Enfoque UTE https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista <p>Enfoque UTE is a scientific journal that publishes research papers in engineering and related areas. The journal is aimed at the international community of researchers, scientists, practitioners and engineers in general, and receives papers written in English or Spanish.</p> <p>Enfoque UTE is a Diamond Open Access journal that firmly believes in the free dissemination of scientific knowledge, which is why it guarantees that its content and its services in general will be totally free for readers (no suscription fees), authors (no APC) and the general public.</p> <p>In its 12 years of life, the magazine has published more than 300 engineering research papers, serving more than 800 authors. All this has been achieved thanks to the selfless participation of its team of editors, reviewers and contributors, as well as the permanent support of the Universidad UTE, which funds the activities of the journal.</p> Universidad UTE en-US Enfoque UTE 1390-9363 <p>This work is licensed under a <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/" rel="license">Creative Commons 3.0 BY EC License</a>.</p> Robust tracking of the water level in a coupled-tank system employing Linear Matrix Inequalities https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/874 <p>Most of the methods employed in the industrial process control are based on the linearization of the mathematical model equations around an operating point. This leads to neglect some dynamics of the process and the loss of robustness of the controller. Liquid level control is a fundamental problem in the process industry. In this work, the nonlinear model of a coupled-tank system is described exactly by a linear parameter varying system (LPV). The parameter vector is defined as a function of the level of the tanks, which are supposed to be uncertain but changing between the technological operation limits of the tanks. This allows to describe the LPV system by a polytope inside the operating range of the tanks and in this way, using linear matrix inequalities (LMI), design a robust controller that assures the tracking of input references used frequently in practice with zero-state error and some desired specifications in the closed-loop transient response</p> Pedro TEPPA-GARRAN Miguel FAGGIONI Copyright (c) 13 3 Climatic Variability in the hydrographic basin of the Chalpi Grande river in Napo-Ecuador https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/872 <p>The watershed basin of the Chalpi Grande River is located in the Ecuadorian Amazon. This basin, being above 3200 m a.s.l. It has characteristics of Andean and Amazonian ecosystems. The conservation of this basin is extremely important because the supply of 2.2 m3/s for the Metropolitan District of Quito depends on this river. The objective of this research is the characterization of the additional climate of 31 years (1985 - 2015) of records of temperature, precipitation and flow of the Chalpi Grande River based on the historical records of INAMHI, EPMAPS and FONAG. These were systematized records filled in based on statistical methods and remote sensors for data validation. The climatic temperature shows increases both in the behaviors and in the trends of the winter and summer seasons; as well as in the trends of climatic parameters that can be the effect of atmospheric phenomena, such as the latent problem of climate change.</p> Christian Andrés García Rengifo Sixto Durán-Ballén Ochoa Copyright (c) 13 3 La Simulación de procesos y su importancia en el diseño, evaluación y mejoras de sistemas de endulzamiento del gas natural: Una revisión https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/871 <p>CO<sub>2</sub> and/or H<sub>2</sub>S removal during gas processing is focused on preventing undesirable effects, such as natural gas decrease in the heat capacity, corrosion problems, environmental pollution, among others; and generally the natural gas treatment units are simulated, using different computational techniques that allow the process engineer to have better system visualization. For this reason, in this article the importance and transcendence of the different investigations were investigated, regarding the modeling, evaluation and improvements of natural gas sweetening systems. As conclusive aspects, it was found that simulation represents an important tool in process engineering because it allows expanding the experimental results, providing significant predictions about the treatment plants performance, in addition, in the case of the sweetening units, these are designed considering the impurities present in the feed fluid and their permissible limits in the gas for sale; finally, process simulators also provide other theoretical tools to evaluate and improve a sweetening unit based on variations in operational conditions and future compositional changes experienced by the fluid to be processed.</p> Luis Antonio Castillo Copyright (c) 13 3 Standing frame device to cerebral palsy infants https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/869 <p>A low-cost, passive-supine model of a standing frame for patients with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy is presented. The modeling of the constituent elements was developed based on the anthropometric measurements of children from 1 to 4 years of age. Likewise, the head, trunk, pelvis, knees, and foot support elements were developed in order to achieve adaptation to the particular size of the user. In addition, elements that allow the knee abduction movement were considered. From the functional point of view, the device starts from an initial position in the supine position and with gradual movement can adopt the biped position, until the patient is positioned, in the frontal plane, at 10° with respect to the vertical plane. On the other hand, the placement of an adaptable table, the trunk level, was considered for the realization of activities during the therapy period. A numerical analysis of the structure was carried out, assigning materials available in the country, considering the two extreme positions that the device can adopt and the loads generated in both configurations. For all the conditions imposed, satisfactory results were obtained for stresses, displacements, and safety factor.</p> Brizeida Gámez David Ojeda Copyright (c) 13 3 Circular antenna array with a transmission line to form a Yagui-Uda WiFi antena https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/868 <pre>The present paper describes the design of a Yagi-Uda stacked antenna array for 2.4 GHz applications. Its structure comprises 4 layers, the first layer contains the active element, the reflector, and the feed transmission line. Layers two, three and four have circular patches that work as directors. The implementation of a "D" shaped patch is incorporated in the active element, in which simulation results show that the proposed antenna can achieve significantly wider bandwidth than the traditional circular patch antenna. The dimensions of the circular patch directors and their distances were also modified in order to have the highest directivity. The antenna simulation is performed in Ansoft Designer and Ansys HFSS 15.0 software.</pre> Dorian Caiza Copyright (c) 13 3 Susceptibility of six insecticides in brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Kallar tract of Punjab, Pakistan; 2015-2019 https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/867 <p>Brown planthopper (BPH), <em>Nilaparvata lugens</em> (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) is an economically important pest of rice crop worldwide including Pakistan. Use of chemicals to control the BPH population has been considered as an effective strategy. However, long-term and intensive use of insecticides had resulted resistance development in this pest. In this study, six recommended insecticides were tested against BPH over the period of 2015-2019 to determine the susceptibility level. From 2015-19, susceptibility of BPH was reduced to all tested insecticides. Increasing trend of LC<sub>50</sub> values was recorded in fipronil (18.23-35.11 mg/L), imidacloprid (64.22-128.8 mg/L), buprofezin (185.01-315.0 mg/L), chlorantranilipyrole (199.2-263.3 mg/L), pymetrozine (248.2-315.5 mg/L), and nitenpyram (21.07-34.3 mg/L) respectively from 2015 to 2019. Correlation coefficient values indicated a significant relation (<em>P &lt; 0.05</em>) between fipronil, imidacloprid, and buprofezin. The study will be helpful for resistance management strategies to prevent or suppress the development of resistance in BPH against insecticides.</p> Noshaba Mubeen Copyright (c) 13 3 Characterization of the content of anions and metals of potatoes, tomatoes and onions marketed in Cuenca, Ecuador to obtain a classification model. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/866 <p style="font-weight: 400;">Due to the accelerated growth of the population, the need for food has increased, this added to the differentiated climatic factors that Ecuador has, causes users to use pesticides and fertilizers in an alarming way, in search of increasing the productivity of crops, exploit an accumulation of residues in food and soil. In this study, the concentrations of metals and ions from fertilizers in four high-consumption products will be limited: INIAP Cecilia and Chaucha Amarilla potatoes, Kidney Tomato and Paiteña Onion found in markets and supermarkets. The metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry with mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) and the ions through a UV-visible spectrophotometer. The values ​​found were within the norm. Differences were found between the metal content of the potato between peel and pulp where the latter will appear the highest concentrations. Multivariate statistics showed that the samples are grouped by the planting site and not the type of sample, which shows the importance of the soil and the cultivation process. The generation of a classification model for fed products with the analyzed parameters is discussed.</p> Verónica Pinos Astrid Alvarez-Blacio Claudia Alvitres-Medina Castro Cynthia Josselyn Verdugo Andrés Pérez-González María Dolores Tonon Piercossimo Tripladi Copyright (c) 13 3 LA CHOCOLATE PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/864 <p>The national consumption of chocolate in Peru has increased in the last 15 years, however, the volume figures of the chocolates that are on the market are not known, in addition to the comparison with world consumption and the participation of the agents of the chocolate value chain. Sources for this study include statistics from different relevant institutions both Peruvian national and international, include relevant data on the Peruvian production of chocolates such as domestically produced cocoa, Peruvian chocolate imports and exports. Peruvian domestic consumption was estimated at 8 614 tons in 2018. From 2010 to 2020 Peru chocolate exports increased from US $ 11 287 000 to US$ 25 396 000. Further, the factors that influence the chocolate consumption: quality and safety, socioeconomic and cultural aspects, environmental aspects, Peruvian standardization, and regulation of chocolate; the proposals were made for the chocolate business, considering strategies at the medium and long term. In conclusion, there is a sustainable growth in the production and consumption of chocolate in Peru as a candy and as a functional food, however, it is necessary to know the specific level of consumption of chocolate and consumer groups.</p> Jorge Hilario Guzman GABRIELA CRISTINA CHIRE FAJARDO Copyright (c) 13 3 Integration of the components of Integrated Pest Management in the cultivation of Pisum sativum in the Huánuco region, Peru https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/863 <p>The investigation was carried out in two sowing periods of <em>Pisum sativum</em> L, agricultural campaign 2019 and 2021, the registered data correspond to the period 2021 because similar responses to the previous test were obtained. The objective was to comparatively integrate more than one control strategy to regulate pests in the crop. In a completely randomized block design with 3 treatments, 4 replications. Being the treatments: (T0) Without applications, (T1) Zea mays live barriers + color traps + Ruta chalepensis extract + toxic baits, (T2) Lupinus mutabilis live barriers + color traps + Bacillius thuringiensis + toxic baits. Weekly evaluations were carried out to identify the insects and determine the density of each pest species in the crop. All plots share the same pests. In T2, the lowest averages of each species were recorded, being Agrotis sp with 0.67 to 2.33 larvae/plot, Aphis sp between 1.33 to 4 aphids per bud, Bemisia sp with 5 to 7 per leaf, Epitrix sp between 4 to 0/plant and Liriomyza trifolii between 3 to 4 larvae/leaf. It is concluded that the integration of the T2 components are the most efficient in the regulation of pests in bean crops.</p> Rene Eugenio Ruiz Agustina Valverde Rodriguez Esteban Nolberto Efrain David Miltao Edelio Campos Albornoz Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 13 3 10.29019/enfoqueute.863 ARQUITECTURA DE INTERNET DE LAS COSAS PARA LA AUTOMATIZACIÓN Y CONTROL DE HOTELES https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/862 <p>En un mercado cada vez más competitivo, la experiencia del huésped se ha vuelto uno de los diferenciadores más importantes en la industria hotelera: Wi-Fi, lealtad y aplicaciones móviles orientadas al cliente para huéspedes son las inversiones más importantes en la transformación digital. Muchos turistas desconocen de los avances tecnológicos que pueden aplicarse en los hoteles y por ende no creen necesario que se les brinden estos servicios. Por lo expuesto, el objetivo de este estudio es plantear una arquitectura del internet de las cosas para la automatización y control de los hoteles y generar un conocimiento. Como metodología se adoptó la revisión sistemática, con enfoque cualitativo que orienta a realizar una revisión bibliográfica sintetizada sobre los diferentes estudios relacionados al tema que se investiga. El método bibliográfico fue necesario para explicar teóricamente las variables estudiadas y esquematizar de forma ordenada la información. Como herramienta se utilizó la ficha bibliográfica para el análisis y sustentación de las investigaciones realizadas. Los resultados evidencian procesos para el funcionamiento de la automatización de los hoteles con software especializados con el propósito de tener resultados exactos. Se concluye que, la automatización de hoteles es un aspecto poco tratado e implementado y a través de este estudio se pretende dar a conocer las ventajas del IoT para que sea implementado.</p> <p>Palabras clave: Globalización, tecnología automatización, hospedaje, satisfacción del cliente.</p> Liliana Saltos Copyright (c) 13 3 El Adaptability of regression algorithms to protein Plant behavior https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/861 <p><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">El comportamiento de los componentes de las plantas proteicas es de vital importancia para los animales que los consumen en su dieta. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">La presente investigación tiene como objetivo evaluar algoritmos de regresión para determinar qué mejor se adapta a su comportamiento. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Se crearon tres conjuntos de datos para que cada especie simule su comportamiento, cada uno de estos incluya los elementos principales para ser evaluados en cada uno de ellos, luego, fueron evaluados a través del aprendizaje supervisado y una validación cruzada de cada uno de estos para determinar el mejor ajuste por aRRMSE.</span></span></p> Hernán Uvidia Cabadiana Pedro Estrada Rocío Herrera Luis Hernández Danis Verdecia Jorge Ramírez Pedro Noguera Edilberto Chacón Copyright (c) 13 3 Estimación de metabolitos secundarios en Gliricidiasepium a partir de compuestos primarios y edad de rebrote https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/860 <p>Con el objetivo de determinar efecto de la edad de rebrote en el contenido de metabolitos primarios (nitrógeno, fructosa, glucosa y sacarosa) y su contribución a la síntesis de compuestos secundarios en <em>Gliricidia sepium</em>. Se desarrolló el presente estudio, siguiendo un diseño en bloques al azar, con tres tratamientos (60, 120 y 180 días) y n repeticiones. Se evaluó para la validación el contenido de nitrógeno (N), glucosa (Glu), fructosa (Frut) y sacarosa (Sac). Además, se validaron modelos matemáticos para la estimación de metabolitos secundarios a partir de los primarios y edad de rebrote. Para establecer relación funcional entre edad y metabolitos primarios, se analizaron las ecuaciones de regresión. Reportándose disminución para N, Glu, Frut y Sac con mayores valores a los 60 días, y se ajustaron ecuaciones cuadráticas con R<sup>2 </sup>superiores 0.91. La edad de rebrote tuvo efecto marcado sobre los contenidos de metabolitos primarios (N, Glu, Frut y Sac), lo que explican la estrecha relación, a través de las ecuaciones de regresión establecidas. Así como, quedó evidenciado que la validación de modelos para predecir metabolitos secundarios en ambos períodos del año, pueden ser aplicados por la dependencia de estos compuestos de sus precursores (nitrógeno y azúcares).</p> Yankiel Ramírez Copyright (c) 13 3 DEVELOPMENT OF A PROTOTYPE APPLICATION TO OBTAIN THE COVERAGE AREA OF THE SIGFOX NETWORK INSIDE BUILDINGS https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/859 <p>Low-energy wireless networks are a fundamental technology for the development of the Internet of all things. Like any wireless communications system, during the design it is important to inspect the place where the network will be deployed to determine points where the signal is weak and therefore the data transmission will be of low quality. Sigfox provides the connectivity service and it is not possible to access the configurations of the base radios in the access network, and therefore manage the network. When the sensor nodes are located inside buildings, the level of the received signal can change inside the building due to internal obstructions and interference, so it is necessary to carry out a site survey to determine in which locations there is no signal. In this article, the results of the development of a tool that allows to determine the power levels within buildings are presented in order to determine which parts of the building have an adequate signal for the placement of sensors and in this way to be able to implement securely a network for IoT</p> carlos roberto egas Copyright (c) 13 3 Aplicación de la metodología DMADV para mejorar un sistema de enfriamiento de sulfuro de hidrógeno https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/858 <p>In this research, the Six-Sigma DMADV methodology was applied in order to improve the thermal efficiency of a hydrogen sulfide cooling system that is installed in an industrial plant. In the initial stage "Define", the Pareto diagram was utilized as auxiliary tool. During the "Measure" stage, a non-experimental research design was applied. Next step, "Analyze", was based on the Ishikawa diagram. Based on previous results, the "Design" stage was subsequently focused on transforming some aspects of the heat exchangers, once compared to recommendations for prestigious researchers. Finally, the "Verify" step facilitated transition between the computational simulation and process industrialization, using a heat-exchangers validated model. The applied methodology allowed identification of critical design factors and upgrade propositions for the equipment, which made it possible to increase the heat transfer rates during the process and raise the system thermal efficiency between 23.3 and 27.2 %. The design for Six-Sigma process, as a management tool, helped to address existing problems from a different perspective, providing new ideas and insights. The study has contributed to continuous improvement of management skills in energy transformation processes.</p> Andres Adrian Sánchez-Escalona Copyright (c) 13 3 A Check-List for Evaluation of the Usability of Government Web Sites https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/857 <p>Usability is the ability of the software by which users can interact more easily, comfortably, safely, and intelligently as possible. Usability is considered a key feature for the success of any website and even more so for government sites. Various methods for usability analysis and evaluation have reported several problems in government websites.&nbsp; The objective of this work is to provide a new method to facilitate the analysis and evaluation of the usability of government websites. For this, a checklist is proposed that was developed from the integration and combination of web usability guides for existing government sites. The resulting checklist considers 122 usability conditions, which are grouped into five categories. For the assessment, a scale of importance is also considered for each condition. Correspondence with Nielsen's heuristics has also been established. The checklist was applied to three real websites from the government of the Province of Santa Cruz, Argentina, which allowed us to identify usability problems and suggest some recommendations for improvement.</p> Sandra Casas Copyright (c) 13 3 Tithonia Chemical composition of the foliage meal of Tithonia diversifolia https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/856 <p>To determine the composition of the foliage meal of <em>Tithonia diversifolia</em>, the foliage was collected at 70 days old. It was determined for the basic chemical composition, amino acid profile and content of the main secondary metabolites responsible for biological activity. The data using descriptive statistics and the mean and standard deviation were analyzed. The foliage meal of <em>Tithonia diversifolia</em> (FMTD) showed percentages of CP, Ca, P, NDF, FAD and ME of 22.23%, 2.62%, 0.013%, 45.7%, 29.8% and 6.09 MJ/kg, respectively. In FMTD, a wide variety of secondary metabolites were found, such as tannins, phenols, total condensed tannins, adhered total condensed tannins, free condensed tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, triterpenes and steroids in concentrations of 5.35; 12.38; 13.7; 9.58; 4.15; 24.49; 0.86; 1.36; 7.71 and 10.75g/kg DM. The highest concentrations of amino acids in FMTD were for lysine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, serine, and phenylalanine with percentages among 13-30 g/kg of crude protein. It is concluded that the foliage meal of <em>Tithonia diversifolia</em> is protein feed, with a good balance of amino acids and with a low content of secondary metabolites, which could be commonly used in non-ruminant animal diets to reduce production costs associated with feed.</p> Danis Manuel Verdecia Acosta Copyright (c) 13 3 Impacto de ITIL v4 en la gestión de incidencias de una Clínica Peruana https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/854 <p>The help desk is characterized by being the assistance operations center where user requirements are managed; provides first level support, allowing daily decisions that influence the solution of technological incidents. In this sense, the objective was to improve incident management in the area of ​​Information Technology through the implementation of a help desk based on the ITIL V4 reference framework at the Ana Stahl Adventist Clinic. For this, a pre-experimental investigation was carried out with a sample of 10 workers who were given a questionnaire to measure the degree of satisfaction in reference to the help desk implemented. The results of the data analysis to through the Student's t test for related samples were favorable since the p values ​​were less than 0.05. On average, more than 75% of the respondents recognized improvements in the clinic, which marks a large difference between the pre and posttest, from 51% to 75%. It is concluded that the research has managed to improve the management of incidents in the information technology office of the Ana Stahl Adventist Clinic, based on the 3 fundamental pillars of the study: response capacity, efficiency and quality</p> Leydi Madany Bernal Ticlla Mirian Noemí Bances Marín Diana Carolina Sayan Ramirez Danny Levano Rodriguez Copyright (c) 13 3 Sitios de Disposición Final de Residuos Sólidos Abandonados en la Región Sotavento del Estado de Veracruz, México, utilizando herramientas SIG https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/853 <p>En México, cuando lo sitios de disposición final son clausurados o cumplen con su ciclo de vida son abandonados sin que se lleve a cabo ningún proceso de remediación de los mismos, en la Región Sotavento del Estado de Veracruz&nbsp; mediante el uso de Sistemas de Información Geográfica, entrevistas a los ayuntamientos y visitas de campo, se pudieron localizar siete basureros abandonados, de los cuales 2 fueron Rellenos Sanitarios, dos tiraderos controlados y tres tiraderos a cielo abierto, los resultados obtenidos con la herramienta Google Earth permiten determinar que&nbsp; estos en su conjunto ocupan un área de 326,365 m<sup>2</sup>, con un volumen de residuos acumulados de 1,934,536 m<sup>3</sup> y una cantidad estimada de estimada de 2,349,225 Toneladas de desechos confinados sin control, lo que representa una serie de impactos ambientales que común-mente no son detectados y cuyo conocimiento puede ser el punto de partida para su clausura de conformidad con la normatividad Mexicana aplicable</p> Manuel Alberto Susunaga-Miranda Benigno Ortiz Muñiz María del Refugio Cartañeda Cháve Fabiola Lango Reynoso María del Consuelo Hernández Berriel Copyright (c) 13 3 THe SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE FOR THE CREATION OF A SECURITY METHODOLOGY FOR ONLINE BANKING FINANCIAL PLATFORMS IN THE PROVINCE OF MANABÍ https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/849 <p>Online banking is real in these times, which has generated that banking services concur on the internet, but also online are prone to attacks by cybercriminals who intend to steal information for personal gain.<br>This article is built based on the schematic search for information in scientific articles, using the SLR Systematic Literature Review methodology, using various aspects in its state of the art, where the state of the art will be reviewed by means of keywords that will allow you to search for the necessary information in these articles. After creating that, a filter of articles will be carried out that will allow the implementation of an SLR matrix to know the relevance of the information and finally where important information will be extracted to be processed to apply in data protection projects in the online banking of financial entities. . All these data will be subjected to a discussion about these results and through conclusions and recommendations. All results are submitted in a discussion about results and through conclusions and recommendations it will have tbe results about the Systematic Literature Results SLR</p> Xavier Morales García Copyright (c) 13 3 Dynamic encryption method for a file delivery service. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/851 <p><em>The documents sent through email have a very important relevance because information is transmitted that compromises individuals, companies and public institutions, framed this premise an alternative encryption method is generated, using asymmetric RSA and symmetric 3DES encryption algorithms with an expiration date on the documents sent, likewise this allowed the recipient of the encrypted documents to be the only entity authorized to access the document sent, as a result a more robust encryption was obtained where the data is not only encrypted if not that they expire after the scheduled time, thus protecting the information of third parties, thus fulfilling the purpose of protecting the information.</em></p> Joe Steven Mero Delgado Copyright (c) 13 3 Tithonia Chemical composition of the foliage meal of Tithonia diversifolia https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/848 <p>To determine the composition of the foliage meal of <em>Tithonia diversifolia</em>, the foliage was collected at 70 days old. It was determined for the basic chemical composition, amino acid profile and content of the main secondary metabolites responsible for biological activity. The data using descriptive statistics and the mean and standard deviation were analyzed. The foliage meal of <em>Tithonia diversifolia</em> (FMTD) showed percentages of CP, Ca, P, NDF, FAD and ME of 22.23%, 2.62%, 0.013%, 45.7%, 29.8% and 6.09 MJ/kg, respectively. In FMTD, a wide variety of secondary metabolites were found, such as tannins, phenols, total condensed tannins, adhered total condensed tannins, free condensed tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, triterpenes and steroids in concentrations of 5.35; 12.38; 13.7; 9.58; 4.15; 24.49; 0.86; 1.36; 7.71 and 10.75g/kg DM. The highest concentrations of amino acids in FMTD were for lysine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, serine, and phenylalanine with percentages among 13-30 g/kg of crude protein. It is concluded that the foliage meal of <em>Tithonia diversifolia</em> is protein feed, with a good balance of amino acids and with a low content of secondary metabolites, which could be commonly used in non-ruminant animal diets to reduce production costs associated with feed.</p> Danis Manuel Verdecia Acosta Copyright (c) 13 3 Retrospective of flood scenarios in the coastal region of Ecuador: A vision of its impacts at a local urban scale https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/847 <p>The Santa Ana canton over the years has been affected by flood events causing economic, human and environmental impacts. The purpose of this research is to determine the impacts caused by floods through the validation and support of the bibliographic review that analyzes the characteristics of the contributing micro-basins, the spatial-temporal hydrogeomorphology of the Portoviejo River and the recurrence of floods in the urban area of Santa Ana canton. The methodology of this research was based on the compilation and analysis of bibliographic information on the records of flood events for the quantitative determination of the impacts and the situations of the affectations and the geomorphological parameters of the micro-basins. The Visquije, Chamucame and Taina estuaries are the largest tributaries in rainy seasons which generate floods in the center of the city when they collapse their contributing capacity. Over 20 years, 56 reports of emergencies due to flood events were recorded, considering that 18,959 were affected, including 350 evacuated, 204 injured and 5 deceased; the real estate affected is estimated at 4,134 homes, and hundreds of hectares of crops and public property.</p> Español Español Español Español Español Español Copyright (c) 13 3 Aprovechamiento de la cáscara de naranja (Citrus X sinensis) para la obtención de extracto esencial como un desengrasante natural. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/845 <p>The diagnosis of waste management was carried out through an interview with the company "Jugos Sunset", resulting in the total amount of the different processed fruits, half are waste without any type of use. The obtaining of the essential extract was developed under the technique of direct extraction by reflux, and for the determination of the quality of the extract, the parameters of: pH, total solids, % of acidity, relative density and determination of limonene were measured. Glycerin and betaine were used as factors of studies, being environmentally friendly substances. For the formulation of the natural degreaser, a bifactorial DCA was applied with the ADEVA and Tukey test at 95% significance. Resulting in significant difference only in the pH variable. In the application of the natural degreaser, the pH and turbidity were measured, in which, the interaction of 150 ml of orange extract and 15% of betaine (A<sub>2</sub>B<sub>1</sub>) obtained a greater detachment of lubricating grease, with a value of 2471 NTU and a pH of 5.46.</p> Luis David Balarezo Saltos María Belén Vinces Obando Carlos Ricardo Delgado Villafuerte Copyright (c) 13 3 The Distribution of heavy metals (Pb, Cd and Cu) in water, sediments and fish of the Carrizal river, Manabí – Ecuador: an analysis https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/841 <p>Given the notable degradation of water resources, the objective of this research was to analyze the distribution of heavy metals (Pb, Cd and Cu) in water, sediments and fish from the Carrizal River, Manabí - Ecuador. 21 monitoring stations for water and sediment were established. In addition, specimens of <em>Hoplias microlepis, Aequidens rivulatus</em> and <em>Oreochromis niloticus</em> were captured, from which samples of liver, gill and muscle tissue were extracted. The concentrations of these elements were evaluated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Pb content in water of up to 0.41 mg/l was found, without significant differences between zones or sampling months; no levels of Cd or Cu were detected at the monitoring points. In sediments there was a maximum concentration of 0.03 mg/kg of Pb, being the levels of Cd and Cu not detectable. In gills of <em>Hoplias microlepis</em> (0.181 mg/kg) and in muscles of <em>Aequidens rivulatus</em> (0.149 mg/kg) the highest levels of Pb were obtained, while in tissues of <em>Oreochromis niloticus</em> it was not detected. The fish species studied presented undetectable levels of Cd or Cu. The level of Pb in surface water exceeds the established limit; evidencing a distribution and possible biomagnification of this metal.</p> Ana Maria Aveiga Ortiz Copyright (c) 13 3 Influence of the use of an information system on the management of histories clinics in small health centers in East Lima https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/840 <p>The present investigation subscribes to the relationship of influence between the management of clinical history processes and the implementation of a web system, bearing in mind the analysis, design and determination of a significant difference between traditional actions in patient care and the use of a medical records web system. This study held the same as ours to 84 patients who were applied the designed instrument through two representative groups, in which the results can be inferred with a margin of error of 5% and a confidence level of 95%, where depending on Therefore, the sample for the control group was 42 people and 42 for the intervention group. The results obtained show that the use of a web system significantly influenced the quality of clinical record management for this case in the "Virgen del Carmen La era" health center. In addition, the empirical evidence is visualized to subscribe that the implementation of a system to manage clinical records generates satisfaction in the face of cumbersome care methods, in addition, through the analysis of information it can be affirmed that the implementation of the referred system improves the management of clinical records, finding a significant difference in the pre-test and post-test applied.</p> Adiel Joshua Preciado Rodriguez Copyright (c) 13 3 Speech recognition based on Spanish accent acoustic model https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/839 <p>The objective of the article was to generate an Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) model based on the translation from human voice to text, being considered as one of the branches of artificial intelligence. Voice analysis allows identifying information about the acoustics, phonetics, syntax, semantics of words, among other elements where ambiguity in terms, pronunciation errors, similar syntax but different semantics can be identified, which represent characteristics of the language. The model focused on the acoustic analysis of words proposing the generation of a methodology for acoustic recognition from speech transcripts from audios containing human voice and the error rate per word was considered to identify the accuracy of the model. The audios were taken from the Integrated Security Service ECU911 that represent emergency calls registered by the entity. The model was trained with the CMUSphinx tool for the Spanish language without internet connection. The results showed that the word error rate varies in relation to the number of audios; that is, the greater the number of audios, the smaller number of erroneous words and the greater the accuracy of the model. The investigation concluded by emphasizing the duration of each audio as a variable that affects the accuracy of the model.</p> Johanna Gabriela Plaza Salto Sánchez-Zhunio Cristina María Inés Acosta Urigüen Marcos Patricio Orellana Cordero Irene Priscila Cedillo Orellana Jorge Luis Zambrano-Martínez Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 13 3 10.29019/enfoqueute.839 Open data and open government in the regional and local governments of Peru https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/838 <p>The objective of the research is to carry out a review of the literature to establish a theoretical reference framework for the implementation of open data in open government strategies in Peru. For the development of this article, a systematic review of the scientific literature was carried out, articles from the Scopus database between the years 2017 and 2021 were taken into account. As a result of this study, it was determined that there is 1 regional government and 4 regional governments. that have implemented their open data portals, this represents 0.26% of the level of compliance, in addition, the level of compliance with the transparency dimension of open government is 38.16%. It is concluded that the Metropolitan Municipality of Lima complies with all the principles of open data and has a complete implementation in all categories, which can be accessed in different formats.</p> Cristian García-Estrella John C. Santa-Maria Mirleth Reina Celis Hernandez Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 13 3 10.29019/enfoqueute.838 El Análisis de Riesgos Financieros en las Pymes en el Ecuador https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/837 <p>The analysis of financial risks in SMEs in Ecuador is of utmost importance when it comes to requiring financing to fill the cash deficit, or to invest in new projects to expand business activity; these companies are more sensitive to market uncertainty and are exposed to financial risks; Investors must overcome some factors when investing, required by the national financial system and the market in general. Therefore, the objective of this document is to analyze financial risks in SMEs through a conceptual approach; for which the following risks have been described: liquidity risks, interest risks, exchange risk, credit risks, market risks and operational risks. It is also important to mention that in Ecuador and in general the productive sector has suffered serious deterioration, due to the health emergency caused by the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic; where SMEs must reorganize in all aspects, administrative and financial. A descriptive study of the financial risks that affect the growth of small and medium-sized companies in Ecuador was developed. Through the analysis, it was identified that the risks allow us to know the impact of each risk, it depends on the retrospective occurrence and according to the behavior of the risk. The implementation of a methodology depends on the amount of risks that are identified in the company, in this study it is oriented to financial risks, however, risks in general are taken as a basis, knowing the scope of analysis. Consequently, it is concluded that; Financial risks are more evident in companies, they have taken on more and more space in business management, the administration of companies has taken great interest in exhaustive control and implementing measures to prevent situations that compromise resources of the organization and third parties Therefore, administrators must implement control measures and ensure that the organization does not lose its objectivity in the development of management.</p> Roque Juan Cagua Hidrovo Copyright (c) 13 3 Physicochemical and biological characterization of leachate from the uncontrolled final disposal site in Tlapacoyan, Veracruz, Mexico https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/836 <p>One of the main problems in Mexico is contamination by leachates that are produced in final waste disposal sites, since they are highly toxic and damage the biota. This research focuses on determining the characteristics of the leachate produced in the uncontrolled final disposal site in the municipality of Tlapacoyan, Veracruz (Mexico). <br />As a result, it was determined that the parameters that cause damage to the biota are total nitrogen (152.759 mg L<sup>-1</sup>), mercury (0.006 mg L<sup>-1</sup>), cadmium (0.003 mg L<sup>-1</sup>), copper (0.052 mg L<sup>-1</sup>), chromium (0.0731 mg L<sup>-1</sup>), nickel (0.0524 mg L<sup>-1</sup>), lead (0.005 mg L<sup>-1</sup>) and total coliforms (&gt; 2 400 MPN), as they do not meet at least one of the national and international standards of maximum permissible limits. Likewise, it was determined that the leachate produced at this site is of the mature and poorly biodegradable type (BOD/COD=0.018), so that the typical or bioremediation methods are not recommended for its treatment.</p> Miguel Angel López Ramírez Yasser Armando Aburto Gutiérrez Keila Elena Ocaña Drouaillet Castellanos Onorio Olaya Pirene Fabiola Lango Reynoso Maribel López Ramírez Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 13 3 10.29019/enfoqueute.836 (Strategic Plan as a competitive guide for MSMEs based on the 3Cs model and new technologies. Case: Cloud Computing in Azogues city) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/835 <p>Introduction: MiPymes in the Azogues city have become the largest generators of employment and productivity thanks to the entrepreneurship of many people; however, not all of them carry out a marketing process that allows them to improve their productivity. Objective: to develop a strategic plan based on new technologies and applying Kenichi Ohmae's 3C's model, focused on the Corporation, Competition and Clients. The use of Cloud Computing in Azogues city is analyzed. Method: application nature, field research to collect the necessary data. Results: there is little knowledge about Cloud Computing in these companies, and most lack marketing planning, so it is important to execute a strategic plan to improve their productivity. A web services platform adjusted to the needs of these companies was implemented, which will serve as a starting point for their digital transformation. Conclusions: the implementation of the 3 C's model and the new technologies offer the opportunity to improve the commercial activities of these MSMEs, the effectiveness increases if there is external support from professionals in the area, who define what each company needs.</p> CRISTIAN CACERES Copyright (c) 13 3 (Characterization of energy consumption agents in the residential sector of Ecuador based on a national survey and Geographic Information Systems for modelling energy systems) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/834 <p>The residential sector is an example of the challenges that arise when modelling the heterogeneity of the energy system to assess energy policy. Some of the characteristics that influence the supply and demand of energy in the residential sector are the type of consumption, household income, family composition, type of dwelling, the climatic zone of residence, among others. The objective of this research is to characterize the agents of energy consumption in the residential sector of Ecuador. To achieve this goal, this article presents a methodology that combines a national survey (online and door-to-door) with Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The survey allows defining the main motivations, investment objectives and decision method of the agents when renewing or maintaining home energy technologies. For this, the agents have been classified based on their income level. GIS allows the agents to be spatially located and to have an estimate of the population that belongs to each agent by income level. The results are presented by income level for each group of agents and the agents are geolocated, characterizing them spatially. The quantitative attributes of each agent are determined in order to be used in energy systems modelling.</p> Manolo Muñoz Espinoza Copyright (c) 13 3 THE THE FRONTEND. ADAPTIVE WEB DESIGN AND RESPONSIVE WEB DESIGN FOR WEB APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/833 <p>El desarrollo web ha evolucionado a gran escala, en el presente artículo se realizó una comparativa entre dos importantes marcos de diseño que son indispensables para el desarrollo de interfaces web, como son el marco responsivo y adaptativo, destacando sus principales ventajas y diferencias a través del método experimental, propiamente enfocado en el desarrollo de un portal web, con el objetivo de mostrar información de publicaciones científicas realizadas por las Facultades de la Universidad Técnica de Manabí, para el estudio comparativo se usó la herramienta Google Page Speed Insights, donde se aplicaron métricas de evaluación impuestas por W3C, con respecto al rendimiento y optimización. Para garantizar la calidad de la investigación se aplicó el método Delphi, en un cuestionario dirigido a 50 Docentes de diferentes Universidades Ecuatorianas, con la finalidad de conocer el marco de diseño más adecuado al momento de desarrollar y producir sistemas web.</p> Jhonny Chávez Walter Daniel Zambrano Romero Emilio Antonio Cedeño Palma Dannyll Michellc Zambrano Zambrano Gabriel Agustín Cotera Ramírez Copyright (c) 13 3 Quick method for penetration testing. A case study https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/832 <p>This research develops a method for penetration testing execution, that it’s easy and fast to deploy, especially for small companies that do not have IT staff or have limited staff in this area. To achieve this, the developed method is based on the execution of automated tools, while providing techniques and processes that are necessary for its proper implementation. The application of the case study allowed to verify that the developed method is effective, fast and optimizes the use of resources. The results demonstrate a lack of awareness of companies in cybersecurity related issues and reveal little knowledge of IT professionals in this topic.</p> Martin Gonzalez Copyright (c) 13 3 Detection of motorcyclists without a safety helmet through YOLO: support for road safety https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/831 <p><em>In the present investigation, the YOLOv4 algorithm based on deep learning was used with the objective of detecting people who wear a safety helmet while driving a motorcycle, as well as those who do not use a safety helmet while moving around. the streets of a city, violating road safety regulations. In this context, the proposed methodology consisted of seven phases that go from the determination of the data source to validation and deployment, in which the labellmg tool and the Google Colab online platform are used, due to their capacity and flexibility. in the work environment. The model was developed using 287 images, of which 80% correspond to training images, 15% validation and 5% to perform the tests. In addition to this, additional shots were taken at different times of the day in order to determine the behavior and precision of the model. The results show us that the trained model has a detection efficiency of 85% and using YOLOv5x could improve the detection quality by having a greater number of layers.</em></p> OSCAR JHAN MARCOS PEÑA CÁCERES Copyright (c) 13 3 Evaluation of the addition of rye (Secale cereale) in the formulation of belgian pale ale craft beer https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/830 <p>This research has focused on the use of malted and unmalted rye to brew a Belgian Pale Ale style craft beer. The objective is to innovate and explore the attributes provided by this cereal, in addition to evaluating the physicochemical (color, pH, acidity, alcohol content and turbidity), microbiological (molds and yeasts) and sensory (flavor, odor, color and texture) parameters. An experimental design with a bifactorial A*B arrangement was applied, with 3 replicates per treatment and 1 control, using the Dunnett test. Regarding the sensory test, the Kruskal Wallis test of contrasts was applied using SPSS Statistics software. Thus, it was found that the addition of malted and unmalted rye significantly influenced the characteristics evaluated in the craft beer, giving rise to a profile typical of a Belgian Pale Ale, with the distinctive touch provided by the rye. The most outstanding treatments in terms of flavor and texture were T5 (80% base malt + malted rye); in terms of odor, T1 (90% base malt + malted rye) stood out, and T4 (85% base malt + unmalted rye) stood out in terms of color.</p> Sheyling A. Segobia Muñoz Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 13 3 10.29019/enfoqueute.830 Integración de los componentes del Manejo Integrado de Plagas en el cultivo de Pisum sativum en la región Huánuco, Perú https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/829 <p>La investigación se ejecutó en dos periodos de siembra de <em>Pisum sativum</em> L, campaña agrícola 2019 y 2021, los datos registrados corresponden al periodo 2021 por haberse obtenido similares respuestas al ensayo anterior. El objetivo fue integrar de manera comparativa más de una estrategia de control para regular las plagas en el cultivo. En un diseño de bloques completamente al azar con 3 tratamientos, 4 repeticiones. Siendo los tratamientos: (T0) Sin aplicaciones, (T1) Barreras vivas de Zea mays + trampas a colores + extracto de Ruta chalepensis + cebos tóxicos, (T2) Barreras vivas de <em>Lupinus mutabilis</em> + trampas a colores + <em>Bacillius thuringiensis</em> + cebos tóxicos. Se realizaron las evaluaciones semanales para identificar los insectos y determinar la densidad de cada especie plaga en el cultivo. Todas las parcelas comparten las mismas plagas. En el T2 se registraron los más bajos promedios de cada especie, siendo el <em>Agrotis</em> sp con 0,67 a 2,33 larvas/parcela, <em>Aphis</em> sp entre 1,33 a 4 pulgones/cogollo, <em>Bemisia</em> sp con 5 a 7,33/planta, <em>Epitrix</em> sp entre 4 a 0/planta y <em>Liriomyza trifolii</em> entre 3 a 4 larvas/hoja. Se concluye que la integración de los componentes T2 son los de mayor eficiencia en la regulación de las plagas en el cultivo del frijol.</p> Agustina Valverde Rodriguez Rene Eugenio Ruiz Esteban Nolberto Efrain David Miltao Edelio Campos Albornoz Copyright (c) 13 3 10.29019/enfoqueute.829 Dried muña leaves (minthostachys mollis): Modeling, kinetics and thermodynamic properties https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/827 <p>The muña leaf is consumed as an infusion, it has pharmacological properties and is used to relieve digestive and respiratory symptoms. Therefore, drying is important for preservation and storage until use or processing. The objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of drying temperature on kinetics, diffusion coefficient and thermodynamic properties. We worked with muña leaves that were subjected to different pretreatments (bleached at 1% ascorbic acid, immersion in water at 60 ° C and without pre-treatment) dried at three temperatures (40, 50 and 60 ° C). The effective diffusion coefficient, activation energy, was determined and the drying process was described using eight mathematical models to represent the drying curve. The Logarithmic model was selected as the one with the best fit to represent the drying kinetics of the muña. Activation energy values ​​were similar between treatments. The increase in temperature promotes: decrease in enthalpy and entropy; increase in Gibbs free energy and effective diffusion coefficient. Therefore, it is essential to reduce the water content by drying to maintain the quality of the muña leaves.</p> Reynaldo Justino Silva Paz Copyright (c) 13 3 (Impact of social isolation produced by COVID 19 on eating habits and emotional states in Peru) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/826 <p>This research describes the impact produced by COVID-19 during social isolation in the Peruvian population in the face of food and emotional states. A national survey was conducted with 1534 participants, where 79% between the ages of 18-29 (52% male) with multiple-choice questions and emoticons. According to food consumption, it was found that beans, legumes, dried fruits, water, eggs and rice showed an increase, although the consumption of fish-shellfish, sweets, sauces, salty or stuffed biscuits, ice cream-desserts, and dried fruits decreased. and feet. In addition, the application of emoticons allowed to express in an easy and intuitive way the emotional state, home service and the feeling of food consumption. The most used emoticons were: crazy or fun face, face that enjoys food and face with a protective mask. Furthermore, people indicated not eating excessively, feeling happy about the recovery of the environment, staying at home with the family. However, they were worried about the increase in prices. Likewise, 76% of the participants increased the use of cell phones, portable equipment and TV, 51% had the fear of losing their job, 54% had the fear of contracting the virus and 56% have reduced their physical activities, as a consequence of stress and emotional problems.</p> Flora Elizabeth Inocente Quiroz Copyright (c) 13 3 The Impact of the use of technological tools aquaculture productivity https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/825 <p>Aquaculture in Peru is booming, so it is necessary to implement production techniques and modernize the process to address a sustainable, efficient and competitive perspective. The objective of the review has been to identify the techniques used by countries with high competitiveness in the sector and to publicize the deficiency that exists in Peruvian aquaculture. The information has been obtained using the google academic search engine to facilitate the filtering of the information used, the articles taken cover the years 2016 and 2020, respectively. The review has made it possible to identify that technology plays an important role in the technification of the process, the countries that have applied technology today are positioned as aquaculture references. It is concluded that in order to position itself as an aquaculture benchmark, strategies, production policies and the implementation of technology and innovation in the process must be applied, and thus guarantee quality production according to market demand</p> Jeison Elí Sánchez Calle Jhordani Guélac Gómez Miguel Ángel Valles Coral Copyright (c) 13 3 Quick method for penetration testing. A case study. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/824 <p>This research develops a methodology for penetration testing execution, that it’s easy and fast to deploy, especially for small companies that do not have IT staff or have limited staff in this area. To achieve this, the developed methodology is based on the execution of automated tools, while providing techniques and processes that are necessary for its proper implementation. The application of the case study allowed to verify that the developed methodology is effective, fast and optimizes the use of resources. The results demonstrate a lack of awareness of companies in cybersecurity related issues and reveal little or no knowledge of IT professionals in this topic.</p> Martin Gonzalez Copyright (c) 13 3 Dried muña leaves (minthostachys mollis): Modeling, kinetics and thermodynamic properties https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/822 <p>The muña leaf is consumed as an infusion, it has pharmacological properties and is used to relieve digestive and respiratory symptoms. Therefore, drying is important for preservation and storage until use or processing. The objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of drying temperature on kinetics, diffusion coefficient and thermodynamic properties. We worked with muña leaves that were subjected to different pretreatments (bleached at 1% ascorbic acid, immersion in water at 60 ° C and without pre-treatment) dried at three temperatures (40, 50 and 60 ° C). The effective diffusion coefficient, activation energy, was determined and the drying process was described using eight mathematical models to represent the drying curve. The Logarithmic model was selected as the one with the best fit to represent the drying kinetics of the muña. Activation energy values ​​were similar between treatments. The increase in temperature promotes: decrease in enthalpy and entropy; increase in Gibbs free energy and effective diffusion coefficient. Therefore, it is essential to reduce the water content by drying to maintain the quality of the muña leaves.</p> Reynaldo Justino Silva Paz Copyright (c) 13 3 Effect of beneficial fungi on Chaetanaphothrips signipennis (Bagnall) under controlled conditions https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/821 <p>The production of muses is affected in their production due to the damages caused by the trips <em>Chaetanaphothrips</em> <em>signipennis</em> (Bagnall), with respect to the quality of the fruit. The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of beneficial fungus applications on <em>C</em>. <em>signipennis</em> under controlled conditions. Two isolates of <em>Beauveria</em> <em>bassiana</em>, <em>Metarhizium</em> sp., <em>Lecanicillium</em> sp., <em>Purpureocillium</em> <em>lilacinum</em>, and <em>Trichoderma</em> <em>asperellum</em> whose concentration was 1x108 spores / fungi plus a control were studied. The entomopathogenic fungi caused different percentages of insect mortality from 55% for <em>T</em>. <em>asperellum</em>, <em>L</em>. <em>lecanii</em> 86% and 100% for the other fungi and, in relation to spotting in the clusters, <em>P</em>. <em>lilacinum</em> (8%), T. asperellum (8%), and L. <em>lecanii</em> were the ones with the lowest percentage of damage, unlike the two isolates <em>B</em>. <em>bassiana</em> and <em>Metarhizium</em> that caused 100% mottled fruit or reddish spots.</p> Alex Delgado Copyright (c) 13 3 Dangers of phishing and its impact on the financial sector: A review https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/820 <p>In recent years, Phishing has been the most used cyber threat to deceive people and harm them economically or socially, reaching a use of 59% followed by Malware with 39%, Malicious Domains with 22% and others less used threats. For this reason it is intended to show the dangers caused by phishing attacks and see their impact on the financial sector taking a specific period of time from 2016 to 2021, since between these years it was where the technology was most developed and at the same time the computer hazards. It seeks to answer the question posed: What are the dangers caused by phishing and its impact on the financial sector from 2016 to 2021? For this, certain objectives were set that were met in order to be able to meet using the information collected from the databases on the subject of the research. It was concluded that phishing affects the trust of users when carrying out online operations and in turn the reputation of entities focused on the financial system, causing an imbalance in its operation.</p> Henry Carranza Narro Lucas Ruiz Jara Alberto Mendoza de los Santos Copyright (c) 13 3 Analysis of an Urban Drainage System designed from the drainage design strategy in the city of Santa Clara https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/819 <p>In this article, the structural measures analysis to be applied at Hydrological Urban Area Capiro-Bengochea on Santa Clara city to carried out and reduce the impacts of extreme rainy fall events that affect the place and cause floods with effects on the inhabitants. With this, an engineering solution for storm drainage is projected the area, applying Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems methodologies and other classic ones combination. For this, the hydrological, hydraulic runoff modeling response, and its transit through the different structures in several rainy scenarios where used, obtaining encouraging results with the application of retention ponds and flow division works. In general, it has concluded that the system projected, is resistant to different extreme phenomena, which guarantees a long useful life and a high impact on the community.</p> Carlos Lázaro Castillo García Copyright (c) 13 3 The Biometric facial authentication system based on emotion recognition and blink counting to control supply in wholesale stores https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/818 <p>In this article, the main objective of the implementation of a facial biometric authentication system based on emotion recognition and blink counting has been established to control the supply in wholesale stores. Biometric facial authentication has been applied in different areas of any company. This authentication mechanism is more efficient, since it allows the verification of the user's identity with greater accuracy. To achieve this objective, the concepts, stages, methods and techniques related to facial biometry are investigated, and the detection of vivacity is considered as the main factor to develop the system. Afterwards, the implementation of the aforementioned system is carried out, whose methodology is based on 6 steps. These steps start from user authentication, through face detection and identification, then emotion training and a comparison of these, followed by blink counting for the detection of vivacity. Finally, the program makes the decision of a correct or incorrect access. The results obtained demonstrate the efficiency of implementing this system for successful authentication and to prevent fraudulent acts. At the same time, some discussions are made regarding other works.</p> NOOR MARIA DE LOS ANGELES AMAMBAL CORONADO WAYNER KEYLOR ESPINOZA PEREZ JERSSON ALEXIS CHILON NUÑEZ ALBERTO CARLOS MENDOZA DE LOS SANTOS Copyright (c) 13 3 PROCESO DE AUDITORÍA DE SEGURIDAD DE LA INFORMACIÓN EN SISTEMA DE FACTURACIÓN https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/816 <p>This research has been developed in order to establish an information security audit process in a billing control system, which may be capable of detecting anomalies or infractions carried out by employees in the systems. To achieve this purpose, a series of analyzes and information gathering were carried out and various objectives and specific points have been raised, which will help us to be clear about and fulfill the main objective that we have in this investigation and to detect any possible fraud that exists. Bearing in mind that the security of the database will be paramount, as it will help to maintain the integrity of the data and to be able to understand the activities that are carried out.</p> JHONATAN ADRIAN BARRETO Copyright (c) 13 3 Effect of biochar on the development of banana plants (Musa AAA) in farms with organic and conventional agriculture management https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/815 <p>The use of biochar amendments in banana soils has inspired research with the aim of comparing the effects of a biochar obtained from cocoa pods on banana development. The work was carried out on two farms, one under an organic agriculture model (FO) and the other conventional (FC). The doses per treatment in each farm consisted of 10 g (T1), 30 g (T2) and 50 g (T3) of biochar + bioferment with Trichoderma spp.; 100 g of Si2O (FO) and 100 g of urea (FC) were added to this mixture. All treatments were applied to the soil in front of the son. The highest values for plant height were 217.8 cm (FO, T2) and 266.7 cm (FC, T3), in pseudostem thickness the highest means were 41.1 cm (FO, T1) and 52.1 cm (FC, T3), much higher than the control. In bunch weight and number of hands, significant differences (p≤0.05) were obtained in both farms. The results revealed that the treatments had a positive effect on the growth of banana plants compared to the control on both farms.</p> Salomon Barrezueta Unda Alexander Condoy-Gorotiza Stalin Sánchez-Pilcorema Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 13 3 10.29019/enfoqueute.815 Physicochemical analysis of colostrum breast milk donated in the lactation room of the Educational Medical Unit of an Argentine public university https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/814 <p>The aim of this study was to determine the composition of proteins, fats and the lipid profile of donated breast milk in the lactation unit of the Educational Medical Unit of the National University of Chaco Austral. To achieve this, breast milk from selected mothers was analyzed, which was collected between 1 to 3 days postpartum. The protein content, total fat, and lipid profile were determined using standardized techniques, to verify if there are variations in their composition. The minimum and maximum protein values were 2.37 ± 0.32 and 3.46 ± 0.86, and for total fat 4.50 ± 0.33 and 6.20 ± 0.86 g / 100 ml, being the main fatty acids myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic. Although it is an initial study, the nutritional composition of the samples coincides with that reported in the bibliography, highlighting the content of fatty acids detected.</p> Mara Cristina Romero Copyright (c) 13 3 Implementation of concepts and tools of the Lean Construction philosophy in the construction companies of the City of Cochabamba - Bolivia https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/813 <p>The objective of this study is to identify the strategies used by the construction companies of the city of Cochabamba-Bolivia in the execution of projects, considering the tools and concepts of Lean Construction. The methodology consisted of a survey of 63 companies in the city of Cochabamba-Bolivia through a questionnaire made up of 44 questions. Four aspects were consulted: a) profile of project managers, b) general company information, c) planning and execution of projects and d) knowledge of the Lean Construction philosophy. The results show that companies recognize the problems in productivity and generation of waste, but do not carry out specific solutions. On the other hand, companies have listened to and even implemented some Lean Construction tools; however, the majority (70%) do not know the philosophy. Although barriers to implementing the philosophy are identified, actions that can collaborate in its application are also highlighted, such as demonstrating results with benefits and training staff.</p> Rodrigo Vergara Hinojosa Joaquin Humberto Rocha Nahúm Gamalier Cayo Chileno Marialaura Herrera Rosas Alejandra Araoz Campos Copyright (c) 13 3 The agri-food chain with a focus on local development: the case of goat milk in Jimaguayú https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/812 <p>The decisive role that goat dairy can play in facing economic, social and environmental challenges that affect the world population, mainly in developing countries, is internationally recognized. In Cuba, it has been shown that the benefits of these productions are not used. This work aims to characterize the goat milk agri-food chain in the municipality of Jimaguayú for its contribution to local development, from the use of endogenous potentialities. The study is descriptive-explanatory in nature. Mixed research methods were used with the systematic integration of methods of the theoretical and empirical level, such as analysis-synthesis, induction-deduction, participatory observation and the survey. It was evidenced that the goat dairy has the potential to positively impact the social, economic and environmental dimensions of local development in Jimaguayú, for which a chain approach management is required based on a methodology adjusted to the Cuban context. The results offer information to contribute to decision making on duly argued bases; in relation to the organization of production with a territorial approach and for the improvement of the Municipal Strategic Diagnosis as the base moment of the Municipal Strategic Planning.</p> Osvaldo Nápoles Copyright (c) 13 3 Soil quality assessment in gold mining areas https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/811 <p>The objective of the study was to evaluate soil quality in population centers near gold mining areas. The concentration of heavy metals and metalloids (As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn) was analyzed in soil samples collected in public areas, yards, gardens, and cultivation areas. As a result, it was identified that the concentration of Ni and Cr exceeded the maximum permissible limit (MPL) of the Ecuadorian regulations in 100% of the samples analyzed, while the concentration of Cu and Zn was higher in 90% of the sites sampled. Cd exceeded the MPL in 64% of the samples, and As and Pb exceeded the MPL in only 26% and 21% of the samples, respectively. Regarding pH analysis, values between 3.31 and 8.21 were obtained, indicating acidic conditions in 60% of the soil samples, possibly as a result of anthropogenic activity in the area. Strong positive correlations were detected between As-Cd, Cr-Ni, Cu-Ni, and moderate correlations between Cr-Cu, Pb-Zn. Cluster analysis indicated that cluster C1, characterized by a high content of potentially toxic elements, is mostly located south of the study area. These preliminary results can serve as a baseline for future research in the area, highlighting the importance of soil quality assessment in populated areas in mining zones.</p> Daniela Paz-Barzola Kenny Escobar-Segovia Samantha Jiménez Oyola Copyright (c) 13 3 Effect of charge loading during electrocoagulation in dairy wastewater https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/810 <p>Electrocoagulation is frequently studied considering only the current or current density as a determining parameter when looking for the optimal conditions of wastewater treatment; however, these are correlated to the charge loading parameter that regulates the dose of metal to be dissolved. Due to this, the present study incorporates the charge loading to find the optimal conditions of treatment by electrocoagulation to the effluents of a dairy industry, “La Planta Piloto de Leche” of Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, taking as a variable response to the removal of turbidity. Work has been done in batch on prototypes of 2.2 liters of effective capacity. The aluminum and iron electrodes, acting as anode and cathode respectively, were the best materials for the treatment, in addition, the highest turbidity removal was achieved at a pH of 8 and a charge flow of 5.65 F/m<sup>3</sup>, achieved at 2 Ampere (2A) of supplied current and 10 minutes of treatment. Subsequently, the test under a constant load flow (5.65 F / m3) reaffirmed that at 2A and 10 minutes of electrochemical treatment, the highest removals of contaminants, mainly oils and greases, and turbidity are achieved.</p> Jaime Alberto Cachay Melly Copyright (c) 13 3 Development of gluten-free biscuits evaluating their physicochemical and sensory parameters https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/808 <p>In Peru, the number of people suffering from celiac disease, intolerant or allergic to gluten has increased; but gluten-free food products have not been developed, due to the difficulty of their elaboration and implementation in the food industry. The objective of this research was to develop gluten-free biscuits from substitute flours, evaluating their physicochemical and sensory parameters. Eight different formulations were developed using 100% broad bean, chickpea, pea, kiwicha, quinoa, lentil, corn and bean flour. 100 consumers participated for this evaluation. A completely randomized design (DCA) and a randomized complete block design (DBCA) were used to the data from the physicochemical analysis and general acceptability, respectively. To describe the cookies, the mark all that apply (CATA) method was used and a correspondence analysis (AC) was applied. From the results obtained, the lentil biscuit presented a higher percentage of protein and fiber; although less amount of fat and carbohydrates compared to the other samples. Regarding color, the corn biscuit was the lightest because it presented greater luminosity (L *), but less redness (a *) and yellowness (b *). Corn and chickpea crackers had the highest acceptability scores.</p> Roxana Lizárraga Copyright (c) 13 3 Environmental evaluation at the Cement Commercialization Company of Camagüey https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/807 <p><!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:OfficeDocumentSettings> <o:RelyOnVML/> <o:AllowPNG/> </o:OfficeDocumentSettings> </xml><![endif]--></p> <p><!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:TrackMoves/> <w:TrackFormatting/> <w:HyphenationZone>21</w:HyphenationZone> <w:PunctuationKerning/> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas/> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:DoNotPromoteQF/> <w:LidThemeOther>ES</w:LidThemeOther> <w:LidThemeAsian>X-NONE</w:LidThemeAsian> <w:LidThemeComplexScript>X-NONE</w:LidThemeComplexScript> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables/> <w:SnapToGridInCell/> 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*/ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:justify; text-justify:inter-ideograph; text-indent:1.0cm; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Cambria","serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:major-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:major-latin; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} </style> <![endif]--></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 28.25pt 0.0001pt 1cm; text-indent: 0cm; text-align: justify;"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Arial; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold;">The main ones problematic environmental generated in the production process and of commercialization of the packed cement or to bulk, they are appreciated in the nonfulfillment of the environmental norms on the part of the operators where the cement is stored to bulk, for the emission of powders of cement of the ferro silos in the one discharges, in the contamination by pouring, and for the atmospheric contamination and the acoustics. For it, this work was guided to identify and to value the derived environmental impacts of the load operations and it discharges from cement to bulk in the Comercializadora of Cement Camag&uuml;ey (ECOCEM). As starting point the environmental diagnosis was used carried out to the entity, that which allowed the identification and evaluation of the environmental aspects, this served as base to establish the monitoring stations. The atmospheric emissions were characterized and made a valuation of the impacts generated by the processes of the entity. The results evidence the necessity to adopt measures to reduce or to eliminate the identified environmental impacts, that which coincides with that outlined in the environmental politics of the Commercial Company of the Cement.</span></p> Daimy Godínez-Caraballo Copyright (c) 13 3 Insecticidal potential of some indigenous weeds extracts of Bahawalpur Pakistan againstdusky cotton bug (Oxycarenus hyalinipennis) (Costa) (Hemiptera: Lygaidae) under laboratory conditions https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/806 <p>Owing to large scale use of chemical insecticides there is always need to find new alternatives to chemical insecticides. This study evaluated the aqueous extracts of three weeds namely <em>Datura alba</em> (Nees), <em>Withania somnifera</em> (Linnaeus) and <em>Chenopodium album</em> (Linnaeus) for insecticidal potential against <em>Oxycarenus hyalinipennis</em> (Costa) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) under laboratory conditions. Extracts were prepared from three plant parts e.g., leaves, stems and roots and applied at five concentrations ranging from 1 to 20 %. To check the mortality not because of weed extracts control treatment (water only) was also included as sixth treatment. Mortality of pest insects was assessed after three exposure periods e.g., 24h, 48 hand 72 h. Among the three weeds tested, mortality was more due to extract of <em>D. alba</em> weed which thus proved more toxic compared to other two weeds. Among plant parts, root extracts were more potent than leaves and stem extracts and the more concentration of 20 per cent usually resulted in maximum mortality. Maximum mortality of insects was after 72 h period followed by 48 h and minimum was after 24 h period. However maximum mortality of 60 % in case of <em>D. alba</em> warrants attention towards the options of either increasing concentration (&gt; 20 %) of this extract or to evaluate other extraction type e.g., ethanolic extract to gain maximum mortality against this notorious pest.</p> Fatima Noor ul Huda Muhammad Hassan Muhammad Iqbal Moazzam Jamil Javaid Iqbal Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2022-04-01 2022-04-01 13 3 98 107 10.29019/enfoqueute.806 Design of a Robot Prototype with Rocker Geometry-Bogie https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/804 <p>In this research a Rocker-Bogie type suspension geometry is designed and validated based on the analysis of the degrees of freedom, for its future implementation within the space exploration industry sector, having as main purpose the collection and transportation of garbage and waste to strategic sectors within the facilities, avoiding obstacles of different levels, although it could also be applied in the industrial, agricultural and mining areas, where a robust and stable system is required. We start by establishing a safety factor, determined through coefficients that involve safety and economy, then we calculate the dimensions and forces to be supported by the structural elements known as Rocker and Bogie, which are responsible for transmitting the support to the chassis as well as providing support to the connections for the axle components and motors for the wheels. The design and calculation of these elements, depends on the robot prototype being able to move through irregular fields avoiding obstacles such as: surface anomalies, potholes, rocks and curbs. For the validation of the prototype design, a static analysis of the structural elements (Rocker and Bogie) is performed by means of the Von Misses parameter, obtaining a high level of safety before rupture. Subsequently, the simulation of the prototype is executed based on a track created in the software, analyzing parameters of speed, acceleration and displacements in the axes X, Y. Finally, the results obtained from the simulation are compared based mainly on height and maximum length between front and rear axles, being crucial the maximum permissible angle of inclination.</p> Christian Montaleza Xavier Mayorga Jimmy Gallegos Rogelio León Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2022-01-14 2022-01-14 13 3 82 96 10.29019/enfoqueute.804 Retention of vitamin C in the processing of canned cupuassu pulp (Theobroma grandiflorum) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/805 <p>The cupuassu pulp is a fruit with a high content of pectins and ascorbic acid harvested in the Amazon of Eastern America for its exquisite characteristics of aroma, flavor and texture; however, the processing of canned food for human consumption in Madre de Dios - Peru is questionable, due to the inadequate handling and heat treatment of the fruit. The objective of the study was to evaluate the stability of the preservation of vitamin C in the processing of canned cupuassu pulp. For this, an experimental design was carried out in four stages: 1) characterization of the fruit, 2) determination of the heat treatment, 3) analysis of the variation of vitamin C and 4) analysis of the canned pulp. The effect of the process was evaluated in triplicate and a Completely Random Design was applied to analyze the statistical differences using the Statgraphys Centurion program. Among the results, it stands out that the pH (3.05 ± 0.50) and acidity (1.54 ± 0.80) of the canning are similar to the raw material. Likewise, a significant increase in soluble solids (Brix) was found with respect to fresh fruit. It is concluded that the total retention of vitamin C of the canned cupuassu pulp was 49.10 %.</p> Robert Tecse-Tecsi Virne Mego-Mego Miguel Chávez-Pinchi Lastenia Cutipa-Chávez Luis Vargas-Vásquez Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2022-04-01 2022-04-01 13 3 17 30 10.29019/enfoqueute.805 Psi Importance of IT security policies in accordance with ISO 27001 for small and medium-sized companies in Ecuador. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/803 <p>This article presents the importance of executing good computer practices through the use of ISO 27001 standards in small and medium-sized companies in Ecuador, incorporating good management in TIC’s, minimizing risks and threats to business information, as well as its computer assets. The maturity levels for the management of information systems must be developed by internal and external clients, allowing them to increase their prestige and profitability with the improvement in business processes, guaranteeing the optimal operation of computer services to meet business objectives of compalies public, private and PYMES. To measure computer vulnerabilities, the information technology risk analysis matrix was used, allowing to identify threats and risks, these will be solved with the development of computer security policies to guarantee the reliability, integrity, availability of information and computer resources.</p> Alex Llano Mónica Gaibor Carla Cruz José Cadena Copyright (c) 13 3 Removal of pollutants from wastewater using cationic polyelectrolyte extracted from moringa seeds (Moringa oleifera) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/802 <p>This research aims to evaluate the efficiency of the cationic polyelectrolyte of Moringa oleifera in removing pollutants from wastewater. A completely randomized design was applied in a unifactorial arrangement, with four treatments and three repetitions. The cationic polyelectrolyte coagulant extracted from the moringa seed had a dose of 1, 2 and 4 ml and aluminum sulfate as a control. The variables analyzed in the research were: total suspended solids (TSS), turbidity and color, for which a sample of 9000 ml of residual water was taken, the physical characterization was carried out presenting 120 mg / l of TSS, 43.52 FAU of turbidity and 456 Pt / Co of color respectively. The treatment with the highest efficiency in removing TSS was the T2 treatment (2 ml) with 89%, however, there were no significant differences between treatments according to the ANOVA test (p: 0.707); Regarding the turbidity variable, treatment T1 (1 ml) was the one that stood out with the highest percentage of removal (28%); for the color variable, the treatment T1 (1 ml) was the one with the highest efficiency with 15.33%, both variables did not have significant differences between the treatments, so it is evident that the treatment based on moringa in its different concentrations is a good coagulant to remove pollutants in wastewater.</p> Teresa Vivas Copyright (c) 13 3 Characterization of energy consumption agents in the residential sector of Ecuador based on a national survey and geographic information systems for modelling energy systems https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/801 <p>The residential sector is an example of the challenges that arise when modelling the heterogeneity of the energy system to assess energy policy. Some of the characteristics that influence the supply and demand of energy in the residential sector are the type of consumption, household income, family composition, type of dwelling, the climatic zone of residence, among others. The objective of this research is to characterize the agents of energy consumption in the residential sector of Ecuador. To achieve this goal, this article presents a methodology that combines a national survey (online and door-to-door) with Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The survey allows defining the main motivations, investment objectives and decision method of the agents when renewing or maintaining home energy technologies. For this, the agents have been classified based on their income level. GIS allows the agents to be spatially located and to have an estimate of the population that belongs to each agent by income level. The results are presented by income level for each group of agents and the agents are geolocated, characterizing them spatially. The quantitative attributes of each agent are determined in order to be used in energy systems modelling.</p> Diego Moya Dennis Copara Jorge Amores Manolo Muñoz Espinoza Ángel Pérez-Navarro Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2022-04-01 2022-04-01 13 3 68 97 10.29019/enfoqueute.801 Geographic distribution model of the Andean Condor (Vultur Gryphus) in Ecuador https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/800 <p>The andean condor finds distributed around Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú, Bolivia reaching Argentina. In ecuadorean territory, the andean condor is a badge bird that finds into danger of extinction, that is why is really important the caring and survival of this bird. The object of this investigation is to determinate the environmental variables that are related in order to the development of andean condor in the construction of a maximum entropy model finding in base of probabilities, the geographically suitable places to it's grouth. In order to developing, 69 nets were taken in ecuadorean territory and those were sized up by 23 environmental variables, being Bio 1 the environmental variable that more contributes on the establishment of the model with a 42.7% followed by Bio6 with a 16.4% of contribution. Regarding to geographically places, we find that in the provinces of: Pichincha, Napo, Cotopaxi and a small proportion in Tungurahua concentrates the biggest probabilities of nesting of the species.</p> Christian Andrés García Rengifo Daniel Copyright (c) 13 3 Management of Open Government and Use of The Transparency Portal in a Peruvian Public University https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/799 <p>Peruvian universities are obliged to articulate their policies under an Open Government (GA) model according to Law n° 27 806 on Transparency and Access to Public Information, in order to guarantee the transparency of institutional management, through the implementation of tools, as web portals, that guarantee a democratic digital participation. The objective of the study was to determine the relationship between Open Government management and the use of the transparency portal in a Peruvian public university. To do this, a basic research with a quantitative approach and a correlational not experimental design was carried out. A survey was applied through two questionnaires to a sample of 48 workers in charge of publishing information. The results and conclusions reveal that the level of open government management and the use of a transparency portal are acceptable, with a direct correlation (r = 0.5) and with a sig. unilateral equal to 0.000 (p value &lt;0.01). However, there is mistrust about the management of open government and the usefulness of the portal. In other words, the higher institution suffers from strategies or policies of government openness, which causes low public participation in the management of the university government.</p> John Ruiz-Cueva Lloy Pinedo-Tuanama Percy Barbarán-Mozo Luis Pretell-Paredes Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2022-01-14 2022-01-14 13 3 73 81 10.29019/enfoqueute.799 Numerical simulation of fluid-structure interaction to predict the response of bladeless wind turbines to wind-induced vibrations in compact cities https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/796 <p>This article presents an analysis of the Fluid-Structure response of bladeless wind turbines that work by induced aeroelastic resonance, which can be used in cities or small towns to form part of sustainable urban planning. In it, numerical simulations of the behavior of the wind and the effect called Von Karman Vortices that it produces when surrounding the structure of the wind turbine are carried out, taking as input data the wind speeds measured by the Mariscal Sucre Meteorological Station in Quito. CFD simulations determine the excitation signal caused by the different existing wind flows, the effects that these oscillations cause on the structure are simulated through a modal study and harmonic response to resonance. The results obtained show a proportional increase in the frequency and amplitude of the vortex shedding to the increase in wind speed, causing different excitation signals that cause the wind turbine to oscillate with amplitudes between 6 and 11 cm. Finally, the transient simulations show that the presence of houses and buildings in the vicinity where the wind turbine is installed causes the direction of the vortex street to vary, as well as alterations in the frequency and amplitude of the excitation.</p> Cristian Andrade-Terán Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2022-04-01 2022-04-01 13 3 1 16 10.29019/enfoqueute.796 Modeling and computational simulation of Piptocoma discolor (Pigüe) fluid for combustión optimization in Ecuador https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/795 <p>Computational modeling and simulation represents a competitive and functional tool that effectively supports the study of thermochemical behavior in combustion optimization, guaranteeing reliable results through modeling, design and allowed the validation of excess thermodynamic properties applied for combustion. of the biomass of Piptocoma discolor (pigüe) from the Amazonian region of Ecuador and Latin America. The model parameters were physical, chemical and thermal through computational fluid dynamics in combustion optimization. And the mathematical model of combustion was obtained under the transport method of the species. In the simulation, the variables of primary air flow and moisture content were observed. The variable of the combustion parameters were N2, O2, CO, H, pressure, temperature, humidity, total energy and burning time of the biomass particles. The geometric configuration was developed according to the fundamental principles of CFD within Ansys Fluent to obtain the behavior of speed, turbulence, pressure, etc. of the composition of the optimal fuel 91.75% of a complete combustion and compared to other species that show 86% of the reactions of the combustion of the species.</p> Juan Gonzalez Deny Oliva M David Zambrano Vera Rubén Darío Ledesma Mario Jorge Bonilla Erika Clara Casco G Édison Ernesto Zúñiga Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2022-04-01 2022-04-01 13 3 48 67 10.29019/enfoqueute.795 e Evaluación del diseño de Comunicaciones Unificadas de VoIP en redes CAN: caso de estudio Universidad Técnica de Manabí https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/794 <p>The unified communications VoIP modernize traditional communication by offering a single user interface, allowing technologies such as VoIP telephony, chat, instant messaging, e-mail, videoconferencing and fax to converge. The main objective of this research is to design a VoIP unified communications system for the Universidad Técnica de Manabí network that allows all services to coexist without affecting network performance. The research design is experimental through simulation, the methodology followed four phases. The OPNET simulator was used to establish a comparison between the three designs, considering four audio codecs, jitter and latency metrics, as well as voice quality through the MOS indicator. It is concluded that the audio codecs have a significant influence on the evaluation of the designs, being the three-layer hierarchical design the one that allows a better management of the packets circulating in the network, contributing to speed, reliability and availability.</p> Silvia Monserrate Cedeño Delgado Copyright (c) 13 3 Learning based on software development through with Civil Engineering students https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/792 <p>The software is necessary to improve the designs and operation of civil engineering projects. Despite its valuable contribution, during the Civil Engineer's training, it is more important to know the physical and mathematical elements behind each model. A combination of both, as software development, could enhance their learning. Therefore, this study aims to propose a learning methodology based on software development for Civil Engineering students. This methodology consisted of 6 phases: 1) choosing the model, 2) searching for developed software, 3) understanding the model, 4) choosing and training in the programming language, developing the software, and 5) validation. The methodology was applied to the iRAP model to evaluate road safety. The proposed methodology, based on several active learning techniques, favors the development of skills that Civil engineers will need in their professional practice. This procedure can be applied to other fields where the programming in the curricular plan is not deepened.</p> Yasmany García-Ramírez Santiago Quiñoñes Jandry Camacho Jefferson Montoya Angie Vicente Darwin Villamagua Copyright (c) 13 3 Honey authenticity in Ecuador https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/791 <p>Honey bees and stingless honey bees are valued pollinators. Honey is a medicinal food. Ecuador has an apifauna biodiversity of some 200 species of stingless bees (Hymeoptera: Apidae: Meliponini) producers of honey in cerumen pots. Ecuadorian comercial bee keeping with <em>Apis mellifera</em> neglects the cultural legacy of meliponiculture, to such extent that the norm for pot-honey made by consensus along the technical revision of the honey norm NTE INEN 1572, ages in the Ecuadorian Agency of Norms INEN in Quito. Classic and metabolomic data from my Prometeo Project at Universidad Técnica de Machala was provided to INEN to differenciate the entomological origin of Ecuadorian honeys and to detect fake honeys. A fast demonstration was done to uncover fake honey during a meeting of the Technical Committee of Norms: Food Products: Honey, in the year 2015. It is hard to understand how a country with the great biodiversity and ancestral knowledge is not taking action to empower the bee industry with botanical origin, entomological origin and protected geographical indication (PGI). The presence of fake honey is an indicator of bee development in a country. The authenticity analysis of Ecuadorian honey was carried out with the interfacial emulsion test, by quantitative sensory analysis and observation of the honey sediment. The main motivation for this work was to show alternative techniques to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and classical hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) analysis to detect false honeys.</p> Patricia Vit Copyright (c) 13 3 INFLUENCE OF THE DRIVING CYCLE, TYPE OF VEHICLE AND TRAVEL CONDITIONS IN THE CINEMATIC VARIABLES OF THE ROUTES IN URBAN BUSES. CASE STUDY IBARRA - ECUADOR https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/790 <p>Latin American cities have pollution and traffic problems due to the lack of research and planning in the transport sector. In Ecuador, the characteristics of the transport fleets and their kinematics in the city have not been determined. This study analyzes in detail the kinematic characteristics of each public transport route in the city of Ibarra-Ecuador using GPS georeferencing equipment for each second of travel. 22 urban bus routes were monitored evaluating 186 buses in 832 trips, where it was determined that the average speed, acceleration and deceleration depend mainly on three factors: route, city sector and vehicle model. Other factors such as operator, age of driver, travel times and time slot did not show greater significance in influencing the kinematic variables under study, so it is not considered within the research study.</p> Rommel Imbaquingo Ramiro Rosero Añazco Fredy Rosero Zamir Mera Fausto Tapia Jordan Ramirez Copyright (c) 13 3 INFLUENCE OF THE DRIVING CYCLE, TYPE OF VEHICLE AND TRAVEL CONDITIONS IN THE CINEMATIC VARIABLES OF THE ROUTES IN URBAN BUSES. CASE STUDY IBARRA - ECUADOR https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/788 <p>Latin American cities have pollution and traffic problems due to the lack of research and planning in the transport sector. In Ecuador, the characteristics of the transport fleets and their kinematics in the city have not been determined. This study analyzes in detail the kinematic characteristics of each public transport route in the city of Ibarra-Ecuador using GPS georeferencing equipment for each second of travel. 22 urban bus routes were monitored evaluating 186 buses in 832 trips, where it was determined that the average speed, acceleration and deceleration depend mainly on three factors: route, city sector and vehicle model. Other factors such as operator, age of driver, travel times and time slot did not show greater significance in influencing the kinematic variables under study, so it is not considered within the research study.</p> Rommel Imbaquingo Copyright (c) 13 3 Formulación de la mezcla de harinas de cebada (Hordeum vulgare) y lenteja (Lens culinaris) (cereal y leguminosa) para su aplicación en una bebida proteica. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/785 <p>The research consisted in obtaining a flour with a high protein content based on lentil flour and barley flour to be applied in a beverage. The parameters studied were: protein content, functional properties and sensory evaluation. Whose treatment (T2: 70%L-30%C) with the highest percentage of lentil presented the highest average protein value of 21.34%. Regarding the functional properties studied as the water absorption index (IAA), water solubility index (ISA) and swelling power (PH), the treatments did not show significant differences. Determining that for all treatments the swelling temperature was 90 ° C, this being an indicator in the preparation of the laundry. Regarding the sensory evaluation, the treatment (T3: 30%L-70%C) with the highest barley content was the one with the highest acceptability by the panelists with 68% in taste and 76% smell respectively.</p> MARIA ISABEL MANTUANO CUSME MARIANA AVELLAN CHANCAY kevin Avila Franco Copyright (c) 13 3 the redes mpls https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/787 <p>El presente trabajo de investigación consistió en realizar la evaluación de los parámetros de calidad de servicio en la red WAN de la Universidad Nacional de Huancavelica, antes y después de la implementación de la tecnología MPLS, teniendo como objetivo: Determinar la influencia del modelo de red con tecnología MPLS en la mejora de la calidad de servicio en la red WAN. Se realizó un estudio experimental de Pretest y Postest, de tipo explicativo llevado a cabo en un laboratorio de simulación mediante el software GNS3 y D-ITG. La población y la muestra está constituida por las diez redes WAN y el muestreo fue de manera no probabilística, en cada red se realizaron las pruebas de calidad de servicio, con los tres tipos de tráfico: datos, VoIP y Streaming, siendo los indicadores delay, jitter y perdida de paquetes para cada tipo de servicio. Los resultados obtenidos son óptimos en cada uno de los indicadores que son menores a los resultados obtenidos antes de la implantación de MPLS, por lo tanto, se concluye tanto estadísticamente que la tecnología MPLS influye significativamente en la mejora de la calidad de servicio en comparación con la tecnología IP, porque el valor de P es mayor a 0.05 del nivel significancia.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Palabras Clave: QoS, redes MPLS/VPN, VRF, BGP, OSPF, WAN.</p> WILLIAM DANTY RAMOS PAUCAR Copyright (c) 13 3 Telecommuting as a Sustainable Transportation Measure in Ecuador https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/786 <p>The purpose of this article is to provide information to determine that telecommuting in Ecuador can be used as a measure of sustainable transport. Briefly, sustainable development is described, and certain definitions and approaches related to sustainable transport are covered, for instance, the Avoid-Shift-Improve (ASI) approach, as well as the Transport Demand Management (TDM), which serve to validate from a conceptual point of view the application and usefulness of telecommuting. An overview of the current situation in the transport sector in Ecuador is analyzed; the final energy demand; the environmental aspects related to transport, and the amount of public and private employees that are telecommuting. Taking into consideration some hypothesis, such as car ownership rate, the total amount of kilometers driven per year, the assumption of the distance travelled by employees who take public transportation; the assumptions helped to determine the savings that can be obtained through telecommuting in the present time. Therefore, these results would provide adequate information for decision makers to establish a conclusive pronouncement on whether or not support telecommuting as a valid working approach, and to develop the necessary policies to maintain it over time.</p> Alvaro Nicolás Corral Naveda Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2022-01-14 2022-01-14 13 3 23 41 10.29019/enfoqueute.786 Sacha Inchi Energy Bars: Formulation optimization with Statistical Mix Design https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/783 <p>In this work, the optimization results are presented in the formulation of an energy bar of sacha inchi <em>(Plukenetia volubilis)</em>, applying the statistical design of mixtures for the analysis of composition and caloric power in the bar. Energy bars consisting of amaranth, quinoa, dehydrated pineapple, oats, honey and sacha inchi were developed. In each composition, the amounts of honey and sacha inchi were modified, selecting three bars with the greatest difference between their compositions and caloric power. When conducting an acceptability analysis based on the application of a survey, the potential consumers turned out to be people between 19 and 24 years old. In addition to performing an evaluation of the caloric intake to all the bars produced, a compositional or proximal analysis was carried out on the bar with the greatest acceptance, on the basis of which new formulations were developed, maintaining the caloric intake value and validating the acceptance by the consumer in each new formulation. Concluding that there are significant differences regarding the acceptance of the optimized and non-optimized bar, since the non-optimized bar has a higher content of sacha inchi than the non-optimized one (35 % wt and 30 % wt, respectively) and in terms of honey content, the non-optimized bar has a higher content than the optimized one (30 % wt and 20 % wt, respectively). An alternative energy bar was obtained that promotes the consumption of native cereals and lipids that also have a great nutritional contribution.</p> Katherine Verduga Jorge Luis Santamaría Gilda Gordillo Carolina Montero Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2022-01-14 2022-01-14 13 3 58 72 10.29019/enfoqueute.783 Literature Review of Reverse Logistic, applications and future trends https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/782 <p>This article presents a review of the literature on Reverse Logistics (RL) research, application cases and exploration. Various databases were used to retrieve articles. This review has allowed to analyze initial concepts of RL and complementary ones with new optics and arguments developed by various authors. The main contribution is the taxonomy proposed in the development of the article. It was made up of relationship of themes and terms found in the literary review. Also, the most important fields of application and future trends in RL have been identified, where it has been determined that it is necessary to extend the analysis of RL towards an economic, social, cultural and environmental perspective.</p> Jorge Campoverde Martha Helena Carrillo Jonnathan Jiménez Yumbla Raúl Roldán Nariño Diego Loyola Katherine Coronel Pangol Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2022-04-01 2022-04-01 13 3 31 47 10.29019/enfoqueute.782 Evaluation of the Aerodynamic Drag in fuel consumption in commercial vehicles in Ecuador https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/780 <p>Energy efficiency on small type vehicles is an important factor that has to be considered, as for the automotive industry, as well for the end consumer. The different motor companies only calculate the fuel consumption by using standard values without considering other external factors, hence car manufacturers just provide a rough calculation of it.&nbsp; The objective of this article is to analyze the influence of the air density over the aerodynamic resistance through a “Model in the Loop” (MIL); allowing it to evaluate the powertrain system and to calculate the fuel consumption for small type vehicles currently on use in Ecuador.In this context, this paper considers external factors found in different geographical locations in Ecuador.&nbsp; The results allowed to determine fuel consumption of 6,79 liters per 100 km for the Sierra region and 7,21 liters per 100 km for the Coast region, which represents an increase of around 6% for the latest due to the influence of the aerodynamic resistance between the two regions. The adaptation of the mathematical model allows a better and near accurate estimation of fuel consumption for small type vehicles currently on use in Ecuador.</p> Edwin Grijalva Jorge Javier Acosta Manosalvas Edison Marcelo Mancheno Padilla Copyright (c) 13 3 Multi-stage solar desalination system for water production in coastal areas of Ecuador https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/781 <p>A solar desalination system with heat recovery has been developed for coastal areas of Ecuador with a shortage of freshwater. The prototype consists of a 3-stage distillation tower connected to a flat plate solar collector. The solar energy absorbed by the collector is transferred by natural circulation to the distillation tower, wherein the heat of condensation of water is recovered in each stage to increase distillate output. The modular design of the equipment allows water production to be varied, from a few liters to more than a cubic meter per day. The prototype has few moving parts and can be rapidly disassembled and assembled, greatly facilitating its operation and maintenance. The average monthly production of the desalination unit varies between 4.3 and 5.8 liters per day (2.44 and 3.29 kg/m<sup>2</sup>). A mathematical model was created to analyze system performance. The accuracy of this model was improved by experimentally evaluating the convection heat transfer coefficients in the distillation tower. A simulation program was developed in Matlab-Simulink to predict the temperature profiles, distillate output, and heat flows in the unit. The simulation results for one day of prototype operation were very satisfactory, with a difference of only 7.7 % between theoretical and experimental data. The simulation was also used to analyze improvements in equipment performance, which determined that freshwater yield could be increased by up to 107 %.</p> Esteban Urresta Marcelo Moya Cajas Andres Campana Dario Rodríguez Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2022-01-14 2022-01-14 13 3 1 22 10.29019/enfoqueute.781 The Growth of Anisotremus scapularis (tschudi, 1846) under supply of living diets https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/779 <p>The purpose of this work was to evaluate the growth of <em>Anisotremus scapularis</em> larvae under live diet supply. 50,000 larvae were planted in a 900 L tank where the temperature was controlled daily. Sequentially, three diets were supplied: 1<sup>st</sup>) <em>Brachionus plicatilis</em> and 2<sup>nd</sup>) <em>B. plicatilis </em>+ <em>Artemia </em>sp. and 3<sup>rd</sup> <em>Artemia</em> sp. Biometric controls were recorded (cm): initial length, 3.0 ± 0.1 mm; diet with rotifer: 5.03 ± 0.15 mm and diet with <em>Artemia</em> sp. 6.43 ± 0.21 mm. It was concluded that, <em>A. scapularis</em> larvae showed growth under the semicontrolated conditions culture.</p> Luis Antonio Espinoza Ramos Copyright (c) 13 3 Architectures of Energy Harvesting Systems https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/777 <p>This article develops the literary review of the architectures of energy harvesting systems, identifying parameters such as: frequency, type of antenna, architecture (elements), among others. The methodology has four stages: a) Search for documentation, 10 systems were obtained, which were designated with the letter "S" accompanied by the article number; b) Reading of scientific documents; c) Extraction of information and architecture of the systems, where the stages of each system are detailed (which vary from 2 to 4), the working frequencies (300 KHz to 3.43 GHz, 2.45 GHz being the most used in systems for collecting radio frequency energy). In addition to using in certain systems, multiplier and rectifier circuits in different configurations: half wave, full wave; to later be stored in batteries or directly applied to devices; d) Documentation of the information extracted. Finally, after completing the literary review, it was observed that, in most articles, the systems have 3 stages: antenna, coupling, and rectification that transforms the received energy (alternating current) into direct current, their operation varies in frequency intervals of 1.8 to 2.4 GHz depending on the configuration of each system. Likewise, the product obtained is a consultation APP, with a selection menu of the different architectures investigated, which is a very beneficial contribution for researchers who wish to work in this area.</p> Fabian Salazar Maritza Núñez Julio Cuji Carlos Gordón Copyright (c) 2021 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 13 3 45 57 10.29019/enfoqueute.777 Convolutional Neural Network for Spatial Perception of InMoov Robot Through Stereoscopic Vision as an Assistive Technology https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/776 <p>In the development of assistive robots, a major challenge is to improve the spatial perception of robots for object identification in various scenarios. For this purpose, it is necessary to develop tools for analysis and processing of artificial stereo vision data. For this reason, this paper describes a convolutional neural network (CNN) algorithm implemented on a Raspberry Pi 3, placed on the head of a replica of the open-source humanoid robot InMoov, to estimate the X, Y, Z position of an object within a controlled environment. This paper explains the construction of the InMoov robot head, the application of Transfer Learning to detect and segment an object within a controlled environment, the development of the CNN architecture, and, finally, the assignment and evaluation of training parameters. As a result, an estimated average error of 27 mm in the X coordinate, 21 mm in the Y coordinate, and 4 mm in the Z coordinate was obtained; data of great impact and necessary when using these coordinates in a robotic arm to reach and grab the object, a topic that remains pending for future work.</p> Juan Felipe Cortes Zarta Yesica Alejandra Giraldo Tique Carlos Felipe Vergara Ramirez Copyright (c) 2021 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 13 3 88 104 10.29019/enfoqueute.776 Process improvement through integration of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point methodology and Knowledge Management https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/775 <p>Multiple tools have been developed for process improvement; however, the integration of techniques from other areas of knowledge is scarce. Knowledge management is a solid base that promotes continuous improvement and the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point methodology allows achieving this objective. The research proposed to glimpse a way to improve processes from the integration of elements of knowledge management and safety management. The proposal starts from the information of critical activities and the search and control of corrective measures that generate new information and stimulate continuous improvement. In this way, increasingly efficient and effective processes are achieved according to market and commercial characteristics, contributing to business success.</p> Yadrián Arnaldo García Pulido Copyright (c) 13 3 PAINT BOOTH TEMPERED WITH HEAT EXCHANGER OF CASE AND TUBES FOR VEHICLES https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/774 <p>During the drying process in the open air, different circumstances arise that influence the final finish of the painting, generally caused by impurities or insects. In addition, this process takes hours to handle the vehicle. For this, the design of a tempered paint booth will be developed, capable of storing the Ford vehicle model F450 Super Duty, considered the longest existing vehicle in 2021, the vehicle will be able to remain with the doors open inside the cabin without complicating the mobility of the operator, this system will allow to control variables such as the air entering the cabin and the interior temperature. The forced ventilation system will evacuate the internal air in the cabin at the time of painting, during the drying phase, air recirculation will be used to generate energy savings and achieve a temperature of 60C. 100 renewals / hours were considered to guarantee a clean air flow, the heat exchanger must provide 42.15 kW to reach the desired temperature, the filters are capable of providing an ideal air speed of 0.25 m / s, in addition to having a capacity retention of 5500gr / m2 for particles that are generated by paint spraying. Finally, by controlling these variables, air circulation free of contaminants and drying time reduction.</p> Jefferson Javier Sumba Ordoñez Copyright (c) 13 3 Firewall, Tráfico de datos, Segu Implementación de políticas de tráfico en una arquitectura de red para garantizar la seguridad de acceso y servicios en la PUCESE. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/773 <p>Nowadays, every company or institution must have a network architecture that allows to improve its security. It is for this reason that the main objective of this research is to design a prototype network architecture to ensure the security of access and services of the Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador Sede Esmeraldas (PUCESE). For the collection of information and development of this research, qualitative research was used, in which an interview was conducted with the network administrator using dichotomous questions; to demonstrate the results of the virtual practice according to the proposed network prototype, the Pfsense firewall was used for its high degree of security, user-friendly interface and for being open source. The result of this research showed that the current network architecture of the institution does not have an additional Internet service provider in case there is any failure in the service of the main provider, nor does it have another firewall that allows having high availability redundancy in its services. Finally, this research allows concluding that the proposed redundant network architecture prototype allows improving the security of the network architecture that the institution currently has, by having an additional Internet service provider, a load balancer with fault tolerance can be implemented, ensuring that the network service continues to operate in case there is any failure in the main WAN interface or it is disconnected; also if the main firewall is breached, the second firewall would replace it so that the network continues to be protected.</p> Wiston Cevallos Wilson Gustavo Chango Sailema Copyright (c) 13 3 Simulation of an active indirect hybrid dehydrator using ANSYS software https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/771 <p>This research simulated the behavior of an active indirect hybrid dehydrator with the atmospheric conditions of the city of Riobamba because there is a need to dehydrate fruits and vegetables that in times of overproduction do not reach the market. Develops a methodology that allows a good approximation of the solution. It starts with the design of the dehydrator prototype and then undergoes a meshing process, once a good quality mesh is obtained, the physical models that are going to be used in the simulation are selected, then the physical properties and conditions are entered. of contour that corresponds to the climatic conditions of the city of Riobamba, for its later simulation; After simulating the prototype, it is verified that the curve of physical variables to be calculated has stabilized and the residual curves are below the set value. If it complies with these two steps, it can be determined that the simulation is correct. For the validation of the results obtained in the simulation, data from a similar investigation are used. It is necessary to carry out the simulation to be able to determine if the designed dehydrator can work in the optimal range of temperatures for dehydration.</p> José Omar Cabrera Escobar Francisco Jurado David Vera Copyright (c) 2021 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 13 3 29 44 10.29019/enfoqueute.771 Influence of the Driving Cycle, Type of Vehicle and Travel Conditions in the Cinematic Variables of the Routes in Urban Buses. Case Study Ibarra-Ecuador https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/770 <p>Latin American cities have pollution and traffic problems due to the lack of research and planning in the transport sector. In Ecuador, the characteristics of the transport fleets and their kinematics in the city have not been determined. This study analyzes in detail the kinematic characteristics of each public transport route in the city of Ibarra-Ecuador using GPS georeferencing equipment for each second of travel. 22 urban bus routes were monitored evaluating 186 buses in 832 trips, where it was determined that the average speed, acceleration and deceleration depend mainly on three factors: route, city sector and vehicle model. Other factors such as operator, age of driver, travel times and time slot did not show greater significance in influencing the kinematic variables under study, so it is not considered within the research study.</p> Rommel Imbaquingo Navarrete Ramiro Rosero Añazco Fredy Rosero Obando Zamir Mera Rosero Fausto Tapia Gudiño Jordan Ramirez Martínez Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2022-01-14 2022-01-14 13 3 42 57 10.29019/enfoqueute.770 Advanced Oxidation as an Alternative Treatment for Wastewater. A Review https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/769 <p>Every year millions of cubic meters of wastewater are discharged into water bodies, which are treated in an inadequate way, these procedures being inefficient to achieve what is required by law or for use within industrial processes. In these cases, and due to the scarcity of water, the use of advanced oxidation processes is being used as an alternative treatment, which are based on physicochemical processes capable of producing profound changes in the chemical structure of pollutants, involving the generation and the use of transitory species with great oxidizing power, mainly the hydroxyl radical, which can be generated by photochemical means or by other forms of energy, and is highly effective in the oxidation of organic matter. This review aims to perform an analysis of the influence of treatments on the decontamination process.</p> Miguel Angel López Ramírez Olaya Pirene Castellanos Onorio Fabiola Lango Reynoso María del Refugio Castañeda Chávez Jesús Montoya Mendoza Cinthya Alejandra Sosa Villalobos Benigno Ortiz Muñiz Copyright (c) 2021 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 13 3 76 87 10.29019/enfoqueute.769 Design and construction of a low-density plastic crushing and granulating machine as a recycling tool https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/768 <p>The objective of this titling work is the design and construction of a low density PET plastic recycling and granulating machine, which will be used for shearing PET plastics, in order to provide a good quality tool by means of the implementation of different elements that will constitute this prototype such as transmission shafts, bearing selection, gears, shear blades, reduction motor selection, support structure, the selection of electrical and electronic elements can also be found for the automation of the processes, checking that all these parameters meet the objectives of this work. You can find the drawings of each designed element, the electrical drawings with the programmable logic controller (PLC) and the plastic crusher assembly.</p> Oscar Gonzales Copyright (c) 13 3 DISEÑO, EVALUACIÓN Y VALIDACIÓN DE UN PROCESO ESTANDARIZADO DE TEÑIDO EN DEGRADÉ PARA PIEZAS DE FIBRA DE ALPACA: CASO ANDES YARN S.A.C. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/767 <p>In this project, a standardized and semi-automated line was implementated to dye degraded alpaca fiber parts at Andes Yarn S.A.C which allows to increase the productivity of the degraded dyeing line and improve the quality of the service offered. This improvement proposal consists of a mechanical-robotic system with a PLC control system. The process in which it was implemented has three units, the first preparation of the textile part in which the piece enters with the customer's requirement, is marked and moisturized so that it can be dyed, the second degraded dyeing unit in which the dyeing of the piece is performed as such according to the tone requested by the customer and the third textile finishing unit, in which the piece is rinsed, centrifuged and dried to go through quality control. This standardized process ranges from preparing the part to be dyed until it is stored after it has dried after dyeing and is designed to obtain uniformly dyed parts, without defects in degraded and standardizing the finish between the parts of the same order batch so the components were sized and equipment selected for a compact, semi-automatic, modular and easy-to-operate system. This proposal provides a solution for textile dyeing companies that maintain a limited production process manual and artisanal with high possibility of reprocesses, obtaining a standardized process by controlling the parameters of temperature, time and volume of water as well as the execution of parameterized upstream and downstream movements in the immersion of the part standardizing the dyeing technique allowing to obtain more homogeneous results in a greater number of pieces instead of dyeing. The preliminary results indicate that a degraded dyeing process can be obtained with greater productive capacity that guarantees the quality of the finish of the part, establishing that it allows to stop relying on the expertise and experience of the operator in performing a manual/artisanal dyeing process, increasing variety, replicability and productivity.</p> SAMANTA LARCO ANA LUCIA PAZ PAZ Copyright (c) 13 3 Artificial intelligence in banana value chain: a bibliometric analysis https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/766 <p>This paper presents a systematic review and bibliometric analysis of research works worldwide regarding predictive models using Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology in Banana Value Chain (BVC). The methodology of this systematic review used 7 databases, and exclusion criteria were applied. 52 journal or conference articles were selected, which have been published in the last 5 years (2015 to 2020). Then, a bibliometric analysis was developed using bibliometric indicators to measure scientific productivity such as the number of publications by year, total cites by publication, total citations per paper, H-index of the journal, h-index of the author, etc. As a result, there is accelerated growth in the number of publications. Furthermore, the research team present: the most cited publication; the journal, institutions, and country most productive; and the 11 research areas which have been developed by the scientific community around the world. Finally, this review work concludes the top banana exporting country in the world does not belong to the top 4 most productive countries that publish related to AI in BVC in the last 5 years.</p> Estefani Almeyda Copyright (c) 13 3 Solution based on free software tools for the implementation of online teleworking in Cuban companies https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/765 <p>Nowadays the adoption of teleworking is a topic of interest for companies and businesses, however, its use in developing countries such as Cuba is incipient mainly due to economic and technological restrictions that hinder its implementation. The objective of this research is to develop a solution to implement online teleworking in Cuban companies through the use of free software tools. The scientific methods used were the synthetic analytical, the historical logical, the theoretical triangulation and the experimental method. Performance and security tests were realized to validate the proposed solution in the real environment of a medium-sized Cuban agribusiness company using the tools Wireshark, nmap, hping3, hydra, iPerf3 and the PING command. The results obtained showed that the solution guarantees the remote access of teleworkers to the company's digital applications in a secure way and with acceptable performance indexes in correspondence with the limited technological resources of the organization.</p> Rudibel Perdigón Llanes Copyright (c) 13 3 Methodology for the application of a business intelligence framework in the management of electricity supply in Peruvian companies https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/764 <p>This work shows a method based on Business Intelligence for solving questions and problems of companies in the electricity sector. For this, methodologies used by specialists were investigated, three methods were chosen and evaluated and of them, the CRISP-DM (Cross-Industry Standard Process for Data Mining) methodology was used as a reference. Making unconventional use of a commercial BI platform, the methodology was applied to a real case study: an agro-industrial company. After the application of the methodology and the descriptive, diagnostic, and prescriptive analyzes, information and knowledge were found that allowed to propose the deployment of corrective measures that will improve the management of the company's electricity supply, showing that these tools not only have application in commercial matters but also in the management of electricity supply.</p> Redy Risco Ramos Daniel Pérez Aguilar Luis Casaverde Pacherrez Edilberto Vásquez Díaz Copyright (c) 13 3 Análisis y detección de objetos en un partido de fútbol https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/763 <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>This application is developed using OpenCV on Python for the analysis of objects within a video of a football match. The process consisted of working with several elements such as the players, the ball and the field lines to achieve a joint detection of all these elements.</p> <p>The work presents the development of this application with a step-by-step explanation of the processes carried out, and the results that have been obtained when applying techniques for contour and color, morphological operations and together with it the use of Artificial Intelligence models. The tools that were used are YOLO, OpenCV and Tensorflow. Finally, the application was run with a video of a FA CUP 2020 of England match where Manchester United and Brighton teams played.</p> </div> </div> </div> Jaime Veintimilla-Reyes Copyright (c) 13 3 The CONSTRUCTION OF THE BODYWORK OF THE COMPETITION VEHICLE FORMULA STUDENTS FROM NATURAL FIBER COMPOSITE MATERIALS https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/762 <p>The present work describes the development of a body for the Student formula vehicle, using animal fiber (horsemane) and vegetable fiber (cabuya) as reinforcements adhered to a polyester resin matrix. Prior to the construction of the body, the behavior of the material to be used was analyzed by combining the reinforcements by means of different layers and subsequently subjecting them to tensile test, bending test and free dart drop impact test according to ASTM standards. In the design of the body, CAD software was used that allows it to be evaluated under real aerodynamic conditions and to determine the most suitable geometry. The layers were deposited manually to shape the pieces and a weight was applied to prevent the fibers from separating; once the pieces were cured and extracted from the mold, they were polished, to later deposit a base protection layer and polyurethane paint respectively. Once the bodywork was finished, the results obtained were favorable because the material presented excellent mechanical characteristics to the different efforts, reducing the mass by 41.95%, in relation to the 2012 bodywork that served as a reference, and that was manufactured with fiberglass and polyester resin.</p> Cristian Paredes Christian Bautista Patricio Mena Copyright (c) 13 3 Nutritional energy in pos COVID-19 time in Peru https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/761 <p>The current COVID-19 pandemic is a disease that affects everyone. The Peruvian government has promoted the use of physical barriers; however, the immune system is an important defense against the virus that has not yet been motivated. The objectives were: to know the COVID-19 disease and its behavior; to know the nutritional diet of the population; to define the population at risk and to make food proposals in time of pandemic in Peru. For this, we used the information sources of scientists and science institutions. The results were: the main characteristics of the disease and its effect on the population at different ages and risk groups; described the feeding in six different regions of Peru, showing high simple carbohydrate intake and unbalanced nutritional energy, identified the nutrients of the biodiversity resources; defined the population with the risk; presented a diet for patients at home, those in critical condition and those who passed the disease; as well as general recommendations to the population that includes a comprehensive energy to achieve a healthy life. Culminates highlighting the importance of the role of the Peruvian State to promote a healthy life for the population.</p> Laura Stefany Velásquez-Quispe Carlini Alberto Ortiz-Meza Ulises Gonzalo Calizaya-Mamani Andrea Alejandra Zapana-Calderón Gabriela Cristina Chire-Fajardo Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 13 3 1 28 10.29019/enfoqueute.761 Architectures of Energy Harvesting Systems https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/760 <p>This article develops the literary review of the architectures of energy harvesting systems, whose objective is to identify parameters: frequency, type of antenna, architecture (elements), among others. The methodology used has four stages: a) Search for documentation, 10 systems were obtained, which were designated with the letter "S" accompanied by the number of the article found, b) Reading of scientific documents, carried out in two stages; the first with readings between 20 and 30 minutes and the second at intervals of 60 to 150 minutes. c) Extraction of information and architecture of the systems, where the stages of each system are detailed (which vary from 2 to 4), the working frequencies (300 KHz to 3.43 GHz; the 2.45 GHz being the most used in systems for harvesting radio frequency energy). In addition to using multiplier and rectifier circuits in certain systems in different configurations to later be stored in batteries or directly applied in devices. d) Documentation of the information extracted. Finally, after completing the literary review, it was observed that, in most of the articles reviewed, the systems consist of 3 stages: antenna, coupling and rectification with frequency ranges from 1.8 to 2.4 GHz; therefore, it does not require a large number of elements and is simple to implement.</p> Carlos Gordón Fabian Salazar Maritza Núñez Julio Cuji Copyright (c) 13 3 Linkage scenarios of relational databases and ontologies: a systematic mapping https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/759 <p>Relational databases are one of the most used data sources. However, as a storage source, they present a group of shortcomings. It is complex to store semantic knowledge in relational databases. To solve the deficiencies in knowledge representation of relational databases, one trend has been to use ontologies. Ontologies possess a richer semantic and are closer to the end user vocabulary than relational database schemas. The objective of the present research was to carry out a systematic mapping about the scenarios where relational databases and ontologies are linked to provide a better integration, query, and visualization of stored data. The mapping was carried out by applying a methodological proposal established in the literature. As outcomes of the research, it was detected that the mapping of relational databases to ontologies and the ontologies usage for the integration of heterogeneous data sources were the most common scenarios. Likewise, trends and challenges were identified in each scenario, which might deserve further research efforts in the future.</p> Yoan Antonio Lopez Rodriguez Yusniel Hidalgo Delgado Nemury Silega Martinez Copyright (c) 2021 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 13 3 58 75 10.29019/enfoqueute.759 Applications of materials reinforced with natural fiber in the automotive area https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/758 <p>Concern about the depletion of fossil fuel reserves, increasing global warming has led to increased research on the substitution of synthetic fibers for natural fibers, and, the amount of research on natural fibers have an important role to play towards a sustainable and environmentally friendly future. In addition, products based on natural fibers have increased substantially. This article was applied the PRISMA methodology for the review of the available literature, which allows identifying relevant articles based on natural fibers and their application in the automotive industry, from recognized databases. The approach was provided to identify the elements formed in the automobile as indicators used by the authors for this analysis. Some properties required by simulation have been obtained from the literature, such as the physical and mechanical properties of the shaped materials for this type of automotive applications and multiple solutions. In this document, a review on current applications of natural fiber composites in different uses within the automobile has been presented along with some information on the future scope of research in the industry.</p> ANDRES MORENO CONSTANTE Copyright (c) 13 3 Removal of Heavy Metals (Cr+6, Ni, Zn) from Leachates of the Sanitary Landfill of the City of Veracruz, Mexico with Reactive Permeable Silica Sand Barriers https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/756 <p>The use of Permeable Reactive Barriers as a material for the removal of heavy metals from the leachates of the Sanitary Landfills has been verified for various materials, the Silica Sand from the coasts of the municipality of Alvarado Veracruz in Mexico have the characteristics of size and composition Required to be used for this purpose, samples of leachate were collected from the Sanitary Landfill of the City of Veracruz and the concentrations of Ni, Cr<sup>+6</sup> and Zn were determined were respectively 0.0818, 0.186 and 0.224 mg/l, three columns were built of acrylic and were filled with 20, 30 and 40 cm of washed and dried Silica Sand, treated and stabilized leachate was passed through the porous medium at a flow of 1.7 ml/s, taking samples at 40.75, 115 , 165 and 235 seconds for each column and the efficiency for the removal of these heavy metals was measured and a significant reduction of these pollutants was found, ranging from 76 to 93%. for Nickel, from 44 to 81 % in the case of hexavalent Chromium and from 65 to 92% for Zinc for a maximum time of 235 seconds, which indicates that this material can be used in the remediation of leachate.</p> Manuel Alberto Susunaga Miranda Bertha Maria Estévez Garrido Benigno Ortíz Muñiz Rodrigo Manuel Susunaga Estévez Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 13 3 65 78 10.29019/enfoqueute.756 Inhibition of lipid oxidation in ground meat by an extract of majagua flower (Talipariti elatum Sw.) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/757 <p>Increasing the shelf life of meat products is one of the fundamental objectives of the industry. For these reasons, the objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of a hydroalcoholic extract of majagua flower in the inhibition of lipid oxidation in ground pork. This was added at concentrations of 0.5; 1.5 and 3% m-v to the meat samples. The inhibition of lipid oxidation was carried out through the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) method after being stored for three days at 10 ° C. All the concentrations evaluated showed an important inhibition of the formation of TBARS, being greater as the concentration of the same increased. The minimum concentration (51 mg AGE / kg of meat) was able to inhibit the formation of TBARS by 61.7%.</p> Dairon Iglesias Guevara Rocio Cartaya Quintero Copyright (c) 13 3 ANÁLISIS DE LA VULNERABILIDAD SOCIAL EN CASO DE UN EVENTO SÍSMICO EN EL CENTRO HISTÓRICO DE LA CIUDAD DE QUITO https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/752 <p>El análisis de la vulnerabilidad social en caso de un evento sísmico, es un tema que amplía los conocimientos e inquietudes sobre los desastres naturales y en este caso, las consecuencias sociales que trae a la población. Este estudio requiere verificar la vulnerabilidad social en el CHQ, sus consecuencias desde la sociedad y como está debería de actuar frente a la existencia de un acontecimiento sísmico. La investigación se realizará a través de demostraciones gráficas de las propiedades sociales, urbanas y sísmicas del área de análisis. Con base de antecedentes del área de estudio más la actualidad, se recrea una matriz de evaluación de vulnerabilidad social considerando diversas cambiantes de vulnerabilidad como la residencia, turismo, demografía, economía y salud, del mismo modo, se investiga a la sociedad en peligro para conocer su papel en caso de existir un acontecimiento sísmico de enorme intensidad. Identificando los peligros presentes, se implementará tablas de valoración, el cual dejará saber el nivel de peligro de la ciudadanía e inmuebles. Una vez obtenidos los resultados se determinará cuáles podrían ser las reacciones de los habitantes, las consecuencias en la sociedad, con un enfoque en la salud psicológica y su evaluación dentro de la vulnerabilidad social.</p> Steven Marcelo Martínez Unigarro Copyright (c) 13 3 Importance of reference manager in the management of scientific information in university theses students https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/750 <p>Managing scientific information in the research process is a great challenge for university thesis students due to the difficulty of systematizing and structuring the excess of information available in different digital or physical sources. The objective of the study was to analyze the importance of reference manager as a technological tool for the management of scientific information in university theses students. We carried out a bibliographic review by searching electronic databases of scientific articles published in journals indexed to Latindex Catalog, Scielo and Scopus between the years 2016 and 2020. The results of the review describe the characteristics, functionalities, aspects and studies main ones on the benefits that reference manager provide to manage scientific information. We conclude that functions such as the organization of information, bibliographic citation and referencing, and collaboration between researchers provided by reference manager, constitute important resources for university thesis students.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Lloy Pinedo Copyright (c) 13 3