system from a possible blackout due to instability due to a fall in the frequency, managing to improve the results affected by other improved techniques, the frequency change range, frequency deviation and the effects of demand disconnection. The proposed methodology was tested in the IEEE 14 bus system.</p> 2020-01-31T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/586 Contextaware Mobile apps Challenges in context-aware mobile applications building tools 2020-02-03T10:27:14-05:00 Estevan Ricardo Gomez estevan.gomez@ute.edu.ec CECILIA CHALLIOL ceciliac@lifia.info.unlp.edu.ar Silvia Gordillo gordillo@lifia.info.unlp.edu.ar Oswaldo Vicente Moscoso omoscoso@ute.edu.ec <p>In recent years, technological growth has been exponential in relation to mobile devices (such as embedded sensors as GPS or accelerometer) that has allowed developing context-aware mobile applications for the market. This growth generates a new challenge about how to support the creation of this kind of application in order to adapt them to the user’s current demand. There are at present several approaches that could be used to create context-aware mobile applications, but these approaches are not designed to support variability in the kind of generated applications. The aim of this paper is to propose a building tool that allows generating a wide variety of applications. Our tool has been designed from scratch considering a taxonomy of variability concepts (relevance, combination, precision and accuracy’s margins, configuration type, and execution type) which help to identify the potential variability points to obtain more flexible building approaches. Finally, an analysis and discussion in relation to this topic will be presented.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/584 Outlier detection with data mining techniques and statistical methods 2020-02-28T15:44:40-05:00 Marcos Patricio Orellana Cordero marore@uazuay.edu.ec Priscila Cedillo priscila.cedillo@ucuenca.edu.ec <p>The detection of outliers in the field of data mining (DM) and the process of knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) is of great interest in areas that require support systems for decision making. A straightforward application can be found in the financial area, where DM can potentially detect financial fraud or find errors produced by the users. Thus, it is essential to evaluate the veracity of the information, through the use of methods for the detection of unusual behaviors in the data. This paper proposes a method to detect values ​​that are considered outliers in a database of nominal type data. The method implements a global algorithm of "k" closest neighbors, a clustering algorithm called k-means and a statistical method called chi-square. These techniques have been implemented on a database of clients who have requested a financial credit. The experiment was performed on a data set with 1180 tuples, where, outliers were deliberately introduced. The results showed that the proposed method is able to detect all the outliers entered.</p> 2020-01-31T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/583 Optimal Design of Electrical Distribution Networks Based on Real Data 2020-01-16T09:43:28-05:00 Milton Gonzalo Ruiz Maldonado mruizm@ups.edu.ec <p>This research shows a heuristic model for the design of scalable and reliable distribution networks using real data. The database uses a geographic information system, which contains the coordinates of households, buildings, etc. optimizing the location of transformation centers and their sizing considering georeferenced areas from which user and candidate sites locations, possible routes of the electric network.&nbsp; The algorithm determines the optimal path for the primary network of medium and low voltage, location of transformers and inspection wells. The conductors must be deployed along the streets. This algorithm computes the voltage drop in each branch, the capacity that each transformer needs and the computing time.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/579 Estimated cost of electricity with time horizon for micro grids based on the policy response of demand for real price of energy 2020-02-28T15:45:04-05:00 EDWIN MARCELO GARCIA TORRES egarcia@ups.edu.ec <p>The intelligent microgrids are an efficient alternative, which allows to supply the demand decreasing the losses of the electrical system and at the same time; the environment and the consumers are the main beneficiaries. This article develops a heuristic based on an energy management model based on the real price of electricity, which will allow end users to encourage the implementation of a policy of response to demand, in order to optimize their consumption, for which a micro smart grid is analyzed, with conventional and non-conventional renewable generation, In addition, a mechanism of "real energy price" will be implemented as a policy of response to demand, with the aim of optimizing the costs of energy that will be transferred to users depending on the stratum to which it belongs, these costs will have a short-term horizon with hourly intervals, achieving a reduction in the purchase of energy from the system</p> 2020-01-31T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/578 DETECTION OF MALICIOUS PRIMARY USER EMULATION ON MOBILE COGNITIVE RADIO NETWORKS 2020-01-14T09:58:26-05:00 ERNESTO CADENA MUÑOZ ecadenam@unal.edu.co HERMES JAVIER ESLAVA BLANCO hjeslavab@udistrital.edu.co INGRID PATRICIA PÁEZ PARRA ippaezp@unal.edu.co <p>One of the attacks that has high impact on the mobile cognitive radio network is the primary user emulation that can disable the entire system for the transmission or reception of information. It is divided in malicious and selfish attack according to the attack main objective. Energy detection is a fast mechanism for primary user detection or primary user emulation attack on mobile cognitive radio network. This work focuses on the detection of energy for the malicious primary user emulation attack. The test environment is developed over software-defined radio in NI-USRP 2922 devices. We estimate the probabilities of detection and false alarm of an attacker and they are compared with theoretical models and experiments in the test bed, showing its operation and functionality over detection of this specific attack. Results show a probability of detection of about 90% with fixed and dynamic location attacker.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/577 Novel Approach for Teaching English Language using Emerging Information and Communication Technologies for Visual Impairment Students 2020-02-28T15:45:28-05:00 Jorge Cardenas jcardenasc@ups.edu.ec Esteban Inga einga@ups.edu.ec <p>Nowadays, Higher Education Institutions (HEI) need to be more inclusive from the methodological vision appropriate used in the classroom. Visual impairment students (VIS) become a challenge for teachers who look for incorporating different learning environments. This challenge increases when teaching and learning process to VIS is related to the English language; due to the absence of educational didactic resources available at the school and the lack of knowledge of appropriate teaching methodologies and strategies to develop the different language skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing that go with the educational process in the acquisition of the English language. In accordance with this problem, this research proposes a novel methodological strategy, based on the usage of meaningful learning with emerging technologies as a main guide for students with visual impairment. Thus, the road map of good practices in the use of this methodology will allow establishing a clear process to achieve students’ active, meaningful and autonomous participation, using the least time in the teaching-learning process of the English language.</p> 2020-01-31T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/574 In-situ co-design of Mobile Games using Design Thinking’s resources approach 2020-02-28T15:46:17-05:00 Cecilia Challiol ceciliac@lifia.info.unlp.edu.ar Franco Martín Borrelli fborrelli@lifia.info.unlp.edu.ar Francisco Goin Plexevi fgoin@lifia.info.unlp.edu.ar Candela Mariel Rouaux Servat crouaux@lifia.info.unlp.edu.ar Facundo Ivan Mendiburu fmendiburu@lifia.info.unlp.edu.ar Estevan Gomez-Torres estevan.gomezt@info.unlp.edu.ar Silvia Ethel Gordillo gordillo@lifia.info.unlp.edu.ar <p>The contribution of this paper is to explore how in-situ co-design of indoor spaces (e.g. building) of Location-based Mobile Games could be handle, by describing the learned lessons on this topic. This paper presents a conceptual framework for in-situ co-design of indoor spaces on Location-based Mobile Games to assist to carry out this kind of experience using useful resources (as Design Thinking's resources). An experience of in-situ co-design for an indoor space on a Location-based Mobile Game is presented using this framework; for some phases an authoring tool was used which allows in-situ co-design of relevant locations for an application. Based on this experience, the authoring tool was extended to create a specific kind of Location-based Mobile Game. This paper presents this extension along with a proof of concept that shows how an in-situ co-designed game created by this extension was used by end-users.</p> 2020-01-31T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/576 Evaluation of video traffic behavior metrics in an experimental multicast network 2020-02-28T15:45:52-05:00 Higinio Alberto Facchini higiniofac@frm.utn.edu.ar Santiago Cristobal Pérez santiagocp@frm.utn.edu.ar Alejandro Dantiacq alejandrod@frm.utn.edu.ar Fabian Hidalgo fabianhdlg@gmail.com <p>Currently, there is a significant change in data traffic on networks, both local and Internet, across the spectrum of possible customers, whether fixed or mobile. The consumption of video traffic increases day by day in all its formats. Service providers are required more bandwidth, quality and performance, for all products, but mainly those based on video. This article presents an improved version of our laboratory tests for generic networks with four sub-scenarios, which allow injecting multicast video traffic, represented in different codecs. The topology of network used includes a streaming server and up to 20 desktop computers as clients. The most important metrics to be analyzed have been defined, based on performance and quality of service (QoS) measurements under limited bandwidth conditions. Experimental numerical results can be useful for administrators, simulation analysts, designers, and data network planners. But, also, this document aims to serve as a guide for the management of similar networks and the efficiently use available resources, without compromising performance and QoS.</p> 2020-01-31T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/575 Determination of gold in geological, mine and metallurgical samples by fire assay and its application for mine control in Ecuador 2020-01-10T13:48:02-05:00 Diana Estefania Buitrón Ortega diana.buitron@geoenergia.gob.ec <p>The present investigation describes the process of validation of the method for the determination of gold by fire test in sediments, rocks, concentrates, and tailings by atomic absorption, with the objective of providing reliable results to mining control agencies in Ecuador and other interested parties. In the study, the validation parameters were established, which are the limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), working interval, linearity, selectivity and specificity, repeatability and intermediate precision, veracity and uncertainty, and their criteria of compliance. Utilizing statistical analysis of the experimental results and together with the acceptance and rejection criteria, the validation parameters were evaluated.</p> <p>Finally, the method implemented by the IIGE chemical laboratory for the determination of gold is declared validated in sediment, rock, concentrate and tailings samples</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Gold; fire assay; validation; mine control; atomic absorption.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/573 Lineamientos para la conservación de la formación vegetal herbazal húmedo subnival del páramo, “Rio Blanco” en la Reserva de Producción de Fauna Chimborazo 2019-12-16T13:12:20-05:00 Guicela Margoth Ati gise_em@hotmail.com <p>The Chimborazo Wildlife Production Reserve is one of the most important protected areas in Ecuador, located in the provinces of Chimborazo, Tungurahua, Bolívar in the Andes, has an area of ​​52683 ha, consisting of eight plant formations, 41 indigenous communities that inhabit in this conservation site. Rio Blanco, is a representative community of the subnival wet grassland ecosystem of the moorland where the research was carried out, in which the floristic composition, the threats were analyzed, from which the guidelines for its conservation were formulated. The Gloria methodology was applied to determine coverage and biodiversity indices. 10 families and 23 genera were found, the most abundant are asteraceae and geraniaceae. The site reports a medium to high diversity. The identified ecosystem services are supply, regulation and cultural. From the analysis of contribution and irreversibility; of severity and scope, the formation presents an average of (2.05) and (2.8) respectively, it means that the pressure is wide-ranging, with these elements in a participatory way the guidelines were defined to avoid the deterioration of the ecosystem to Through four programs</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/572 Experimental study on the low power CO2 laser cutting of natural fibers reinforced plastic composite 2020-04-03T12:11:59-05:00 Cristian Fabian Pérez cf.perez@uta.edu.ec Carlos Tonato carlos94tonato@gmail.com Marilyn Riera marilynriera@gmail.com <p>The application of plastics reinforced with natural fibers in the industry can be increased using faster and more flexible technologies, such as laser cutting. The anisotropic nature and the degree of combustion of natural fibers in these types of compounds make laser processing very challenging. This study deals with the cutting performance of a low power CO2 laser to cut polymer composite plates (matrix of polyester and epoxy resin) reinforced with natural fibers (Abaca and rice husk) with an average thickness of 3 mm. An experimental DOE design and an ANOVA analysis of variance were used to determine the significant and influential parameters in the quality of cut and the thermal effect on the material. The processing parameters were the cutting power, cutting speed and type of thermoset matrix. The cuts with a minimum zone affected by heat, of approximately 600 mm and a minimum Ra of 3.18 μm, were achieved by working with 76 W and 14 mm/s of power and cutting speed respectively in the composite material of reinforced polyester matrix with rice fiber.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/571 Survey of migration of aluminium from pots to oat beverage 2020-03-22T13:41:28-05:00 Tamara Fukalova Fukalova tfukalova@uce.edu.ec Iván Tapia Calvopiña iltapia@uce.edu.ec Eva Quishpe evaquishpe@uce.edu.ec Maria Lorena Goetschel loregoe@gmail.com Wilson Parra wparra@uce.edu.ec Vanessa Mena vmmena@uce.edu.ec <p>The migration of metals from utensils to food during cooking is an issue of food safety. Dietary intake is the main source of non-occupational exposure to aluminum. This research allowed to know the amount of aluminum that is transferred when is preparing an oatmeal beverage with <em>naranjilla (Solanum quitoense)</em>, an acidic pH drink, widely consumed in Ecuador. The beverage was prepared in aluminum pots of the five most commercialized brands in Quito and it was done in seven cooking cycles. The quantification of the concentration of transferred aluminum in the one hundred and forty oatmeal beverage was performed by atomic absorption Spectroscopy with nitrous oxide-acetylene flame. The concentrations of aluminum transferred to the food during the seven treatments exceed the allowable limit of 1 mg Al /kg established by the European Union (European Regulation EU 1416: 2016), except for the IV brand pot, which presents 0,76±0,04 Al/kg in the seventh treatment. The two-factor ANOVA analysis of variance indicates that the brand of the pots and the number of treatments applied does affect aluminum migration. </p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/570 Uso del quitosano obtenido de exoesqueletos de camarón en el tratamiento de aguas residuales industriales cosméticas 2020-02-20T16:22:57-05:00 Andrea Viviana Yate andrea.yate@unad.edu.co <p>Wastewater from cosmetic industries has variable characteristics that require the use of flexible decontaminating processes such as coagulation-flocculation. Although conventional processes have been effective, risks to public health and environmental pollution from the use of persistent coagulation materials, make necessary to find natural coagulants that replace conventional coagulants. This research aimed to evaluate the efficiency of chitosan obtained from shrimp exoskeletons, as an alternative coagulant in the treatment of wastewater in the cosmetic industry. The extraction of chistosan from the shrimp exoskeleton reached a yield of 56% with a deacetylation percentage of 81%. The analyzed water sample had an initial turbidity of 1884 NTU. This water shedding treated with 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% (w / v) chitosan in acetic acid, with doses of 1ml / l and 2ml / l. The results indicate that chitosan is an alternative as a coagulant in the treatment of cosmetic industrial wastewater</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/569 Topological energy analysis using the finite element method of the chassis of a competition motorcycle, minimizing fuel consumption and polluting gas emissions 2019-12-09T13:19:52-05:00 MONICA SUSANA DELGADO monica.delgado@uisek.edu.ec <p>This paper presents the implementation of a topological optimization technique, applied through the study of the frame behavior of a Honda CRF 230 brand and model competition motorcycle, with the aim of reducing the weight of the original component, without altering its mechanical properties, after obtaining the result of this analysis, a high percentage of engine performance, reduction of fuel consumption and therefore reduction of polluting gases, better handling, greater maneuverability for the pilot and reduction of manufacturing costs will be achieved . To carry out this study, the chassis characterization was carried out through a chemical analysis of materials called Spark Spectrometry, from which the percentages of the chemical elements that make up this element were obtained to subsequently acquire the mechanical properties of the material. By means of the sample of the results realized through a static study found in different points of concentration of efforts of the frame, the boundary conditions were established to establish the simulation to the CAD model, and the application of the optimization of the structure using a criterion of distribution of efforts, through the use of the finite element method. Finally, the application of the OT allowed a 67.6% reduction in weight, maintaining a comparable safety factor. The reduction of weight in mechanical structures is important because of its impact on energy saving, by reducing the inertia in machines and vehicles, also of the possible reduction of manufacturing costs.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/568 Study for the Increase of the Recovery Factor in Cores of the “T” and “U” Sandstones of the Shushufindi Field with the Enhanced Oil Recovery Application by Injection of Nanofluids. 2020-02-20T16:19:39-05:00 Edgar Bladimir Aimara Ninacuri edgar.aimara@epn.edu.ec <p>Los campos maduros en el Oriente Ecuatoriano están llegando a la depletación en la producción de hidrocarburos después de haber producido durante varias décadas, esto debido a la reducción de presión en el yacimiento. Para aumentar la rentabilidad de estos campos y recuperar una mayor cantidad de petróleo es imprescindible incrementar el factor de recobro. Uno de los avances innovadores y atractivos es el uso de nanopartículas para ser inyectadas en el reservorio como método de recuperación mejorada para incrementar la recuperación de petróleo. Dentro de esta investigación se determinó que el campo Shushufindi es el candidato idóneo para la utilización de nanofluidos por ser un colosal campo maduro. Este proyecto consistió en la inyección de nanopartículas formuladas en la Escuela Politécnica Nacional con la ayuda del Simulador de Daños a la Formación (FDS) en plugs de las areniscas “U” y “T” extraídas del núcleo de corona de los pozos Shushufindi 74 y 79. Se evaluó la variación del factor de recobro y se comprobó un incremento en la recuperación de crudo de 18.44% y 20.96% para el pozo Shushufindi 74 y 79 respectivamente. Por esta razón la aplicación de nanopartículas se proyecta al futuro como una tecnología innovadora.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/567 Calculation of efforts and anchoring lines for aquaculture cages in Ecuador: island Jambelí - Province of the Oro 2020-02-21T15:06:24-05:00 ULISES TIBERIO AVENDAÑO VILLAMAR ulisesave03@yahoo.com <p>The development presented in the field of marine aquaculture (mariculture) worldwide has been marked by a trend of the installation of open sea areas so that this activity does not cause conflict with other activities that take place at sea, such as artisanal and industrial fishing, tourism, among others, however oceanographic and climatic conditions these areas are the main causes involved in causing structural damage to cultivation and anchoring systems, these impacts result in economic losses resulting from the escape or anchoring of species cultivated under this production system. In Ecuador, interest in developing this activity has been limited by a number of circumstances among which is the limited number of professionals in our country with the expertise in this subject, the present work aims to be a source of information in this field through the identification of the main forces involved in this type of crop system and then perform the respective mathematical calculations that will provide guidance to the reader on the basic sizing of a anchoring system for mariculture activities.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/566 Mathematical model and data correction technique for a hierarchy analysis method 2020-02-04T10:30:15-05:00 Fausto Freire ffreire@ute.edu.ec <p>En el trabajo se considera un método de análisis jerárquico como instrumento matemático para el análisis sistémico y toma de decisiones en condiciones de incertidumbre de datos y múltiples criterios de solución.</p> <p>Este método permite realizar investigaciones de objetos complejos a través de la descomposición y análisis de sus componentes (recursos, criterios de valoración u objetivos). Sin embargo el método de análisis jerárquico tiene desventajas relacionadas con la dependencia de las soluciones al rol y estimación del experto.</p> <p>El experto por cuestiones subjetivas puede dar una valoración incoherente. Para disminuir su impacto fue desarrollado un mecanismo de corrección de los datos. El mecanismo permite realizar cálculos correctivos y formular una matriz de comparaciones binarias de alternativas verificada.</p> <p>La esencia del mecanismo consiste en corregir los pesos de los indicadores generales mediante los pesos de los indicadores individuales. Para lo cual se utiliza un modelo de estimulación general de corrección. A partir de esto se calcula el vector de pesos verificados de los indicadores generales y construye la matriz de coeficientes corregidos para las alternativas comparadas. Este mecanismo permite clasificar objetos y seleccionar cuando existen conglomerados de indicadores parcialmente consientes.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/565 Review of the state of art of DX-SAHP systems to obtain domestic hot water 2020-04-01T08:40:02-05:00 William Quitiaquez wquitiaquez@ups.edu.ec Isaac Simbaña asimbana@ups.edu.ec César A. Isaza-Roldán cesar.isaza@upb.edu.co Patricio Quitiaquez rquitiaquez@ups.edu.ec César Nieto-Londoño cesar.nieto@upb.edu.co Fernando Toapanta-Ramos ltoapanta@ups.edu.ec <p>The investigation purpose is to elaborate a detailed review about previous published investigations with direct-expansion solar-assisted heat pumps (DX-SAHP) used for water heating, in the last years. The growing energy consumption, the using of refrigerants that weaken the ozone layer, the greenhouse gases emission to the atmosphere and the global warming effect are the main problems that the conventional water heating systems present. Using hydrocarbons as refrigerants represents a pollution reduction and it is also the best option to replace hydrochlorofluorocarbons and chlorofluorocarbons, due to their low values of global warming potential and ozone depletion potential, close to 0. A DX-SAHP system takes advantage of the thermal solar energy directly by using a bare flat-plate solar collector. These systems provide domestic hot water over 50&nbsp;°C and heating water volumes until 200 liters reaching COP values higher than 4. Solar energy and the using of alternative refrigerants with a low environmental impact are proposed to reach this purpose.</p> 2020-04-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/560 CARACTERIZACIÓN FÍSICO QUÍMICA Y MICROBIOLÓGICA DE UNA BEBIDA FERMENTADA DE ANONA (Annona cherimolia) EN EL CANTON PASTAZA, ECUADOR. 2020-01-08T08:04:06-05:00 MIGUEL ANGEL ENRIQUEZ menriquez@uea.edu.ec <p>The research defines the physical chemical, organoleptic and microbiological characteristics of a fermented beverage (sweet and dry) generated from the custard apple, an exotic fruit from the Amazon region of Ecuador. In the preparation of this fermented beverage, the sugars present in the must are degraded with the yeasts, these microorganisms are found in the pulp after the previous fermentation processes. The type and quantity of yeasts that would participate in the fermentation will be an important factor for obtaining a quality drink, so it is important to be able to control them. The preparation of the fermented beverage involved 3 stages pre fermentative, fermentative and post fermentative. Once the fermentation was stopped, the must underwent a clarification and filtration process to obtain a beverage with an alcoholimetric graduation of 12.5 for the sweet and 12 for the dry, which is framed in the parameters established in the NTE INEN 0372 of beverages alcoholic Subsequently, the statistical analysis of the data obtained generates significant differences between sweet and dry drinks. It is concluded that, with the application of the fermentation stages, the degradation of sugars that are a source of carbon and energy for yeasts in the end gives the drink its own characteristic.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/564 TIC´S THE MODEL OF ADOPTION OF THE INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TEACHING PROCESS - LEARNING: CASE UNIVERSIDAD TÉCNICA DE COTOPAXI 2019-11-27T07:52:27-05:00 Juan Carlos Chancusig Chisag juan.chancusig@utc.edu.ec <p>The present investigation framed in the development of an adoption Model&nbsp; of the TIC for the learning&nbsp; process education&nbsp; in the Technical University of Cotopaxi, specially to improve the university education, this owes for the constant advances in digital knowledge&nbsp; field&nbsp; and the educational technology, therefore the institutions must improve its academic organization and&nbsp; process them educational. In the last years the use of TIC has developed in the different education levels and specially in the universities that nowadays count with new technological resources much advanced in the particular case of the university in which the investigation is developing the study is, to improve the Educational&nbsp;Learning process implementing a new adoption model &nbsp; of TIC, with which it is possible to give solution to the educational process. There is realized a methodology of study based on the systematical Review of the literature of the models of the TIC citing as an example the first model that there appeared the Model TAM who was developed by Davis, 1986 and of the Web 2 and Web 3 and of the TIC in the Universities of the world.</p> <p>The investigation threw the results expected with the creation of the new model of adoption of TIC, with the use of collaborative hardware in a Learning environment (CLE) for making the constructs, alpha of cronbach, variance and interrelations and the use of statistical software as the minitab validated the raised hypotheses.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/562 Shrimp culture test (Litopenaeus vannamei) in estuarine zone using a floating cage system: First experiences of marine cultures in Ecuador. 2020-04-09T12:56:19-05:00 ULISES TIBERIO AVENDAÑO VILLAMAR ulisesave03@yahoo.com <p>This research sought to obtain the first technical references of shrimp farming <em>Litopenaeus vannamei</em>, species of high commercial importance in our country, under this growing system, for this purpose, a research platform was installed (April 2015) under the mode "One point", where three production cages were placed on a pilot scale, Cojimíes Estuary off Jupiter Island, Emeraldas Province, previously, chemical water parameters were monitored; Biological (phyto - zooplankton) to establish the environmental baseline, in addition, measurements of sea currents, winds and force were made of waves, to perform the calculation of efforts and anchoring line that underpinned this system, , and then start the growing cycle with juveniles of 3.0 gr until harvest, the cages were sown at densities of 400, 107 and 160 organisms/m3; weekly sampling was carried out during this stage weekly sampling was performed to determine its weight gain and the population was fed daily at 10% biomass, a test was carried out under the PCR technique PBM-06W, with the Real IQ reference method, in order to detect diseases associated with this crop.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/561 English 2020-03-23T16:15:08-05:00 Alvaro Hernán Cortés Duque ahcortesd@misena.edu.co <p>The department of Caldas is the fifth coffee producer in Colombia; however, gulupa (<em>Passiflora edulis Sims</em>) has emerged in the last five years. The incorporation of technologies such as automation, greenhouses, planting distances and fertigation has put a production potential of 33ton/ha. The objective of this work is to evaluate the response of the gulupa farming, to the application of fertilizers, through a fertigation system; For this, the following treatments were established: fertigation, fertilizers in solid form with irrigation and application of fertilizers in solid form without irrigation. With the information collected from production to date (kg/ha), an analysis of variance was applied for a randomized block arrangement with three repetitions. The analysis allows inferring, that there is variability with 95% reliability, in addition the 5% LMS test was applied to compare the treatments. In addition, it allows establishing that fertigation compared to traditional fertilization treatments, establish significant differences. The results indicate that fertigation is a high efficiency technology, compared to the traditional practice of solid fertilizer applications to the soil.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/559 Study of the initial stage of growth (ontogenesis) of basil seeds (Ocimum basilicum) by acoustic vibrations 2020-03-23T16:12:55-05:00 Tamara Elizabeth Leon Oviedo tamara.leon.oviedo@gmail.com <p>Currently, many researchers have developed several physical and physicochemical methods, which investigate the process of seed transition, from a latent state to an intense vital activity. The current paper, proposes a physical method, which studies the phenomenon of acoustic emissions generated by the capillary movement of a fluid, for the analysis of the growth process of plants in their early stages (ontogenesis). For this purpose, we carried out experiments on the germination of basil seeds in a hydroponic system, at different temperatures. Seed activity was recorded by using piezoelectric sensors, which respond to a certain level of acoustic pressure. The results obtained, allowed us to predict the ideal conditions for the growth of the seeds, based on the fluctuations of the recorded acoustic emissions.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/558 Incorporating amaranth flour to obtain low-fat meat snacks 2020-01-08T08:02:43-05:00 Melisa Gladys Britez melisabritez@uncaus.edu.ar Fabiana A. Rolhaiser fabianarolhaiser@uncaus.edu.ar Ana María Romero amr@uncaus.edu.ar Mara Cristina Romero mara@uncaus.edu.ar <p>The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of incorporation of amaranth flour into meat snacks with low fat content by sensory analysis and nutritional value. For this, a control and three formulations were developed, varying the way in which the amaranth flour was incorporated. Samples units were molded into 50 ± 0.50 g snacks and cooked in an electric oven until reaching an internal temperature of 72 ºC in the thermal center of samples to guarantee microbiological quality. Sensory evaluation of the samples was carried out immediately after cooking process, using a 5-point hedonic scale. The attributes evaluated were odor, color, flavor, tenderness, juiciness, general acceptance and purchase intention. In addition, cooking yield and proximal composition of the elaborated products were analysed being the nutritional information compared with the obtained from a commercial product. The different formulations developed were well accepted by the evaluators, who also stated the purchase intention, which results from the general appreciation of each sample. The method in which ingredients were incorporated affected cooking yield and proximal composition of formulations, which can be attributed to a greater or lesser retention of fluids during cooking, in consequence cooking yield should be increased. The snacks produced also had lower fat and sodium content compared to a commercial sample, which makes them healthier.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/557 Obtaining 3D models of cultural-urban heritage structures with the use of laser scanner technology and GIS, as instruments for local development 2019-11-12T10:50:08-05:00 JULIA VELASTEGUI julia.velastegui@espoch.edu.ec <p>The present project offers the use of laser technology to obtain three-dimensional models, with high precision in a short period of time. In Ecuador there are few projects where this technology is used to obtain geospatial data. This project shows the utility of the laser scanner system using the Faro Scanner Focus3D 130 for the registration of Cultural Heritage monuments. The advantages of using laser scanner technology is the feasibility for taking geospatial data with a high level of detail where the error range is 2mm. This allowed the development of virtual environments of the facade of "La Casona San Juanista" and the facade of the "La Compañía de Jesús" Church. These Cultural Heritage monuments were selected because of the complexity of their structure, their details and their significance of heritage importance for Ecuador. With the obtaining of the 3D models of these patrimonial monuments demonstrated that with this type of technology it is possible to generate three-dimensional models in the Cultural Heritage area in a short time and at the same time with a high level of detail and precision.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/550 Mathematical models and data correction technique for a hierarchy analysis method 2019-11-08T10:12:08-05:00 Fausto Freire ffreire@ute.edu.ec <p>The paper considers a hierarchy analysis method. It is a mathematical tool for system analysis and decision-making under the conditions of data veracity and multi-criteria decision. This method allows one to study complex objects through their decomposition and analysis of components (resources, assessment criteria or goals). However, the hierarchy analysis method has a disadvantage related to the dependence of a decision on the role and expert’s assessments. Due to subjectivity, an expert can give inconsistent estimates. The technique of data correction has been developed to reduce their impact. The technique allows us to make corrective calculations and form a refined matrix of paired comparisons of alternatives. The essence of the technique is to correct the values of overall indicators using the values of individual indicators. A global stimulating correction model was used to fulfill this. The refined vector of overall indicators’ values is calculated upon its basis, and the correcting matrix for the compared alternatives is made. This technique allows us to rank objects and make a choice in the presence of a set of partially consistent indicators.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/556 Effects of ultrasound and vacuum on the quality to drying of Aguaymanto Physalis peruviana 2020-01-08T08:01:50-05:00 ITALO WILE ALEJOS PATIÑO italo20alejos@gmail.com ROGER ESTACIO LAGUNA rogerestaciolaguna@gmail.com GREGORIO CISNEROS SANTOS gmcisantos.54@gmail.com RUBEN MAX ROJAS PORTAL benrumax1302@gmail.com BELISARIO ESTACIO LAGUNA belisario.e.l2019@gmail.com <p>The aguaymanto, is a very appreciated fruit in Peru, nevertheless during the process of osmodeshidratación for its drying this diminishes the availability of nutrients like the ascorbic acid and β-caroteno necessary in the nourishing diet., reason why this investigation was made in the laboratory of unitary operations of the professional career of Agroindustrial Engineering of Agroindustrial Engineering of the National University Hermilio Valdizan, with the purpose of evaluating the different applications of ultrasound and its effects in vacuum drying to obtain raisin-type aguaymanto, in the case of ultrasound applications, a complete randomised design (DCA) was used, with 3x3 factorial arrangement, applying response surface (RSM) of a total of 120 treatments, of which the optimized treatment stood out with a power of 1050w, temperature of 50 ° C and a time of 20 minutes, not finding significant differences of the 3 zones (Chinchao, Molinos and Yarumayo) of study, on the other the best results of vitamin C were at vacuum conditions of 15 kPa compared with the Tukey test. The results show that the greater the application of potency and the greater the vacuum, the better the vitamin C can be conserved.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/554 Spanish 2020-01-08T08:01:08-05:00 LAURA PATRICIA BERMEO ESCOBAR lpbermeo4@misena.edu.co <p>Gulupa (<em>Passiflora edulis Sims</em>) is an exotic fruit, with a sweet and slightly acidic taste, pleasant aroma and great acceptance, mainly in European markets. In Colombia, a part of the crops produced are made up of fruits that do not meet the quality standards for export and remain for national consumption, at very low prices. Therefore, it is necessary to propose alternatives for its use and potential market. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the influence of the degree of maturity of gulupa, on sensory acceptance in food products. Sweetened yogurt and cereal bars were made, with gulupa sauce, at different stages of maturity (T1: 30%; T2: 50%; T3: 70% and T4: 100%). These products were sensory evaluated by a panel of 101 untrained judges, using the 5-point facial hedonic scale. The results obtained showed that 56.44% of the judges mentioned that they loved the T4 treatment (yogurt) and 51.66% of the judges liked the T3 treatment (cereal bars). This allowed us to conclude that, for yogurt, it is best to sweeten with ripe fruit or even overripe, while for cereal bars, the ideal is to use gulupa with less ripeness grade (70%).</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/553 Implementation of a Wireless Sensor Network for Electric Light Bulb Management Using IPv6 2020-02-28T15:48:19-05:00 Carlos Roberto Egas carlos.egas@epn.edu.ec Darío Viracocha dario.viracocha@epn.edu.ec Juan Rivera jcrivera@ute.edu.ec <p>In this study the results of the implementation of the wireless sensor network prototype, to manage the luminaires in homes are presented, using Iris sensors nodes, designed to work with battery for long periods of time and with limited processing capabilities. The nodes use 6LoWPAN addresses. The address conversion to IPv6 is done by a gateway. The luminaires are managed using devices connected to IPv6 network, with Android operating system. The correct functioning of the prototype is demonstrated by validating the functionalities of the management system implemented.</p> 2019-12-02T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/549 Development of an algorithm for the detection of acceleration, deceleration, cruising and idling events in driving cycles based on pid's signals obtained through OBD-II 2020-03-06T15:37:25-05:00 Oswaldo Fernando Neira Alvarado nandoyopo@gmail.com <p>The following article describes the development of an algorithm to detect four representative events: acceleration, deceleration, cruising, and idling; within cycles of driving vehicles in the urban area of the city of Cuenca in real traffic circumstances. To obtain data from the actual driving operation the Freematics One+ device is used, then the freematics are analyzed and studied based on what was called actual motion microcycles. With the development of the algorithm, idealized microcycles are obtained from the actual microcycles. According to their morphology they are classified based on typologies representative of each of the idealized microcycles. After obtaining idealized microcycles, dependent variables are determined from the independent variables characteristic of each typology. The benefit of this project will be a critical part for further work to reduce emissions from exhaust gases and fuel consumption.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/548 Remediation of Diesel contaminated sand treated with orange peel extract (Citrus sienensis) and pine oil 2020-01-20T11:07:32-05:00 Tomás Darío Marín Velásquez tmarin@innovascientific.com Israel Barrutia Israelbarrutia@yahoo.com.mx Dany Day Josefina Arriojas Tocuyo darriojas@innovascientific.com <p>The extract of orange peels (<em>Citrus sinensis</em>) and pine oil were evaluated to remedy a sand contaminated with diesel fuel. The contamination of the soil with hydrocarbons derived from petroleum is a problem that affects many producing and consuming countries. The most used technique for the recovery of soils contaminated with hydrocarbons is bioremediation, which is based on using microorganisms that degrade them. A sand was contaminated with diesel fuel in the proportion of 100 ml per kilogram and treated with the products in doses of 50 and 100 ml/kg of contaminated sand, and then monitored the amount of hexane extractables (HEM) every 15 days up to a total of 60 days. The design was factorial of random blocks, with one sample, one response variable (HEM), three factors (remedy, dose and time) and three replicates per block. ANAVA and Tukey test were used to establish the influence of experimental factors on the response variable. It was obtained that the natural products decrease the time of remediation, achieving greater efficiencies in comparison with the natural attenuation, the efficiency was statistically similar for both remediaries with α = 0.05, which means a confidence level of 95%.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/547 Prospecting pest insects in fruit crops in the northern Sierra of Ecuador. 2020-03-23T16:19:20-05:00 Laura Viviana Vasquez Rojas laura.vasquez1@upr.edu <p>Ecuador has a geographical location with adequate climatic conditions for the development of various crops, evidence that due to phytosanitary problems associated with pests, losses of over 40% of production can be achieved. Between May and July 2019, the exploration of pest and beneficial entomological agents for fruit trees such as custard apple (<em>Annona cherimola</em>), avocado (<em>Persea americana</em>) and uvilla (<em>Physalis peruviana</em>) was carried out in two locations in the northern sierra: Pimampiro and Atahualpa. Direct collections are organized on the plants in a way of sweeping, agitation of branches and aspiration in the different organs of the trees. In the same way, color traps with yellow and blue colors will be used to attract insects. In the case of fruit flies, McPhail type artisanal traps with molasses-based homemade attractants will be used. Insects belonging to the orders Himenoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera and Coleóptera were collected. Highlighting the identification of <em>Anatrepha fraterculus, Ceratitis capitata, Bactericera cockerelli, Exitianus exitiosus, Drosophila melanogaster and Carpophilus dimidiatus.</em></p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/546 Toxicity of acaricides for the management of hyaline mite (Oligonychus perseae) in avocado under controlled conditions 2019-11-22T08:14:06-05:00 Laura Viviana Vasquez Rojas laura.vasquez1@upr.edu <p>The mites experienced an important group of plague in the agricultural sector in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions, because it is felt in low relative humidity and high temperatures. The objective of the investigation was to evaluate the efficiency of different acaricides and the control time on the pest. The study was carried out in the entomology laboratory of the Experimental Teaching Academic Field ‘La Tola'-CADET under a completely randomized design (DCA) with four repetitions. There were six treatments: t1) abamectin, t2) Bacillus thuringiensis, t3) water, t4) fig extract (Ricinus comunis), t5) dimethoate, t6) spinosad. The monitoring will be followed every 24 hours for ten day period. When differences are detected, the comparison of Duncan means at 5% is experienced. The variables evaluated were affected by the treatment and the percentage of mortality. The treatments that had the highest percentage of mite mortality between 24-48 hours were abamectin, Bacillus thuringuiensis and spinosad followed by the extract of fig seeds at 72 hours. The knowledge of the efficiency of different insecticides may have a low resistance generation.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/545 Fruit Quality and Post-Harvest Losses of Organic Bananas (Musa acuminata) in Ecuador 2020-02-28T15:48:44-05:00 Wilson Vásquez-Castillo wilson.vasquez@udla.edu.ec Mauricio Racines-Oliva mauricio.racines@udla.edu.ec Pablo Moncayo pablo.moncayo@udla.edu.ec William Viera william.viera@iniap.gob.ec María Seraquive maria.seraquive@udla.edu.ec <p>Ecuador is the world's first banana exporter with more than 317 million boxes per year, and contributes 26&nbsp;% of agricultural GDP, generating around 2.5 million direct and indirect jobs. Ecuador produces 19&nbsp;000&nbsp;ha and exports 36&nbsp;000&nbsp;t organic bananas. Postharvest losses fluctuate between 10 and 80&nbsp;%, caused by inadequate postharvest and crop management. The present study aims to determine the physical and chemical quality of organic fruit and quantify post-harvest losses. The research was carried out in the organic banana plantation located in the province of Los Ríos (Ecuador). A completely randomized block design (DBCA) was used in a 7&nbsp;x&nbsp;2 factorial arrangement. The factors were: 1) harvest time (February-August), and 2) quality of export fruit (1<sup>st</sup> and 2<sup>nd</sup>) with 3 repetitions. The variables studied were based on 20 clusters. From the results obtained, it follows that the physical and chemical quality of the fruit is influenced by the harvest season, since they grew and developed in different environmental conditions. In general, 82&nbsp;% of the production is destined for export, since it meets the quality standards.</p> 2019-12-02T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/544 Identification of the causative agent of rotting yellow pitahaya foot (Hylocereus Megalanthus) In the Palora city 2019-10-24T16:59:10-05:00 Christopher Wilson Suárez Palacios chriss01@hotmail.es Jimmy Trinidad Pico Rosado jimy.pico@iniap.gob.ec Alex Gabriel Delgado Parraga alex.delgado7521@yahoo.com Carlos Estuardo Caicedo Vargas carlos.caicedo@iniap.gob.ec <p>A sampling was carried out in 22 pitahaya-producing farms, from which roots were extracted at a depth of 15 cm and these were washed with running water and subsequently placed in the fragments in Petri dishes with Bacto agar and incubated at room temperature (25 - 27 ° C). At 48 hours the mycelial growth was transferred by means of the tip technique of hypha to the medium (PDA + PCNB) was incubated for 10 days. On this medium it was identified based on reproductive morphology, for which the keys of Nelson et al. (1983); Barnett and Hunter (1998). As a result, the presence of 22 examples of Fusarium spp. In this work, the pathogenic fungi found closely related to the damage to pitahaya roots in the Palora area were identified. It is considered to deepen in studies of molecular characterization of these pathogen to be able to carry out a good phytosanitary control</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/543 The Variation study of variables used in the calculation of gas transport systems 2019-10-24T17:00:55-05:00 JORGE MIREZ TARRILLO jmirez@uni.edu.pe <p>This article has carried out a mathematical modeling of the parameters: erosional velocity, critical velocity and specific gravity; in a gas pipeline transport system, which have been written in Matlab / Simulink codes and the results of simulations of the influence of variations according to their independent variables are shown. This has been done because equations are reported in the literature without the component of visualizing the graph over a wide range of domain values. Therefore, it is presented as a result the 2D and 3D graphs that show the behavior of the variables, likewise in some cases, a calculation of the speed of variation will be made. Actual parameters have been considered taking as a case study the Camisea Project in Peru</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/527 Development of a pelletizing methodology for Beauveria bassiana with Peruvian inputs 2020-04-09T12:01:59-05:00 David Adrián Hidalgo daadhima@gmail.com Braulio José Lahuathe Mendoza lahuathe.braulio@iniap.gob.ec Alexander Regulo Rodriguez Berrio arodriber@lamolina.edu.pe Javier Alberto Vasquez Castro jaque@lamolina.edu.pe Guillermo Antonio Sanchez Velazques guilleSanchezv@lamolina.edu.pe <p>The commercial strain of <em>Beauveria bassiana</em> CCB-LE265 produced by SENASA was morphologically characterized and a susceptibility test was performed on <em>Galleria melonella</em> to know the initial conditions of the conidia prior formulation.</p> <p>Starting from 20 formulas made with local inputs (Bentonite, kaolinite, diatom, Chinese talc, citric acid, egg albumin and cornstarch), nine were preselected by wetting test for 30 seconds, allowing pellet (water soluble granule) to melt and release the content in the field. The quality control of the pellets was performed (spore concentration, conidia forming units, germination percentage and bioassays) at the time of its preparation and 2 months later. For the experimental analysis a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement was used. The best formulation material was the industrial talc, followed by diatomea earth. The acidity was not considering in this study, however was notory the decrease in conidia survival by acidifying the medium.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/541 Evaluation of the efficiency of three oil extraction equipments with different oil palm genotypes (Elaeis sp.) 2020-04-01T08:39:34-05:00 Mercedes Elizabeth Navarrete Párraga mercedes.navarrete@iniap.gob.ec Silvia Madeleim Zambrano Marcillo silvia.zambrano@iniap.gob.ec Walter Ramón Zambrano Sabando walter.zambrano@iniap.gob.ec Martha Alicia Romero Pizarro martha.romero@iniap.gob.ec Marcelo Rafael Racines Jaramillo marcelo.racines@iniap.gob.ec Ernesto Ricardo Paredes Puga paredespuga12@gmail.com Leonardo Andres Quintero Roman l.quintero.roman@gmail.com Digner Santiago Ortega Cedillo digner.ortega@iniap.gob.ec <p>This work was performed in the oil extraction laboratory of the African Palm Program, of the Experimental Station “Santo Domingo” of the INIAP. The main objective was to determine the efficiency of three oil extraction equipments, in three oil palm genotypes. The equipments used were Velp solvent extractor, Soxhlet extractor and a 1500 psi hydraulic press. The genotypes evaluated are part of the germplasm bank of the Palm Program at INIAP: <em>Elaeis guineensis</em> (african palm), <em>Elaeis oleifera</em> (american palm) and <em>E. oleifera</em> x <em>E. guineensis</em> (interspecific hybrid). The experimental design was a complete random design (DCA), with 20 observations, followed by student’s test and Tukey test at a 5&nbsp; significance, to determine differences between treatment means. The results showed highly significant differences between the different factors evaluated. The higher percentage of oil per bunch was obtained with the genotype <em>E. guineensis</em> in the Soxhlet extractor (18.43&nbsp;%) and the lowest percentage for <em>E. oleifera</em> with the hydraulic press (0.34&nbsp;%). The analysis of costs determined that the lowest cost was obtained with the hydraulic press with USD 8,20 per sample.</p> 2020-04-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/542 Design, evaluation and validation of an effluent treatment system for the leather tanning process: case Pieles del Sur E.I.R.L. 2020-04-01T08:41:50-05:00 Víctor Muñoz Paz victor.munoz@ucsp.edu.pe Víctor Longa Cuayla vjlonga@ucsp.edu.pe Alejandra Carreño Arispe alejandra.carreno@ucsp.edu.pe José Aguilar Franco jaaguilar@ucsp.edu.pe <p>In this project a treatment system for the effluents of a leather tanning process was designed. This system was evaluated based on laboratory tests to ensure its viability, and the treatment was validated by analyzing effluents from the plant already installed. The system has three units: the first one is a Pretreatment that allows the oxidation of sulphides for the liming and draught baths, as well as the precipitation of chromium for the leather tanning baths; the second one is a Physical-Chemical Treatment for the general effluents of the process that allows to obtain treated effluents and decanted solids; the third is a sludge treatment that allows to obtain conditioned and low volume sludge to be collected for final disposal. The analysis of treated effluents showed a considerable reduction in the concentration of polluting chemicals that allows reusing the water and brings the company closer to compliance with the maximum levels allowed.</p> 2020-04-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE