Enfoque UTE https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista <p>Enfoque UTE is a scientific journal that publishes research papers in engineering and related areas. The journal is aimed at the international community of researchers, scientists, practitioners and engineers in general, and receives papers written in English or Spanish.</p> <p>Enfoque UTE is a Diamond Open Access journal that firmly believes in the free dissemination of scientific knowledge, which is why it guarantees that its content and its services in general will be totally free for readers (no suscription fees), authors (no APC) and the general public.</p> <p>In its 12 years of life, the magazine has published more than 300 engineering research papers, serving more than 800 authors. All this has been achieved thanks to the selfless participation of its team of editors, reviewers and contributors, as well as the permanent support of the Universidad UTE, which funds the activities of the journal.</p> <p>Enfoque UTE is registered and indexed in several of the main international databases such as Web of Science (ESCI), Redalyc, Scielo, REDIB, Latindex, DOAJ, OAJI, Zenodo, MIAR, Periódica, BibLat, Google Scholar, among many others. <a href="https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/about">(About the Journal)</a></p> Universidad UTE en-US Enfoque UTE 1390-9363 <p>The articles and research published by the UTE University are carried out under the Open Access regime in electronic format. By submitting an article to any of the scientific journals of the UTE University, the author or authors accept these conditions.</p> <p>The UTE applies the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license to articles in its scientific journals. Under this open access license, as an author you agree that anyone may reuse your article in whole or in part for any purpose, free of charge, including commercial purposes. Anyone can copy, distribute or reuse the content as long as the author and original source are correctly cited. This facilitates freedom of reuse and also ensures that content can be extracted without barriers for research needs.</p> <p> </p> <p>This work is licensed under a <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 International (CC BY 3.0).</a></p> <p> </p> <p>In addition, the journal Enfoque UTE guarantees and declares that <strong>authors always retain all copyrights to the original published works without restrictions</strong> [© The Author(s)]. Acknowledgment (BY): Any exploitation of the work is allowed, including a commercial purpose, as well as the creation of derivative works, the distribution of which is also allowed without any restriction.</p> Predicting solar radiation in Manabí: A machine learning approach https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1064 <p>Solar radiation prediction has been studied within the academic context in several geographical locations to determine the variables that affect this phenomenon. However, there are no specific studies that have been carried out in the province of Manabí in Ecuador. To fill this gap in knowledge, this study develops a predictive model using machine learning algorithms to estimate solar radiation. A quantitative methodology is implemented using data collected from a meteorological station in Manabí. The results show that the Extreme gradient boosting algorithm presents the best effectiveness in predicting solar radiation according to the RMSE, MSE, and R<sup>2</sup> metrics, being the UV index is the most relevant variable that influences the prediction. The implications of this study are both practical and methodological. It is practical since it allows decision-makers to have tools for predicting solar radiation, which can improve the efficiency of solar energy systems. And, from the methodological perspective, it incorporates the use of meteorological variables that were not previously considered for the development of predictive models. This study sets a precedent for future research in similar geographical areas, expanding the use of machine learning algorithms in meteorology and renewable energy.</p> Daniel Arteaga Subiaga Jorge Parraga-Alava Lucia Rivadeneira Copyright (c) 15 2 a MDA Group LLC https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1063 <p>MDA Group LLC, established in 2015, is a system integrator aiding the transition to Russian solutions. It specializes in IT consulting, assessing the potential for import substitution and developing strategies for using Russian software and equipment. The company also develops, implements, and supports critical information systems and creates digital twins for various management purposes.</p> <p>Learn more:<a href="https://mdagrp.ru/">https://mdagrp.ru/</a></p> Vadim Yuriev Copyright (c) 15 2 Analysis of the number of bibliographic publications on the presence of microplastics in sediments in America with the Scopus search tool https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1062 <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">The objective of the analysis was to examine the scientific activity of the American continent in detail during a period of ten years (from 2014 to 2024), using a quantitative methodology, with articles that refer to the presence of microplastics (MPs) in sediments available in the Scopus database. 2,050 articles were collected, of which 123 (6%) corresponded to publications of MPs in sediments, dominating Brazil, the United States, Canada and Mexico, along with the main cited authors Alexander Turra, Patricia L. Corcoran, A.D. Vethaak. The methodology used was diverse: separation by density of microplastics, using an oil extraction protocol and FTIR spectroscopy, among others.</span></p> Fabiola Castañeda García María del Refugio Castañeda Chávez Gabycarmen Navarrete Rodríguez Rosa Elena Zamudio Alemán Copyright (c) 15 2 Please don't deleted this. This only for testing https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1061 <p>text</p> Comité Editorial Copyright (c) 15 2 R3D, an educational robotics strategy for the improvement of arithmetic skills. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1059 <p><strong>This article presents the design of a teleoperated robot through a mobile application, to strengthen the teaching of arithmetic in basic education children. It is a quantitative cross-sectional investigation, of an applied type, in which users were consulted about the desirable characteristics of the robot. The prototype consists of an LCD screen to show the reactions of the robot and the information of the sensors used in the interactive activities. The robot has a hinge with magnets to facilitate the placement of electrical and electronic components, as well as two static arms and tracked tires that facilitate mobility on different terrains. The field tests showed that children from 11 to 13 years of age are more interested in the subject matter, children from 12 to 14 years old were able to correctly control the robot with the mobile application, while children under 10 years of age are more interested in the appearance of the robot.</strong></p> CARLOS FELIPE VERGARA-RAMIREZ Copyright (c) 15 2 Artificial Neural Networks for Classification Tasks: A Systematic Literature Review https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1058 <p>Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have become indispensable tools for solving classification tasks across various domains. This systematic literature review explores the landscape of ANN utilization in classification, addressing three key research questions: the types of architectures employed, their accuracy, and the data utilized. The review encompasses 30 studies published between 2019 and 2024, revealing Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) as the predominant architecture in image-related tasks, followed by Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) architectures for general classification tasks. Feed Forward Neural Networks (FFNN) exhibited the highest average accuracy with a 97.12%, with specific studies achieving exceptional results across diverse classification tasks. Moreover, the review identifies digitized images as a commonly utilized data source, reflecting the broad applicability of ANNs in tasks such as medical diagnosis and remote sensing. The findings underscore the importance of machine learning approaches, highlight the robustness of ANNs in achieving high accuracy, and suggest avenues for future research to enhance interpretability, efficiency, and generalization capabilities, as well as address challenges related to data quality.</p> Eduardo Molina Copyright (c) 15 2 The Evaluation of morphological indicators and performance of Coriandrum sativum L when using homeopathic medicines https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1053 <p><strong>Coriandrum sativum is an important plant in medicine and cooking.</strong> <strong>The objective of this research work is to determine the morphological indicators and the performance of the cilantro crop when applying different dilutions of homeopathic medicines.</strong> <strong>The study was carried out in the Province of Cotopaxi, Ecuador, with a duration of 60 days.</strong> <strong>A completely randomized block design with factorial arrangement was used, (2 x 3 + 1) where factor A represents the homeopathic medications, and factor B represents the centesimal dilutions and a control, each treatment with four repetitions.</strong> <strong>Plant height, number of branches, fresh and dry weight of the plant, number of flowers, growth rate and yield were evaluated.</strong> <strong>The results reflected the highest plant height with 35cm for treatment six, with differences from the rest for P&lt;0.05.</strong> <strong>The number of branches, fresh and dry weight of the plant showed the highest values for T5, at 60 days, with 13.50, 8.22 g and 2.77g, respectively.</strong> <strong>Something similar occurred for the number of flowers, this variable showed 11.25 as the highest value at 60, with significant differences for P&lt;0.05, compared to the rest.</strong> <strong>Thus, the growth rate reflected 0.0453 for T6.</strong> <strong>The best yields were seen for treatments five and six.</strong> <strong>The vegetative growth variables in the cilantro crop improved with the use of homeopathic medicines, mainly in treatments five and six.</strong> <strong>The yield of the plant was higher when using treatments with homeopathic medicines, mainly for five and six, with values that doubled the control after 60 days of the study</strong>.</p> Tatiana Gavilánez Buñay Copyright (c) 15 2 A Chemical analysis of the buttercup Thitonia diversifolia under the conditions of the Ecuadorian Amazon https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1051 <p><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">El botón de oro, conocido científicamente como </span></span><em><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Thitonia diversifolia</span></span></em><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> , es una planta de gran importancia en la Amazonía ecuatoriana, por sus propiedades medicinales y beneficios agrícolas. En el estudio se realizó un análisis químico detallado de hojas y tallos de esta planta para determinar su composición nutricional. El proceso incluyó etapas como la determinación de humedad y contenido de cenizas, siguiendo metodologías específicas descritas en la literatura científica. Además, se destacó la influencia de factores climáticos como precipitación, temperatura, humedad relativa y velocidad del viento en la región del Centro Experimental de Investigación y Producción Amazónica (CEIPA), brindando un contexto relevante para el estudio.</span></span></p> <p><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Los resultados obtenidos del análisis químico revelaron información valiosa sobre la composición de las hojas de ranúnculo a diferentes edades (15, 30 y 45 días) con niveles de proteína cruda que oscilan entre 32,16%, 35,10% y 38,49%, lo que puede ser crucial para su uso en alimentación animal y en la mejora de la salud intestinal de los animales. Este estudio contribuye a ampliar el conocimiento sobre las propiedades de esta planta en la región amazónica, aportando datos útiles para su potencial aplicación en la industria agrícola y ganadera. En resumen, la investigación destaca la importancia del ranúnculo como recurso natural con beneficios potenciales tanto para la salud animal como para la agricultura en la región amazónica.</span></span></p> Hernán Uvidia Cabadiana Yajanua Alvarado Sasha Villacis Erika Casco Jhoeel Uvidia Copyright (c) 15 2 Analysis of Ultra-Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (UDWDM) in a Passive Optical Network (PON) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1049 <p><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">Passive Optical Networks (PONs) are essential in op-</span><br role="presentation"><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">tical communications to meet the increasing demand for network</span><br role="presentation"><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">capacity and connected users, ensuring reliable and adaptable</span><br role="presentation"><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">connections for data transmissions. These networks also offer</span><br role="presentation"><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">efficient energy use and simplification of infrastructures, elimi-</span><br role="presentation"><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">nating the need for active devices. In this context, Ultra-Dense</span><br role="presentation"><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">Wavelength Division Multiplexing (UDWDM) is one of the most</span><br role="presentation"><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">prominent solutions for data transmission; this technology takes</span><br role="presentation"><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">advantage of the narrow separation between channels from 25</span><br role="presentation"><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">GHz and even as small as 6.25 GHz to increase the transmission</span><br role="presentation"><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">capacity. This document analyzes the performance of UDWDM</span><br role="presentation"><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">considering the transmission of three simultaneous channels in</span><br role="presentation"><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">a PON network for which three different scenarios have been</span><br role="presentation"><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">considered for the analysis with the following parameters: i)</span><br role="presentation"><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">transmission speed from 10 Gbps to 17 Gbps; ii) the distance</span><br role="presentation"><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">from 10 km to 20 km; and iii) the separation between channels</span><br role="presentation"><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">of 15 GHz, 20 GHz, and 25 GHz. The performance metrics for</span><br role="presentation"><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">the analyzed scenario are the bit error rate and the eye diagram.</span><br role="presentation"><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">To ensure the reception of the transmitted channel, an analysis</span><br role="presentation"><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">of raised cosine and Gauss filters is also discussed. Including</span><br role="presentation"><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">these filters allows for verifying whether their use enhances the</span><br role="presentation"><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">performance of the channels compared to transmission without</span><br role="presentation"><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">a filter. This is crucial for understanding how filters can optimize</span><br role="presentation"><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">the quality and reliability of data transmission in a PON, which</span><br role="presentation"><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">is of great importance in environments where high efficiency and</span><br role="presentation"><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">connection quality are required.</span></p> Christian Tipantuña Copyright (c) 15 2 Occupational Health and Safety Plan to Reduce the Accident Rate in a fishing company, Chimbote – 2023 https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1048 <p>The objective of this work was to implement an occupational health and safety plan to reduce the accident rate in a fishing company Chimbote - 2023, is pre-experimental of an applied type, the population was made up of 75 accidents that occurred in the fishing company in a period of 4 months. To know the current situation of the company, a baseline was prepared with a checklist, finding that the company had a low security level of 18.6%. A security policy, a security committee, an IPERC matrix, training programs and internal records are implemented. Subsequently, the checklist is applied, with the final result being a 98.36% safety level, thus reducing the frequency rate by 52.29% and the severity index by 57%, significantly reducing the accident rate in the fishing company. Chimbote. – 2023, it was concluded that the implementation of an occupational health and safety plan reduces the accident rate in a fishing company, Chimbote – 2023.</p> ambar chero gonzalez Copyright (c) 15 2 Solution to the problem of adjusting parameters in ODE using ANN https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1047 <p>El propósito de la identificación de parámetros es desarrollar o mejorar representaciones matemáticas de sistemas físicos utilizando datos experimentales. Este trabajo se centra en comparar los resultados obtenidos mediante la estimación de los parámetros del modelo mediante métodos numéricos con los resultados obtenidos mediante la modelización de redes neuronales artificiales. Se utilizó una red neuronal multicapa entrenada con el algoritmo de retropropagación, junto con el método de optimización de Levenberg-Marquardt, para aproximar el modelo no lineal de un proceso en un enfoque de aprendizaje supervisado. La red neuronal diseñada logra una emulación adecuada del proceso utilizando los datos reservados para las pruebas de red. Para comparar su rendimiento, se contrastan los resultados obtenidos mediante la estimación de los parámetros del modelo a través de métodos numéricos ODE 45. La red neuronal con 10 neuronas en la capa oculta fue seleccionada como la mejor opción, debido a su capacidad para aproximarse con precisión al sistema utilizando un número reducido de neuronas. Esta red tiene una sola entrada, una capa oculta y dos salidas. Las redes neuronales exhiben una notable robustez y excelentes capacidades de aprendizaje. Pueden reconocer patrones incluso con un cierto margen de error, lo que les permite predecir el comportamiento de los sistemas dinámicos sin depender de un modelo explícito.</p> Francisco Duque-Aldaz Francisco Duque-Aldaz Fernando Rodríguez-Flores José Carmona Tapia Copyright (c) 15 2 Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curves for Manicaragua city, Cuba https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1046 <p><em>The Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves are a way to visualize and represent extreme hydrometeorological rainfall events. In this article, an analysis of convective rainfall events recorded at the La Piedra Meteorological Station, Villa Clara, Cuba, was conducted. To develop IDF curves, the 2006-2019 time series was analyzed. A partial duration series was generated, including intervals from 20 minutes to 4320 minutes, subjected to an outlier detection process. The series was divided into two categories: one for durations ≤ 720 minutes and another for durations &gt; 720 minutes. The resulting series underwent non-parametric tests to assess their independence, randomness, homogeneity, and seasonality. Subsequently, they were fitted to the Generalized Pareto probability distribution and to a parametric equation of the Montana model, and then the curves were plotted for return periods of&nbsp; 10, 50 and 100. The Montana model led to obtaining correlation coefficients greater than 0.90 compared to the other methods used, significantly improving the quality of the fit in both categories. This research provides information to understand and plan the management of intense climatic phenomena and adequate risk management in an area where such studies are lacking, facilitating access to crucial data essential in the design and execution of hydraulic engineering projects in the region.</em></p> Roberto Luis López Ferraz Copyright (c) 15 2 He (Occupational health and safety plan focused on the ISO 45001:2018 standard as a strategy to reduce accident rates in the distribution of industrial gases.) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1044 <p>The main objective of this research is to reduce occupational accidents that occur during the distribution of industrial gases in companies in the chemical sector, since these products have specific characteristics that represent a great risk not only during their production, but also during their transfer and storage. Through the implementation of an occupational health and safety plan which takes the ISO 45001:2018 standard as its main focus, the aim is to reduce accidents that occur. It is an applied, quantitative research with an experimental design where the aim is to manipulate one of the variables in order to study the effect produced on the other. As data collection techniques, a checklist was used which serves as a baseline to determine the current level of compliance of the company in reference to what is structured by the ISO standard and technical sheets to determine the current values ​​of each indicator. In conclusion, it was determined that the implementation of a PSSO in a company dedicated to the commercialization of industrial gases managed to successfully reduce its accident rates from having an initial value of 11,183.70 to 1,322.58 as a result of the accident rate analysis.</p> Richard Alexander Málaga Ramírez Copyright (c) 15 2 the Effect of cutting age on the productive indicators and nutritional quality of Brachiaria hybrid vc. Mulatto I https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1043 <p><strong>with the objective of determining the productive components, chemical characterization, digestibility and energy contribution of the Brachiaria hybrid vc Mulato I at different ages of cuts in both periods of the year.</strong> <strong>For which a randomized block design with four repetitions was used.</strong> <strong>It was sampled in plots of 25 m<sup>2</sup>, to which a uniformity cut was applied 10 cm from the ground, without irrigation or fertilization.</strong> <strong>The yield of total dry matter, leaves and stems was determined;</strong> <strong>the length and width of the leaves;</strong> <strong>the leaf-stem ratio, chemical composition (CP, NDF, ADF, ADL, CC, Si, P, Ca, ash and OM), energy contributions and digestibility.</strong> <strong>A double classification analysis of variance was applied to each variable studied and the means were compared according to Duncan (1955).</strong> <strong>Crude protein decreased with age for both periods, showing significant differences between all ages.</strong> <strong>The best values were shown at 30 days of&nbsp; </strong><strong>cutt</strong><strong> (9.47 and 10.40% in the rainy and dry periods respectively), the fiber increased with age with its best values at 75 days with (71.39 and 70.11% in the rainy periods</strong> <strong>and little rain), aspects that conditioned the quality with a decrease in digestibility and energy intake.</strong> <strong>The yield of the plant was affected by the periods of the year, being higher in the rainy period.</strong> <strong>It is concluded that the increase in regrowth age directly influences the depression of nutritional quality and yield in both periods of the year.</strong></p> Danis Manuel Verdecia Acosta Copyright (c) 15 2 The bioaccumulative potential of heavy metals in five forest species living in mining environments in the Ecuadorian Amazon region. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1042 <p>Heavy metal contamination of soils and ecosystems is an environmental problem that requires urgent attention due to the ecological problems that it generates. Forest species can be used to mitigate contamination because of their potential to bioaccumulate contaminating metals. The objective of this work was to evaluate the bioaccumulator potential of heavy metals in five forest species that live in mining environments in the Ecuadorian Amazon region. The bioconcentration factor for five forest species, such as: Cedrela odorata, Parkia multijuga, Inga edulis, Cecropia ficifolia and Pourouma cecropiifolia, commonly found in the Ecuadorian Amazon was analysed, based on the relationship between the concentration of the heavy metal in leaves and the soil. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to analyse heavy metals in leaves and soil samples of each plant specie. The results showed that P. cecropiifolia had the highest bioconcentration factor for lead, C. odorata for cadmium and nickel, and I. edulis had the highest potential for iron and aluminium absorption. No correlation was found between the concentration of each element in the soil and the leaves, which shows that the bioaccumulation capacity of the species studied does not depend on the concentration of the element in the soil. This provides relevant information for the inclusion of these species for phytoremediation purposes.</p> Yudel García Quintana Dixon Domingo Andi-Grefa Luis Ramón Bravo-Sánchez Samantha García-Decoro Sonia Vega-Rosete Sting Brayan Luna-Fox Yasiel Arteaga-Crespo Copyright (c) 15 2 Generation of an integrated air quality index based on atmospheric pollutants using fuzzy logic https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1041 <p>In the city of Cuenca - Ecuador, in order to prevent the harmful effects of pollution on the population, an air quality index was developed, based on the recommendations of the Environmental Protection Agency of the United States, which is result of the pollutant with the highest value and uses a scale through crisp sets. The present study proposes an alternative calculation for the air quality index using the pollutants ozone (O<sub>3</sub>) and particulate matter PM<sub>2.5</sub>, as well as fuzzy logic techniques to generate a classification by linguistic labels that are closer to human reasoning and expert criteria. Three Mamdani type fuzzy systems were implemented, using triangular, trapezoidal and gaussian membership functions; with 30 inference rules and defuzzification by centroid method. The results demonstrate the feasibility of applying fuzzy logic for the generation of an air quality index</p> Andrés Patiño Copyright (c) 15 2 Validation of the Tensile Test of A36 Steel Through Finite Element Method and Experimental Data https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1040 <p>This study conducts a thorough comparative analysis of tension testing methodologies, combining experimental procedures with stress analysis via CAD and CAE software. Structural steel A36, extensively utilized across diverse industries, necessitates a comprehensive understanding of its mechanical characteristics, notably its tensile strength, capped at 420 MPa. Employing computational numerical analysis serves to streamline design processes, enhance optimization, and mitigate costs. Given the impracticality of conducting destructive tensile testing owing to the absence of a universal testing machine, computational simulations were employed to ascertain the maximum stress tolerance of specimens, adhering to ASTM E8 standards. Experimental testing commenced at an external institution, involving four specimens, with an average maximum stress of 422.45 MPa observed under a load of 34.53 kN. Following this, 3D modeling of the specimens was executed, with SolidWorks facilitating physical discretization, yielding 10 861 elements and 47 060 nodes. Initial fixed support conditions were established, alongside the application of axial loads. ANSYS software was then utilized, specifically within the Explicit Dynamics module, generating a mesh comprised of 3 829 elements and 7 480 nodes, boasting a mesh quality skewness of 0.2403. Subsequent stress analysis in CAD and CAE software revealed maximum stress values of 417.2 and 426.59 MPa, respectively. These findings, accompanied by relative errors of 0.67, 1.56, and 0.56 % concerning manufacturer-specified values for CAD, CAE, and experimental testing, validate these technological tools' efficacy as viable alternatives for tension testing and comprehending material behavior.</p> Isaac Simbaña David Saquinga Marco Macías Leonidas Ramírez Copyright (c) 15 2 Optimización De Una Máquina Pulidora Metalográfica: Revisión Sistemática https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1039 <p>Este estudio se enfoca en la optimización de la selección de elementos para pulidoras metalográficas, esenciales para analizar la estructura microscópica de muestras metálicas. A través de metodologías inductivo-deductivas y analíticas, y una exhaustiva revisión bibliográfica, se evaluaron cambios en componentes como banda, rodamiento y motor, así como la selección del sistema de transmisión más eficiente entre los miembros ya mencionados. El objetivo fue mejorar la eficiencia y precisión del pulido. Los resultados, presentados en tablas resumen, detallan las características técnicas de los elementos optimizados, ofreciendo una guía útil para la implementación en laboratorios de materiales. Este documento resalta la importancia de la optimización técnica de las pulidoras metalográficas, considerando sus beneficios y limitaciones, y el impacto de estas mejoras en el análisis de materiales.</p> Ronaldo Villalba Copyright (c) 15 2 THE IMPORTANCE OF PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE ON A 5.5 HP ENGINE OF A GARLIC HARVESTER MACHINE https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1038 <p>In agriculture, machinery efficiency and durability play key roles in sustaining productivity. Within this context, preventive maintenance emerges as a critical component, especially for specialized equipment such as garlic harvesters. This article underscores the importance of implementing a meticulously planned maintenance program, which not only prevents costly breakdowns but also elevates the overall performance of this vital equipment.<br>Highlighting the importance of this approach, analysis of the Honda GX160H1 engine, with efficiencies of 65.48\%. and 66.67\%. at peak and net power respectively, illustrates the relevance of selecting efficient engines and subjecting them to rigorous preventive maintenance. These efficiency indicators highlight optimal fuel usage and superior engineering, which are critical to engine reliability and adaptability to the rigorous demands of agriculture.<br>The study adopts a mixed methodology, combining qualitative and quantitative techniques, to provide an in-depth understanding of preventive maintenance on combine harvesters. In addition, a quantitative analysis of historical maintenance records reveals cost patterns and makes it possible to calculate the savings and efficiency improvements that can be derived from the effective implementation of a maintenance program.<br>A meticulous approach to maintenance, ranging from daily checks to semi-annual reviews, optimizes the balance between required maintenance frequency and associated operating costs. Detailed procedures for each maintenance task ensure optimal engine care, extending engine life and maximizing reliability and efficiency.</p> Jorka Fernanda Pozo García Copyright (c) 15 2 TRPW Thiamethoxam Residuality in Papaya Plant and Fruit (Carica papaya Linnaeus) Cultivated in Rotation with Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1037 <p class="MDPI17abstract"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif;">There is evidence of the high use of the neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam, in tropical crops, for its effectiveness in the control of soil and plant pests. The objective of this study was to know the residuality and concentration of thiamethoxam in the papaya agroecosystem, in the main papaya fruit producing zone in the central area of ​​the Gulf of Mexico. It was carried out during a papaya growing cycle with watermelon rotation; the taking of samples was according to the technique established by the NOM -AA-103-1988 for leaves and for fruit the NMX -FF-041-1996 by the method of quartering in papaya and watermelon, the samples were analyzed with a HPLC-UV, the data obtained were statistically analyzed by parametric and non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis tests. The presence of thiamethoxam was found in papaya and watermelon cultivation plants, the concentrations in papaya leaves reported a maximum value of 0.29 mg/kg, while for the leaves of the watermelon rotation fruit it was 0.15mg/kg. In papaya fruit, thiamethoxam concentrations are within a range of 0.24 to 0.32 mg/kg. The concentrations and residuality of thiamethoxam mainly exceed the maximum tolerance and residuality limits of the EFSA and FAO.</span></strong></p> Juan Valente Megchun Garcia María del Refugio Castañeda Chávez Daniel Arturo Rodríguez Lagunes Fabiola Lango Reynoso Isabel Araceli Amaro Espejo Copyright (c) 15 2 La IMPORTANCIA DE LA ADECUADA SELECCIÓN DE MOTORES ELÉCTRICOS PARA MÁQUINAS PARA USO INDUSTRIAL https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1036 <p>The article addresses the problem related to the incorrect selection of the electric motor for industrial machines. An analytical approach and a qualitative method were used, including a review of literature focused on the topic. The results highlight that improper motor selection can result in problems such as poor performance, overheating and unplanned downtime, and affects the safety and well-being of workers in the industrial environment. It is concluded that an appropriate selection of the electric motor guarantees optimization, operational efficiency and minimizing costs in industrial and commercial environments without neglecting the safety and well-being of the workers who operate these machines in industrial environments.</p> Johnny Granizo Paolo Paredes Eugenia Naranjo Copyright (c) 15 2 La Importancia Del Correcto Montaje y Desmontaje de Rodamientos https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1035 <p><strong>During the mounting or dismounting procedure of a bearing, it is common for component damage to occur due to improper use of tools or methods, which reduces bearing life. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to analyze how this issue impacts machine performance and safety. machine performance and safety. Desk research was conducted on the methods, equipment, and tools available in the industry. Throughout this research process, a comparative analysis was made between the relevant methodologies to determine which is the most effective. The methods chosen were oil injection mounting, tapered bore bearing mounting and for the dismounting of cylindrical and tapered bore bearings, specialized for fast installations. In conclusion, the importance of the process of mounting or dismounting bearings to achieve greater safety and efficiency in the process is highlighted.</strong></p> Mishell León Eugenia Naranjo Vargas Monica Moreno Barriga Copyright (c) 15 2 CFD simulation of surface pumping of heavy crude oil in eastern Ecuador https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1034 <p><strong>This research addresses the surface pumping of heavy crude oil, specifically crude oil with an API gravity of 15.8, under particular atmospheric conditions in eastern Ecuador. The main objective of the study is to evaluate the temperature loss in a 50-meter segment of an SCH-80 pipe, 4 inches in diameter, used for the transportation of extraheavy crude oil. To achieve this objective, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation, a key tool for predicting the thermal behavior of crude oil in interactions with the environment, was used. Through this methodology, we seek to understand how extraheavy crude oil loses temperature and determine the convective coefficient, knowing that the heat that the fluid loses to the environment occurs mainly by convection. This is done with the objective of being able to determine what the temperature losses will be in larger pipe sections. With this database, future research could evaluate potential heating technologies that facilitate the transportation of heavy crude oil. This approach allows for the exploration of innovative solutions to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of heavy crude oil handling, which is one of the main challenges in its transport: managing its high viscosity.</strong></p> José Omar Cabrera Escobar Copyright (c) 15 2 Evaluation in-vitro of antifungal activity of Tectona grandis L leaves aqueous extract https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1033 <p>Fungicidal action of <em>Tectona grandis</em>&nbsp; aqueous&nbsp; extract&nbsp; from leaves was evaluated&nbsp; in vitro againt three&nbsp; phytopathogenic, <em>Rhisopus stolonifer, Aspergillus oryzae</em> , and <em>Aspergillus niger</em> , the&nbsp; leaves extract of <em>T.grandis</em> significantly reduced radial growth of all tested pathogens. <em>T. grandis</em> extract had different degrees of antifungal activity against tested pathogens. Reduction effect on all pathogens was increased by the increase doses of&nbsp; <em>T. grandis</em> extract. The dose of 75mg/mL achieved maximum effectiveness for all the fungi evaluated, with no growth observed in any of the cases.Figure 3.&nbsp; The leaves extracts of <em>Tectona grandis</em> may be recommended as a potent natural origen fungicide.In future&nbsp; assays&nbsp; can be&nbsp; use&nbsp;&nbsp; <em>T. grandis</em> aqueous&nbsp; extrac againt others&nbsp; fungi pathogens&nbsp; as natural fungicide . All of which would allow us to propose a new environmentally friendly antifungal, reducing production costs and the possible damage caused by the chemical substances used for these purposes.</p> Dulce Gonzalez Mosquera Luis R Bravo Sánchez Yasiel Arteaga Crespo Jannys Rivera Barreto Andrea Riofrio Carrión Copyright (c) 15 2 Investigation of Wind Effects on UAV Adaptive PID Based MPC Control System https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1032 <p>In this paper, an assessment of the state of coastal territories of Ecuador monitoring issue is conducted. The use of an autonomous robotic aerial platform is proposed as a technical solution to enhance the efficiency of remote surveillance missions performed by national security services along coastline. Considering the UAV nonlinear flight dynamics, as well as the missing information of the environment, is designed a UAV hierarchical control structure composed of an adaptive PID based MPC control strategy. The implementation of an adaptive PID based MPC controller leads to significantly improve the UAV optimal trajectory tracking task, as well as satisfy properties such as adaptiveness, self-learning, and capability of handling uncertainties caused by the unpredictable behavior of sea currents and wind loads retaining robust performance features. In this work, the investigation of external disturbances on UAV stabilization and positioning accuracy considers swirling wind flows and short-term wind gusts. These correspond to deterministic and random processes, are mathematically represented as trigonometric functions with random amplitudes determined by the gust coefficients and the wind loading periods of the pulses. The established range is given by a set of several observations of wind loads in the coastal territories of Ecuador. The analyzed data is collected from the database of national meteorological stations. Finally, the simulation process of the perturbed controlled motion of the UAV along a segmented linear trajectory, as well as the data analysis and graphics are carried out in the MATLAB environment.</p> Andres Santiago Martinez Leon Sergey Jatsun Oksana Emelyanova Copyright (c) 2024 The Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 15 2 36 47 10.29019/enfoqueute.1032 The bioaccumulative potential of heavy metals in five forest species living in mining environments in the Ecuadorian Amazon region. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1031 <p>Heavy metal contamination of soils and ecosystems is an environmental problem that requires urgent attention due to the ecological problems that it generates. Forest species can be used to mitigate contamination because of their potential to bioaccumulate contaminating metals. The objective of this work was to evaluate the bioaccumulator potential of heavy metals in five forest species that live in mining environments in the Ecuadorian Amazon region. The bioconcentration factor for five forest species, such as: <em>Cedrela odorata</em>, <em>Parkia multijuga</em>, <em>Inga edulis</em>, <em>Cecropia ficifolia</em> and <em>Pourouma cecropiifolia</em>, commonly found in the Ecuadorian Amazon was analysed, based on the relationship between the concentration of the heavy metal in leaves and the soil. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to analyse heavy metals in leaves and soil samples of each plant specie. The results showed that <em>P. cecropiifolia</em> had the highest bioconcentration factor for lead, <em>C. odorata</em> for cadmium and nickel, and <em>I. edulis</em> had the highest potential for iron and aluminium absorption. No correlation was found between the concentration of each element in the soil and the leaves, which shows that the bioaccumulation capacity of the species studied does not depend on the concentration of the element in the soil.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Yudel García Quintana Dixon Domingo Andi Grefa Samantha García Decoro Luis Ramón Bravo Sánchez Yasiel Arteaga Crespo Copyright (c) 15 2 Recommendation system to promote underground music in Trujillo, Peru https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1029 <p>The research addressed the problem of the exhibition of independent musicians in Trujillo, Peru, focusing on the low level of discoverability, the limited coverage of the song catalog and the dissatisfaction of the artists. A pre-experimental design was used, including measurements before (pretest) and after (posttest) applying the independent variable, with a sample of 30 artists for satisfaction surveys. A recommendation system was developed in two phases: creation of the application using Ionic, Express, Flask and PostgreSQL, and design of the content-based recommendation algorithm, using the Scrum and CRISP-DM methodologies for each phase. Qualitative instruments, such as the survey, yielded a Kendall coefficient of 0.0192 and an internal consistency of 97% using Cronbach's alpha. The results presented in response to the problems initially raised denoted an increase in the level of discoverability to 90% of diversity of recommended artists, an increase to 23.6% was also obtained with respect to the coverage of the song catalog and, finally, In the level of satisfaction of independent artists there was an increase of 44.97%.</p> Alessandro Moises Venegas Villarreal Ayrton Oscar Alfonso Soto Alarcon Juan Pedro Santos Fernandez Juan Luis Cordova Otero Luis Enrrique Boy Chavil Copyright (c) 15 2 Curvas de Intensidad-Duración-Frecuencia para la ciudad de Manicaragua, Cuba. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1028 <p class="Abstract" style="line-height: 115%;"><span lang="EN-US">The Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves are a way to visualize and represent extreme hydrometeorological rainfall events. In this article, an analysis of convective rainfall events recorded at the La Piedra Meteorological Station, Villa Clara, Cuba, was conducted. To develop IDF curves, the 2006-2019 time series was analyzed. A partial duration series was generated, including intervals from 20 minutes to 4320 minutes, subjected to an outlier detection process. The series was divided into two categories: one for durations ≤ 720 minutes and another for durations &gt; 720 minutes. The resulting series underwent non-parametric tests to assess their independence, randomness, homogeneity, and seasonality. Subsequently, they were fitted to the Generalized Pareto probability distribution and to a parametric equation of the Montana model, and then the curves were plotted for return periods of 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, and 200 years. The Montana model led to obtaining correlation coefficients greater than 0.90 compared to the other methods used, significantly improving the quality of the fit in both categories. This research provides information to understand and plan the management of intense climatic phenomena and adequate risk management in an area where such studies are lacking, facilitating access to crucial data essential in the design and execution of hydraulic engineering projects in the region</span>.</p> Roberto Luis López Ferraz Carlos Lázaro Castillo García Ismabel Domínguez Hurtado Copyright (c) 15 2 Reduction of Setup Times in a Metal Fabrication Company Using a Lean-Sigma Approach https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1027 <p><strong>Manufacturing companies face demand fluctuations and must deliver the required quantity of parts to their customers within the required time; however, companies face different challenges in fulfilling them. One is technological advances, which make it impossible for them to compete with other countries, such as China, due to financial issues. Therefore, manufacturing companies use continuous improvement methodologies to achieve better performance in their processes. Six Sigma and Lean Manufacturing are some of the best-known approaches. This article briefly presents the application of a lean sigma approach oriented to solving problems. This research proposes a methodology based on Lean Sigma that contrasts what different authors currently do: continuous improvement projects that take up to 12 months to produce results and do not solve a problem. This implementation is conducted in a process that manufactures metal parts and fails to deliver them on time to its customers. Using tools such as the Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED) in a production line, on-time deliveries were increased from 89% to 96%; at the same time, the model change times were reduced by approximately 60%, which is required for the implementation of this methodology for only four weeks, unlike the traditional six-sigma approach that can take up to 12 months to improve the process.</strong></p> Omar Celis-Gracia Jorge Luis García-Alcaraz Fabiola Hermosillo-Villalobos Francisco Javier Estrada-Orantes Liliana Avelar-Sosa Noe Gaudencio Alba-Baena Copyright (c) 15 2 EVALUATION OF BEST PRACTICES IN IT GOVERNMENT IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF LITERATURE https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1025 <p>The progress of information technologies is continuous and has led organizations to adopt measures to ensure the effectiveness of their processes and security of these and that today we know that the most valuable asset of each company is the information it contains. Organizations should seek to develop strategies to certify the availability, integrity and above all reliability in the management of information, as this can be subject to theft, violation and external and internal threats such as ramsomware and an infinite number of information hijacking techniques, which can be solved with the use of good IT governance practices. This study wants to know what are the best practices of cobit, ITIL frameworks.</p> cristopher antoni alvarado armas Copyright (c) 15 2 Current Status and Challenges of IoT Research in the Ecuadorian Healthcare Sector: A Systematic Literature Review https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1023 <div class="w-full text-token-text-primary" data-testid="conversation-turn-61"> <div class="px-4 py-2 justify-center text-base md:gap-6 m-auto"> <div class="flex flex-1 text-base mx-auto gap-3 md:px-5 lg:px-1 xl:px-5 md:max-w-3xl lg:max-w-[40rem] xl:max-w-[48rem] group"> <div class="relative flex w-full flex-col agent-turn"> <div class="flex-col gap-1 md:gap-3"> <div class="flex flex-grow flex-col max-w-full"> <div class="min-h-[20px] text-message flex flex-col items-start gap-3 whitespace-pre-wrap break-words [.text-message+&amp;]:mt-5 overflow-x-auto" data-message-author-role="assistant" data-message-id="2a70e317-1ef5-4bb4-851f-acacaf781420"> <div class="markdown prose w-full break-words dark:prose-invert light"> <p>The Internet of Things (IoT) has the potential to revolutionize healthcare by enabling remote patient monitoring, personalized care and disease prevention. In Ecuador, research on IoT in the healthcare field is rapidly expanding. However, there’s a need for a clearer understanding of the current state of this research. This study examines the contributions of Ecuadorian authors in this field through their publications in two globally impactful bibliographic databases. The methodology employed is a systematic review using the PRISMA statement, resulting in a final stage comprising 23 articles. These publications encompass system proposals, prototypes, and reviews with applications in areas such as epidemiology, cardiology and nursing. The recurrent mention of patient information privacy is a challenge in implementing IoT-based healthcare systems. The conclusions emphasize that future work perspectives should address the challenges identified, considering the growing trend of publications from Ecuadorian authors.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> Cristina Vaca-Orellana María Valle Dávila Copyright (c) 2024 The Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 15 2 36 47 10.29019/enfoqueute.1023 EVALUATION OF BEST PRACTICES IN IT GOVERNMENT IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF LITERATURE https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1022 <p>The progress of information technologies is continuous and has led organizations to adopt measures to ensure the effectiveness of their processes and security of these and that today we know that the most valuable asset of each company is the information it contains. Organizations should seek to develop strategies to certify the availability, integrity and above all reliability in the management of information, as this can be subject to theft, violation and external and internal threats such as ramsomware and an infinite number of information hijacking techniques, which can be solved with the use of good IT governance practices. This study wants to know what are the best practices of cobit, ITIL frameworks.</p> cristopher antoni alvarado armas Copyright (c) 15 2 Eco-friendly Motorcycle Taxi, Reducing Pollution with an Electrolyzer https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1021 <p>Environmental pollution from transportation has been a fundamental challenge for mankind throughout history, with conventional fuels contributing significantly to environmental degradation. This project seeks to mitigate the pollution generated by motorcycle cabs, whether for personal and/or private use. The main objective of the research work was to implement an electrolyzer in the combustion system of a motorcycle cab to reduce environmental pollution. The materials used were the test vehicle, electrolyzer, 12V battery, caustic soda, flame arrester filter, measuring instruments, tools and workshop equipment. The methods included vehicle preparation, electrolyzer installation, battery adjustment, hydrogen generation, emission measurement, safety, and data collection. As a result, the electrolyzer was successfully implemented in the single-cylinder motorcycle cab; reducing 100% of the pollution. The discussion highlighted that hydrogen is a clean fuel, with zero emissions and only emitting water vapor instead of polluting gases. The conclusion underlines the critical importance of the research, supported by solid evidence of total reduction of 3.739% of carbon monoxide and 1.96% of carbon dioxide, being 100% of the gases emitted by conventional fuel.</p> MANUEL ANTONIO RODRIGUEZ PEREZ Copyright (c) 15 2 Análisis costo beneficio en la implementación de medidores inteligentes https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1019 <p>The research focuses on the challenges related to the measurement of energy consumption in the Villa Francia Association, Moquegua. The overall purpose is to analyze the cost-benefit of implementing smart energy meters in the Association. A financial evaluation was carried out taking into account the actual cash flows and considering the 15-year duration of the smart meter. The results obtained are favorable with an Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of 14% and a Net Present Value (NPV) of $ 2124.69 dollars, for favorable results, the benefits that the service provider entity will obtain, as well as the energy users, must be considered.</p> RONNY Copyright (c) 15 2 Eco-friendly Motorcycle Taxi, Reducing Pollution with an Electrolyzer https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1018 <p>Environmental pollution from transportation has been a fundamental challenge for mankind throughout history, with conventional fuels contributing significantly to environmental degradation. This project seeks to mitigate the pollution generated by motorcycle cabs, whether for personal and/or private use. The main objective of the research work was to implement an electrolyzer in the combustion system of a motorcycle cab to reduce environmental pollution. The materials used were the test vehicle, electrolyzer, 12V battery, caustic soda, flame arrester filter, measuring instruments, tools and workshop equipment. The methods included vehicle preparation, electrolyzer installation, battery adjustment, hydrogen generation, emission measurement, safety, and data collection. As a result, the electrolyzer was successfully implemented in the single-cylinder motorcycle cab; reducing 100% of the pollution. The discussion highlighted that hydrogen is a clean fuel, with zero emissions and only emitting water vapor instead of polluting gases. The conclusion underlines the critical importance of the research, supported by solid evidence of total reduction of 3.739% of carbon monoxide and 1.96% of carbon dioxide, being 100% of the gases emitted by conventional fuel.</p> MANUEL ANTONIO RODRIGUEZ PEREZ Copyright (c) 15 2 A Efecto de una estrategia de economía circular para mejorar la gestión de residuos peligrosos en la empresa Wari Service S.A.C en Lima, 2023 https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1017 <p>The study was based on studying the circular economy strategy that can improve the management of hazardous waste in the company Wari Service S.A.C. in Lima. The study involved a basic, non-experimental study, using observation as a technique, with a sample consisting of the amount of waste generated by the company. A waste management checklist was applied. The results showed that the company generates: Industrial rags with a quantity of 14.176 kg; absorbent cloths=14.403kg; Tivek suits=24.012; contaminated soil=278.212 kg; vehicle oil=15.063kg; used grease=111.57kg; absorbent sausages=7.735 kg; disused filters= 74 kg; tyres=700 kg. In the areas of maintenance (1046,443 kg), volcano project (111,112 kg) and operations (77.8 kg), with the collection period being from April to August. In view of the above, activities such as reuse, recycling and bioremediation were proposed in order to ensure efficient management of hazardous waste. It was concluded that the strategies that can be implemented, such as the circular economy, will improve solid waste management in the company.</p> Georgina Milagro Velarde Guerra Copyright (c) 15 2 Nutritional Physiology of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Fed on Different Wheat Varieties https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1016 <p>Within the context of agricultural ecosystems, understanding the nutritional physiology of insects and their host plant preferences is essential for optimizing pest management strategies and improving crop production. In this study, we conducted an in-depth examination of the nutritional physiology of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the context of different host plants, specifically wheat varieties, in comparison to maize. Our investigation focused on key parameters, including the Relative Consumption Rate (RCR), Relative Growth Rate (RGR), and Efficiency of Conversion of Ingested food (ECI) of S. frugiperda fed on different wheat varieties including: Dilkash-20, Fakhar-E-Bhakkar-17, Subhani-21, Faisalabad-08, and Akbar-19 in comparison to maize (NK-6654). The results revealed that S. frugiperda displayed a significantly (P &lt; 0.05) higher RCR (8.08 g/g/day), RGR (1.50 g/g/day), and ECI (25.1 %) when feeding on maize, followed by Fakhar-E-Bhakkar-17 (RCR =7.00 g/g/day, RGR =1.24 g/g/day and ECI =21.4 %) and Akbar-19 (RCR = 6.06 g/g/day, RGR = 1.04 g/g/day and ECI =19.7 %) wheat varieties after 1 week of feeding. The lowest values of all these nutritional parameters were recorded on the Dilkash-20 variety (RCR = 2.98 g/g/day, RGR = 0.38 g/g/day, and ECI = 7.94 %). These findings offer valuable insights into the nutritional interactions between S. frugiperda and the host plants, shedding light on potential implications for pest management strategies and crop patterns.</p> Aqsa Amjad Muhammad Irfan Ullah Muhammad Arshad Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed Rafia Umar Nahdia Perveen Muqadas Qadeer Haroon Gul Copyright (c) 2024 The Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 15 2 30 35 10.29019/enfoqueute.1016 La Mejora continua en el incremento de la Productividad en una Empresa de Empaques Flexibles https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1015 <p>The flexible packaging industry has remained in constant growth at a global level, the importance of applying continuous improvement to increase productivity in a flexible packaging company is detailed, reducing the various critical defects that exist in the printing area by applying the tool. of Ishikawa and Pareto Diagram, in this way the company can be made efficient and effective. The main objective is to determine how continuous improvement increases productivity in the printing process of a flexible packaging company in Peru. The daily production of coils was analyzed for a period of 65 days before and after the improvement carried out, using observation and documentary analysis as techniques and activity sheets and formats as instruments. The approach used was quantitative and the design was pre-experimental. As results, the improvement in productivity was evident from 53.75 to 73.63%, achieving an increase of 37%; efficiency improved from 75 to 87% and effectiveness from 73 to 85% showing an increase of 16%.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Continuous Improvement; Productivity; Efficiency; Effectiveness; Flexible Packaging.</p> MARTIN MIGUEL AVALOS TORRES Copyright (c) 15 2 Evolution of the Polygon of the Protected Natural Area “Parque Nacional Sistema Arrecifal Veracruzano” Due to the Expansion of the Port of Veracruz, Mexico https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1014 <p>The Port of Veracruz, Mexico was artificially built at the beginning of the 21st century, dredging the sea floor and removing reefs to allow the entry of large ships, which led to a growth in the traffic of goods and people through it, making it the largest commercial port in all of Mexico. In 1992 the Government of Mexico decreed the area of coastal reefs near the Port of Veracruz as a protected natural area with the name of the Parque Nacional Sistema Arrecifal Veracruzano (PSNSAV). In 2013, with the demand of international trade, the decision was made to expand the port, generating job growth in the area and an increase in the flow of containers and automobiles, also have a greater capacity to transport cereals, minerals and fuels. In contrast to the disagreements of the society due to the loss of protected space, the Parks polygon had to be modified. This work try to demonstrated that the construction of the port expansion began previous the presentation to the environmental authorities of the Environmental Impact Statement and the change in the protected limits with the disappearance of the Punta Gorda reefs and the dredging of Vergara Bay for the arrival of deep draft vessels. Through a systematic mapping of the scientific literature combined with satellite mapping and visual interpretation of images, and documentary analysis, we determined the damage to the reef system, which has protected species according to Mexican national regulations.</p> Xochitl Citalli Hernandez María del Refugio Castañeda-Chávez Mario Díaz-González Ángel Morán-Silva Fabiola Lago-Reynoso Olaya Pirene Castellanos-Onorio Jesús Montoya-Mendoza Manuel Alberto Susunaga-Mirada Copyright (c) 2024 The Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 15 2 48 55 10.29019/enfoqueute.1014 the Seed quality of five corn (Zea mays) genotypes used in Ecuador https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1013 <p><strong>The quality of the seed is vital for its subsequent germination.</strong> <strong>Evaluate different quality indicators in five genotypes of corn seeds used in Ecuador.</strong> <strong>The research was carried out from September 2021 to March 2022 in the germplasm laboratory of the Technical University of Cotopaxi.</strong> <strong>The genotypes SOMMA 6215, NB-7443, 2B-604, INIAP H-554, INIAP H-551 were evaluated, which constituted the treatments in a randomized block design.</strong> <strong>Seed moisture, standard germination, emerging speed index, electrical conductivity, vigor, viability, plant height and aging were determined.</strong> <strong>Plant humidity reflected the best values for treatments two and five.</strong> <strong>Germination reached its highest percentage (95) for the NB-7443 genotype, with no differences for P &lt; 0.05 with respect to treatments three and four.</strong> <strong>For the index of emerging speed, vigor and viability, the best response was presented by NB-7443 with 24.70, 84.50 and 98.50%, respectively.</strong> <strong>Electrical conductivity was higher for the first genotype evaluated, with differences compared to the rest.</strong> <strong>Thus, the plant height at 5, 10 and 15 days after emergence was higher for NB-7443.</strong> <strong>Something similar occurred with accelerated aging. NB-7443 showed the best results, although it did not reflect differences for P&lt;0.05 compared to NB-7443.</strong> <strong>The different quality indicators evaluated reflected the best response for the NB-7443 genotype.</strong> <strong>The INIAP H-554 variety also expressed good results, which can be considered acceptable for the conditions where the experiment was developed.</strong></p> Jorge Luis Ramírez de la Ribera Copyright (c) 15 2 “DISEÑO DE VIVIENDA RURAL BIOCLIMATICA PARA EL CONTROL DEL FRIAJE EN EL CENTRO POBLADO DE VIZCACHAYOCC, 2023” https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1012 <p><strong>El problema que dio origen a este proyecto de tesis se originó en la región Ayacucho, donde muchos pobladores de las zonas altoandinas se ven severamente afectados por el fenómeno climático durante el frío. También podemos mencionar que los pobladores más vulnerables son principalmente los niños y los ancianos, quienes carecen de viviendas adecuadas que mantengan una temperatura agradable dentro de sus hogares. Con mi licenciatura en ingeniería ambiental, espero contribuir creando un prototipo de vivienda rural sostenible, respetuosa con el medio ambiente y térmicamente confortable que ayude a sus ocupantes a gestionar los efectos del frío.&nbsp; Cabe señalar que se eligió el pequeño poblado de Vizcachayocc, situado en la región natural de (3500 a 4000 msnm) en la región Ayacucho, provincia de Cangallo, distrito de Morochucos, cerca de los pueblos de Chanquil y </strong><strong>Pampa Cangallo, comunidad quechua a una elevación aproximada de 3595 msnm. Situada a una elevación de 3595 msnm, esta comunidad quechua cumple con todos los requisitos para la implementación de un diseño adecuado de vivienda rural bioclimática con aislamiento térmico en épocas frías. Esto se debe a que la comunidad es extremadamente susceptible a los embates anuales de este fenómeno. </strong></p> <p><strong>La investigación descriptiva mediante una técnica cuantitativa no experimental es el enfoque de este proyecto de tesis.</strong></p> ABET HECTOR CASTRO CONGA Copyright (c) 15 2 SUPERANDO LAS DIFICULTADES: LA ADOPCIÓN DEL BIM EN EMPRESAS CONSTRUCTORAS EN PERÚ https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1011 <p>Building information modeling (BIM) has proven to be a valuable tool in the construction industry, however, Building Information Modeling (BIM) methodology has gained popularity throughout the world due to the benefits it offers in terms of efficiency, quality and improvement in the life cycle of a construction project. However, its adoption has not been as fast or easy for all construction companies, especially in developing countries like Peru. This article will explore the specific difficulties that Peruvian construction companies face when trying to implement BIM in their projects.</p> <p>The BIM system in Peru is new, which is why the majority of construction companies and their technicians are still more than 65% unaware of the concept and implementation of BIM. This article aims to know the real difficulties in providing alternatives with a view to to be mandatory in 2030.</p> JORGE PABLO AGUILAR ZAVALETA Copyright (c) 15 2 Comparative Analysis of Automotive Spare Parts Sales Conducted through Physical and Virtual Channels: Post-Pandemic https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1009 <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 12.0pt;">Due to the health crisis brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic, which directly disrupted all sectors contributing to the country's economic development, numerous changes and adaptations were made to maintain financial stability in businesses. This was due to mobility restrictions and the limited operation of commercial and productive establishments. The automotive sector was affected by the lack of access to resources and inventory flow, leading to a decline in the economy generated by transportation and the trade of auto parts due to the global production and importation halt. This situation gave rise to new trends through digital channels, also known as e-commerce. This article presents a comparative analysis of auto parts sales through physical and virtual channels in light of this health emergency that significantly impacted the global automotive sector.</span></p> Angie Alvarez Rivera Copyright (c) 15 2 DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE OF A MECHANICAL PROTOTYPE FOR PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES - CASE STUDY NISSAN PATHFINDER S.E. 4X4 https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1010 <p>This document presents the requirements for the design, manufacture of a mechanical prototype to mobilize people with motor disabilities, in order to reduce the effort when entering or leaving a vehicle, for the assembly several anthropometric factors and the necessary requirements for the passenger seat of the Nissan Pathfinder S.E. vehicle were analyzed. For the manufacture of the mechanism, ASTM A36 steel and an AISI 1045 medium carbon steel plate were used, due to their properties and handling. Subsequently, the modeling was carried out in a CAE program and through the analysis of finite elements, deformation results, maximum stresses and safety factors of the prototype and an auxiliary element such as the running board were achieved. In the operational tests carried out it was evident that the displacements and rotation angles of the mechanism obtained an efficient performance when entering and leaving the vehicle cabin, achieving easy handling, being medical and occupational safety personnel who witnessed the final result.</p> Bryan Jhon Briceño Martínez Copyright (c) 15 2 The Efficient supply chain management in SMEs of the Automotive Sector in Guayaquil https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1008 <p>&nbsp;Inventory management is a key indicator in the performance of any supply chain, so its efficiency will be reflected in the efficiency of the entire chain. This article faces the need to promote the sustainable growth of the automotive sector in Guayaquil, so the stated objective was: to propose strategies for efficient inventory management in the supply chain of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the Automotive Sector of Guayaquil, such as contribution to its sustainable development. A mixed approach was used, with an exploratory and descriptive scope, inductive and deductive methods were used, and the questionnaire was used as a technique for data collection. The sample was made up of the leaders and owners of 95 SMEs randomly selected in Guayaquil. The main results show the mapping of the supply chain of SMEs in the Automotive Sector of Guayaquil and a general assessment of the current situation of their inventory management. It is concluded that inventory management is considered deficient, taking as a key element the insufficient application of the supply chain approach by not considering key indicators such as stock management, the balance point and the reorder point within the management of inventories.</p> <p>Index terms- Supply chain, Ecuador, efficient management, inventory management, SMEs, Automotive sector.</p> Ronald Flores Torres Copyright (c) 15 2 Flow Patterns in Two Nanorefrigerants R600a/CuO and R410A/CuO During the Boiling Process https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1006 <p>The present study aims to know the flow patterns in two nanorefrigerants R600a / CuO and R410A / CuO throughout the forced boiling process in horizontal square pipes. Those are obtained using the thermophysical properties of the refrigerants R600a and R410A in state liquid and vapor, as well as the properties of the CuO nanoparticles. The analysis was carried out using two methods: analytical and numerical. The analytical method was established by formulas and correlations through scientific articles and books to find an improvement in the two-phase heat transfer, under the conditions at an inlet temperature of 8 ° C and with a quality range of 0 to 1. This allowed to verify that by adding nanoparticles to the refrigerant, the transition between the flow regimes increases progressively, while the quality of the vapor decreases. For the numerical method, the different transition limits are specified in a simulation process in the Ansys Fluent CFD Software, under established design conditions, which consequently increases the general efficiency of any refrigeration system.</p> Fernando Toapanta-Ramos Elizabeth Suquillo Carlos Cornejo Copyright (c) 2023 The Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2024-01-01 2024-01-01 15 2 21 27 10.29019/enfoqueute.1006 Containers-Based Network Services Deployment: A Practical Approach https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1005 <p>In recent years, virtualizing network services<br>and functions has enabled optimizing hardware resources on<br>resource-constrained devices, such as CPU, memory, and storage.<br>Traditional virtualization is achieved through virtual machines<br>using a layer known as a hypervisor. While this form of virtualization offers advantages such as scalability and portability, it has disadvantages in terms of performance compared to non-virtualized deployments. In this context, alternative virtualization technologies like containers allow virtualization on the same physical infrastructure, improving overall performance, portability, and service scalability. This paper implements the deployment of network services on the Raspberry Pi development platform, which has limited resources. This is achieved through a multi-container virtualization solution using the Docker Compose tool, based on Docker containerization technology. Finally, a performance analysis of the implemented virtualization solution is conducted in terms of resource utilization by each service.</p> Christian Tipantuña Andrés Yazán Jorge Carvajal-Rodriguez Copyright (c) 2023 The Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2024-01-01 2024-01-01 15 2 36 44 10.29019/enfoqueute.1005 Assessing the Efficacy of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin as a Biological Control Agent against Rose Sawfly Larvae https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1004 <p class="Abstract">Increasing concerns over the environmental impact of chemical pesticides have prompted the exploration of alternative, and eco-friendly solutions for controlling insect pests. The use of entomopathogenic fungus (EPF) as a biological control agent is of paramount importance. We aimed to investigate the effect of different concentrations of <em>Metarhizium anisopliae</em> (Metschnikoff) Sorokin on larval mortality and pupal formation, of sawfly larvae, a major pest of rose plants. Our study revealed a concentration-dependent effect of <em>M. anisopliae</em> on sawfly larvae. At 7 days after EPF exposure, the highest concentration (1 × 10<sup>9</sup> conidia/ml) led to a mortality rate of 65.0% and at the 11th day, the larval mortality was reached up to 82.5%. The highest EPF concentration resulted in a minimal pupal formation (7.5%). This study demonstrates the potential of <em>M. anisopliae</em> as a valuable biological control agent against sawfly larvae infestations in rose plants.</p> Nahdia Perveen Eman Rashid Huda Aitzaz Malaika Shaheen Haroon Gul Muhammad Arshad Muhammad Irfan Ullah Copyright (c) 2023 The Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2024-01-01 2024-01-01 15 2 16 20 10.29019/enfoqueute.1004 Developing Fuel Efficiency and CO2 Emission Maps of a Vehicle Engine Based on the On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) Approach https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1002 <p>A vehicle interacts with the road, other vehicles, and traffic control devices in real traffic conditions. The level of traffic influences driving patterns and, consequently, this can affect the vehicle´s fuel efficiency and emissions. This study aims to develop engine maps of fuel consumption and CO<sub>2</sub> emissions for a light vehicle operating under real traffic conditions. A representative passenger vehicle of the Ecuadorian vehicle fleet, powered by gasoline, was selected for the experimental campaign that was developed on a test route designed according to real driving emission (RDE) regulation. An on-board diagnostic (OBD) device was used for recording in real-time engine and vehicle operating parameters. Moreover, CO<sub>2</sub> emissions were estimated using the fuel rate registered from the OBD system of the vehicle This study proposed a novel methodology for developing two-dimensional contour engine maps based on OBD data. &nbsp;The result showed that the vehicle engine operated in real traffic conditions with a brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of 27%, a brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of 275 g/kWh, and a carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) energy-emission factor of 716 g/kWh. In terms of distance, the CO<sub>2</sub> emission factor for the tested vehicle was approximately 190 g/km. Overall, this study demonstrates that the OBD approach is a potential method to be used to assess the fuel consumption and emissions of a vehicle operating under real-world traffic conditions, especially in Latin American countries, where portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) are not readily available.</p> Fredy Rosero Obando Xavier Rosero Zamir Mera Copyright (c) 2023 The Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2024-01-01 2024-01-01 15 2 7 15 10.29019/enfoqueute.1002 El Modelo de la cantidad de pedido en producción y la productividad en una empresa ensamblaje de carrocería en Lima https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1003 <p>The objective of this research was to improve productivity through the production quantity model applied in the RMB SATECI company in the city of Lima. This research is of an applicative type with an explanatory level and a quantitative approach. It also has a pre-experimental design of temporal and longitudinal scope because measurements were taken before and after implementation. The population was 347 items from its warehouse being manipulated in a period of 16 weeks, the measurement instruments were used: Kardex and recording sheets, for measurements of the two variables before and after implementation. The validation of these instruments was carried out by experts in the field. Data processing and analysis were carried out using descriptive and inferential statistical methods using SPSS version 26 software. The result of the implementation of Inventory Management according to the production model improved productivity by 46.03% pretest and 85.52% post-test, likewise with the efficiency before 65.37% it increased to 91.80% and the effectiveness before 70.6% increased by 93.10%.</p> MILDER ADEL NOLASCO Copyright (c) 15 2 THE Improvement of methods in rice production in a company in the Arequipa region https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/1001 <p>Abstract — The application of the study of methods with a focus on improving the rice production of a company in the Arequipa region, derives from the exhaustive analysis of each of the activities that comprise the production process, in which tasks that do not contribute value to the final product. Where tools such as time taking, diagramming and waste identification allow for the reduction of unproductive times. Therefore, the aim is to increase the productivity of the rice company by increasing the level of compliance with the programmed production quotas. As a result, the company's rice production time was reduced by 37 minutes, which generated a positive impact on productivity with an increase of 15.5%.</p> antonio henry pinto salas ANA KARINA Hanco QUISPE Copyright (c) 15 2 Convergence and stability criteria for numerical solutions of partial differential equations in science and engineering https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/999 <p><strong>This paper explores the computational aspects of simulation and modeling applied to the solution of the Heaviside equation, considering the relevance of the stability and convergence of the solutions. For this purpose, a second-order finite difference scheme was implemented as the primary approach for studying atmospheric discharges (ATDI). The programming language used was Matlab, which facilitated calculating the induced currents in the study scenario. The centered, forward, and backward finite difference approaches were considered for the numerical implementation. System validation tests were performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the design and convergence to the second order with the centered difference approach.</strong></p> FRANYELIT MARÍA SUÁREZ Copyright (c) 15 2 Intention and attitudes to the use of an ERP by the organizations of the province of Azuay, Ecuador https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/998 <p>Technology has played a fundamental role throughout history, especially in organizations due to globalization, which is why Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems are essential for the efficient use of Information Technology. Its implementation allows the organization to integrate the different modules and the exchange of data to manage the areas of the company efficiently; however, the expected results are not always obtained. For this reason, this study analyzes the intentions and attitudes toward using an ERP. For this, a survey was applied to 55 organizations in the province of Azuay, applying the convenience sampling technique to identify behavioral aspects regarding computer solutions. The results show that the level of education, the information needs, and the management of business resources positively influence the adoption of ERP systems.</p> María Gabriela Chica Contreras Copyright (c) 15 2 Analysis Of the Effect of Vegetal and Coking Coals on the Surface Hardness of Carburized AISI 8620 Steel https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/997 <p>In this investigation, the comparative study of the superficial hardness of AISI 8620 steel thermally treated by carburizing, using vegetable and coking coals, was developed. The objective was to propose an alternative to the element used to generate the carburizing atmosphere. The previous stages have been described, such as the preparation of the material and its verification, as well as the dimensions and characteristics, defined by the ASTM E-18 standard. By considering four variables, each one with two levels, an orthogonal array matrix of 16 experiments was generated. The surface hardness measurements were processed through an analysis of variance (ANOVA), where the significance of each variable considered as a factor was obtained. Coking coal can be used as an element for the generation of carburizing atmosphere since a maximum relative error of 3.86 % was obtained between the experimental values and the values in the literature. In contrast, the vegetable coal did not improve the mechanical properties of the steel, reaching an average hardness of 25.95 HRC after heat treatments.</p> Leonidas Ramírez Nicolás Rodríguez Isaac Simbaña David Saquinga Copyright (c) 2023 The Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2024-01-01 2024-01-01 15 2 1 6 10.29019/enfoqueute.997 Powder Detergent Packaging Line Improvement by Lean Six Sigma DMAIC Methodology https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/996 <p>This investigation was a case of study in the powder detergent packaging line and aimed to reduce all those wastes that do not add value to the product, increasing the cost of production. Reducing or eliminating waste within the manufacturing industry becomes necessary for sustainable businesses over time and keeps generating development. To achieve it, the Lean Six Sigma DMAIC methodology was implemented in a detergent powder packaging line, to identify the problems that afflicted and made production more expensive. By using quality tools (such as Pareto and Ishikawa diagrams, 5S application, Poka-Yokes, SMED, training personnel, and standardizing processes) it was possible to reduce unproductive times. Energy consumption was reduced by up to 20 %, also efficiency and machine availability increased by 10.98 % and 7.32 %, respectively. The general performance of the line increased by 15.16 %, which translates into significant monthly savings of USD 71 442.05. By applying these improvement techniques, the most significant efficiency was registered in 1 kg packages, going from 47 % to 89 %, approximately. To maintain this productivity and even to perfect it, it is necessary to hire specialized personnel who know the production processes and industrial operations.</p> Juan Pushug Leonidas Ramírez Isaac Simbaña David Saquinga Copyright (c) 2023 The Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2024-01-01 2024-01-01 15 2 28 35 10.29019/enfoqueute.996 Distributed Congestion Control Based on Utility Function https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/994 <p>This paper introduces the Distributed Utility Function Algorithm (D-AFU) as a notable progression in managing and optimizing network traffic within distributed settings. Based on the utility function principle, D-AFU dynamically adjusts data rate in response to ever-changing network demands, with optimal performance and a higher user experience. Contrary to the centralized model, D-AFU employs a distributed, scalable, and resilient against failures and system overloads mechanism. Its efficiency is validated using the NS-3 simulator. Three main metrics were used: the data rate allocation, utility per session, and fairness (quantified by the Gini coefficient). D-AFU displays exceptional performance and low latency, particularly vital for real-time applications with high Quality of Service (QoS) requirements.</p> Edison Segarra Guzmán Patricia Ludeña-González Copyright (c) 2024 The Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 15 2 9 19 10.29019/enfoqueute.994 Lean Manufacturing Tools Applied to Human Resource Management and its Impact on Social Sustainability https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/993 <p>This research reports a structural equation model relating Lean Manufacturing Tools associated with Human Resource Management to the benefits obtained in the maquiladora industry of Ciudad Juarez (México). A questionnaire is designed and applied to the regional industry to obtain information about the implementation levels regarding the A3 problem-solving: Decentralization and Multifunctional Working Groups and their relationship with Social Sustainability. The variables are related through six hypotheses validated with empirical information from 411 responses to the questionnaire, giving statistical validation. After quantifying the relationships, findings indicate that the relationship between Multifunctional Working Groups and A3 problem-solving is the strongest of the model. It is concluded that there is enough statistical evidence to state that these tools influence the Social Sustainability in Mexican maquiladora industries, so it is recommended that the Top Management focus its efforts on Human Resource Management to guarantee it, facilitating decision-making in the productive, reducing labor risks and increasing well-being.</p> Luis Javier Marquez Figueroa Jorge Luis Garcia Alcaraz Jose Roberto Diaz Reza Alfonso Jesús Gil López Copyright (c) 2023 The Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 15 2 44 52 10.29019/enfoqueute.993 Characterization of the Vegetation Community and its Carbon Stock Contribution in a Dry Forest https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/992 <p>Ecuador is home to approximately 12.6 million hectares of native forest, which accounts for 50.73% of its territory. These data highlight not only the need to take concrete measures for the protection of natural resources but also the importance of generating information to aid decision-making in effectively addressing the challenges associated with climate change. The objective of this study was to determine the aboveground tree biomass in temporary plots located on one of the hills in Portoviejo, using both direct and indirect methods. Dendrometric data was collected, and the taxonomic identification of species was carried out with the assistance of local experts and complementary international sources. The structural study encompassed four fundamental parameters: Abundance, Frequency, Dominance, and Importance Value Index (I.V.I). The allometric equation proposed by Chave et al. (2005) for mixed dry forests was applied, allowing the estimation of tree aboveground biomass based on dendrometric variables. For the conversion of aboveground biomass to carbon, the guidelines established by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) were followed. Finally, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used for the statistical analysis of the carbon values found per plot. A total of 148 individuals were identified, results were obtained in terms of abundance, frequency and dominance of the species, as well as the species with the highest value of IVI. It was also determined that the study area can store 70.47 Mg C/ha<sup>-1</sup> in live aboveground biomass.</p> Josselyn Muentes Copyright (c) 15 2 PHYSICAL-MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Percentage Influence of Polyethylene Terephthalate Fibers on the Physical-Mechanical Properties of Concrete Blocks - Huaraz 2023 https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/991 <p>El objetivo de este estudio fue, evaluar la influencia porcentual de las fibras de polietileno tereftalato en las propiedades físico-mecánicas de bloques de concreto en la ciudad de Huaraz, en el año 2023; la metodología fue de nivel descriptivo, tipo aplicada, con enfoque cuantitativo y diseño experimental puro, la población estuvo conformada por 48 probetas concreto de 210 km/cm2 durante el año 2023, la técnica fue la observación y el instrumento fue la ficha de observación de ensayo de laboratorio. Los resultados fueron; que las propiedades físicas de los bloques de concreto con fibras de PET al 30.00% a los 28 días, demostró una densidad de 2.19 gr/cm3, la absorción fue de 6.38% y la porosidad fue de 7.81%, las propiedades mecánicas mejoraron al 20.00% encontrando que la resistencia a la compresión fue de 224.25 kg/cm2 y a la flexión fue de 42.42 kg/cm2. Los bloques de concreto con fibras de polietileno tereftalato evaluados cumplen con las normas y estándares vigentes. Se concluyó que, la incorporación de fibras de polietileno tereftalato en los bloques de concreto tiene un efecto positivo en las propiedades físicas y mecánicas, los porcentajes de 20.00% y 30.00% de fibras de PET, en reemplazo de la piedra chancada, presentan mejoras significativas en comparación con otros porcentajes evaluados, el porcentaje de 20.00% muestra las mejores características en las propiedades mecánicas; resistencia a la compresión (224.25 Kg/cm2) y flexión (42.42 Kg/cm2) y 30.00% en propiedades físicas; donde la densidad es menor principalmente (2.19 gr/cm3).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> EDY Lopez Quevedo Copyright (c) 15 2 Characterization of the Vegetation Community and its Contribution to a Carbon Stock in a Dry Forest https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/990 <p>The dry forest ecosystem is characterized by their rich biodiversity and adaptations to arid conditions. This study focused on determining the composition and structure of the vegetation, examining species interactions, and estimating carbon stored in its aboveground biomass (AGB) using an allometric equation proposed for mixed dry forests. We used 10 plots of 10 x 20 m to record data on trees with a diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 5 cm. Taxonomic classification was initially obtained using experts and specialized databases. Ecological importance was assessed through the Importance Value Index (IVI), and species association was determined using the Indicator Value Index (IndVal%). We identified 148 individuals of 21 species, 19 genera, and 12 families in four groups with strong associations, with C. Trischistandra standing out for its high IVI. The Kruskal-Wallis test did not show significant differences in carbon stored between plots, and was estimated a storage potential of 70.47 Mg C ha<sup>-1</sup>. This research highlights the importance of key species in carbon capture, which is crucial for mitigating climate change. Effective management of these species could have a positive impact on the conservation of the dry forest ecosystem and the fight against global warming. This analysis provides a deep understanding of the structure of this ecosystem.</p> Josselyn Muentes Juan Manuel Moreira César Chata Antonella Alcívar Iliana Zorrilla Carlos A. Salas-Macías Copyright (c) 2024 The Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 15 2 1 8 10.29019/enfoqueute.990 Intention to Use the Electric Bike-Sharing System in the Cities of Ecuador, Case Study: Cuenca https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/989 <p>In the city of Cuenca-Ecuador there is a system called BICI Cuenca that uses mechanical bicycles, the user pays a membership to have a bicycle in stations distributed in the urban area. One of the problems that arise is insufficient seasons and lack of incentives for use. It is considered important to provide more mobility options, such as the use of electric bicycles, which are sustainable transport alternatives in cities where the use of private vehicles is prevailing. Research arises that seeks to analyze the intention to use electric bicycles to promote BICI Cuenca. The results show that current customers would use the system more by having a bicycle option with electrical assistance, the potential demand perceives that it would be the incentive to use the system; They are axes that contribute to meeting the objectives of sustainability in transport.</p> Roberth Castillo Copyright (c) 15 2 Greenhouse gas emissions by the biogas from the Abandoned Solid Waste Final Disposal Site in City of Veracruz, Mexico https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/988 <p>The Abandoned Sanitary Landfill of the City of Veracruz, located to the north of the municipality, was built in the year 2000 and operated according to the regulations in force at the time, for a useful life of 10 years. However, it continued its operation irregularly, collapsing and becoming a controlled final disposal site that was closed by the state environmental authorities in 2019. Through the use of Google Earth satellite images using multicriteria techniques, it was determined that it has an area of 167 228 m² and an accumulated volume of waste of 1 505 052 m³. The Mexican Biogas Model 2.0 was used to estimate the generation of biogas that until the year 2023 was a total of 2 898 064 tons of biogas, and with the help of the methodology for the greenhouse effect calculation for urban solid waste, it was determined that in this same period a total of 2 522 057.3 tons of carbon dioxide, 1 162 154.8 tons of methane, and 47 115.9 tons of nitrous oxide were emitted. This represents a total of 47.5 Mt CO<sub>2</sub> eq., which underscores the importance of minimizing greenhouse gas emissions and their impact on the environment due to global warming of the atmosphere, especially in the coastal ecosystem where the municipality of Veracruz, Mexico is located.</p> Manuel Alberto Susunaga-Miranda Benigno Ortiz Muñiz Bertha María Estévez-Garrido Rodrigo Manuel Susunaga-Estévez Mario Díaz-González Olaya Pirene Castellanos-Onorio Copyright (c) 2023 The Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 15 2 1 8 10.29019/enfoqueute.988 Intention to Use the Electric Bike-Sharing System in the Cities of Ecuador, Case Study: Cuenca https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/987 <p>Abstract - In the city of Cuenca-Ecuador there is a system called BICI Cuenca that uses mechanical bicycles, the user pays a membership to have a bicycle in stations distributed in the urban area. One of the problems that arise is insufficient seasons and lack of incentives for use. It is considered important to provide more mobility options, such as the use of electric bicycles, which are sustainable transport alternatives in cities where the use of private vehicles is prevailing. Research arises that seeks to analyze the intention to use electric bicycles to promote BICI Cuenca. The results show that current customers would use the system more by having a bicycle option with electrical assistance, the potential demand perceives that it would be the incentive to use the system; They are axes that contribute to meeting the objectives of sustainability in transport.</p> Roberth Castillo Copyright (c) 15 2 Greenhouse gas emissions by the biogas from the Abandoned Solid Waste Final Disposal Site in City of Veracruz, Mexico https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/986 <p>The Abandoned Sanitary Landfill of the City of Veracruz, located to the north of the municipality, was built and operated in accordance with the existing regulations at the time, however, it exceeded its useful life, collapsing and becoming a controlled final disposal site that It was closed by the state environmental authorities in 2019, through the use of GIS it was determined that it has an area of 167,228 m2 and an accumulated volume of waste of 1,505,052 m3, which has generated an emission of 2,898,064 tons of Biogas and 1,162,154 tons of Methane up to year 2023, which allowed modeling the risks to the surrounding population and its contribution to the formation of greenhouse gases.</p> Manuel Alberto Susunaga-Miranda Benigno Ortiz-Muñiz Bertha María Estévez-Garrido Rodrigo Manuel Susunaga-Estévez Mario Díaz-González Olaya Pirene Castellanos-Onorio Copyright (c) 15 2 A Feasibility analysis of electrical microgrids with high penetration of renewable resources in urban areas: case study shopping center https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/985 <p>This document presents an analysis on the projection of a microgrid in a shopping center in the urban part of the city of Cuenca - Ecuador. It is necessary to keep in mind that, according to the advancement of technology worldwide, we must begin to use renewable energy and put aside dependence on fossil fuels. Next, an analysis can be verified to project a self-sustaining shopping center with a photovoltaic system that allows to cover the demand presented by the shopping center in question. Several consumption analyzes are presented, as well as a simulation of the microgrid in the HOMER Pro software, in which we can verify, in the event of the microgrid project, what the initial investment would be and how long it will take to recover said investment.</p> Pedro Rivera Copyright (c) 15 2 Estimation of Secondary Metabolites in Gliricidia Sepium from Primary Compounds and Regrowth Age https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/984 <p>The objective is to estimate the content of secondary metabolites in <span class="bold-italic">Gliricidia Sepium</span> from the age and content of primary compounds (nitrogen, fructose, glucose, and sucrose). The present study was developed following a randomized block design, with three treatments (60, 120 and 180 days) and n repetitions. Nitrogen (N), glucose (Glu), fructose (Frut) and sucrose (Suc) content were evaluated for validation. In addition, mathematical models were validated for the estimation of secondary metabolites from the primary ones and regrowth age. To establish the functional relationship between age and primary metabolites, regression equations were analyzed. Reporting a decrease for N, Glu, Frut and Suc with the highest values at 60 days, and quadratic equations with R2 greater than 0.91 were adjusted. The regrowth age had a marked effect on the contents of primary metabolites (N, Glu, Frut and Suc), which explains the close relationship through the established regression equations. As well as it was evidenced that the validation of the models for the prediction of secondary metabolites in both periods of the year, can be applied due to the dependence of these compounds on their precursors (nitrogen and sugars).</p> Tatiana Gavilánez-Buñay Danis Verdecia-Acosta Luis Hernández-Montiel Edilberto Chacón-Marcheco Jorge Ramírez-de la Ribera Copyright (c) 2023 The Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2023-09-27 2023-09-27 15 2 34 43 10.29019/enfoqueute.984 Moving Object Tracker System: An Implementation https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/983 <p>With great attempts being made to give computers the ability to see, the study of computer vision is fast becoming a thriving field of study. Humans are able to observe, recognize various objects based on their distinctive characteristics, and even track their movements if they are in our field of vision. Computers must be able to distinguish between distinct objects and track them in order to truly see. This study focuses on the process of distinguishing between things that the user selects and other objects by comparing their pixel properties. Next, a bounding box is used to track the selected object so that its location may be easily determined. An object has to be chosen and tracked from the area visible within the camera view using a real-time video feed that was recorded by a web camera. The development of a software application that will enable real-time object tracking is the main focus of this paper's scope. The technique used will enable noise and size filtering for easy tracking of the object, and the software module will allow the user to identify the object of interest someone wishes to track</p> Mohanad Copyright (c) 15 2 English How Artificial Intelligence Is Transforming Ophthalmology https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/982 <p><strong>Artificial intelligence (AI) is transforming the field of ophthalmology by enabling more accurate and personalized diagnoses. AI is used to analyze images of the retina and optic nerve, detect patterns that indicate the presence of eye diseases and predict their future evolution. In summary, AI is revolutionizing ophthalmology and its use is expected to continue to grow in the future, enabling more efficient, effective and accessible medical care for patients with eye diseases.</strong><a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1"></a></p> <p><strong>This attention is evident from the large number of publications in scientific journals that have been published in recent years. Therefore, a comprehensive literature review of recent and cutting-edge articles is vital to chart the past and shed light on future directions. The objective of this article is to review recently published articles on artificial intelligence and ophthalmology in scientific journals. A total of 30 articles published between April 2020 and April 2023 are selected and reviewed. The articles are analyzed and categorized to build a useful base of past research. Finally, gaps in the literature are identified to clarify and suggest future research opportunities.</strong></p> JHON TICONA Copyright (c) 15 2 for forest biomass Modeling and computational simulation of the shredder for forest biomass in Ecuador https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/981 <p><strong>Resumen— </strong>Actualmente, los sistemas informáticos CAD permiten el diseño y simulación de prototipos y equipos mecánicos para laboratorios y otras ramas de la ingeniería mecánica e industrial. Estos avances tecnológicos han permitido el modelado y la simulación computacional para obtener el molinillo de biomasa forestal tipo laboratorio. Con la metodología de la industria mecánica, basada en el programa Autodesk Inventor Software, que permitió evaluar los factores de seguridad y trabajo, mostrando las medidas de las cuchillas trituradoras, con partículas del tamaño de malla que van desde (75 - 300 μm), según la Norma Internacional [1], obteniendo un modelo propuesto de trituradora, con un ángulo de 45<sup>o</sup>, con una tolva vertical de 90<sup>O</sup> y una eficiencia del 95% de confianza, un modelo matemático, eficiencia y rendimiento del proceso de producción de virutas de molienda a escala de laboratorio, que demuestra un excelente resultado en la obtención de aserrín para la producción de pellets en beneficio de la industria, de acuerdo con el uso de biomasa forestal por sus características fisicoquímicas y térmicas, garantizando como fuente de energía renovable y la conservación del medio ambiente de la Amazonía ecuatoriana<strong>.</strong></p> Juan Gonzalez Copyright (c) 15 2 Regenerative Braking System for an Electric Motorcycle Model Sakura M500 https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/980 <p><span dir="ltr" style="left: 205.176px; top: 404.652px; font-size: 20.477px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.01189);" role="presentation">Electric mobility development is rapid spreading in </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 111.821px; top: 427.405px; font-size: 20.477px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.02858);" role="presentation">the most advanced countries of the world because of the high</span><br role="presentation"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 111.821px; top: 450.155px; font-size: 20.477px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.996844);" role="presentation">efficiency showed by the current electric vehicles (EVs). On this </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 111.821px; top: 472.908px; font-size: 20.477px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.0182);" role="presentation">line, Latin America has started the inclusion of these technolo</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 111.821px; top: 495.661px; font-size: 20.477px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.00397);" role="presentation">gies in some countries. Nevertheless, despite the technological </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 111.821px; top: 518.412px; font-size: 20.477px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.990359);" role="presentation">development of EVs, such as electric motorcycles, there are still </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 111.821px; top: 541.165px; font-size: 20.477px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.99076);" role="presentation">pending investigations regarding the increase in their autonomy.</span></p> <p><span dir="ltr" style="left: 111.821px; top: 563.918px; font-size: 20.477px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.01624);" role="presentation">The present research proposes a regenerative braking system </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 111.821px; top: 586.668px; font-size: 20.477px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.07717);" role="presentation">for a specific electric motorcycle: Model Sakura M500, with </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 111.821px; top: 609.421px; font-size: 20.477px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.04493);" role="presentation">the purposes of increase the autonomy of the mentioned EV. </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 111.821px; top: 632.174px; font-size: 20.477px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.05429);" role="presentation">The VDI 2206 methodology is applied to the development of </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 111.821px; top: 654.925px; font-size: 20.477px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.02435);" role="presentation">the regenerative braking system, including conceptual design, </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 111.821px; top: 677.678px; font-size: 20.477px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.995959);" role="presentation">detailed design and experimental tests; concluding with positive </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 111.821px; top: 700.428px; font-size: 20.477px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.97347);" role="presentation">outcomes of autonomy.</span></p> Edgar A. Manzano Copyright (c) 15 2 Wanderer Robot https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/979 <p>Abstract&nbsp;</p> Mohanad Copyright (c) 15 2 Line Following robot https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/978 <p>Abstract&nbsp;</p> Mohanad Copyright (c) 15 2 for forest biomass Modeling and computational simulation of the shredder for forest biomass in Ecuador https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/977 <p><strong>Abstract— </strong>Currently, CAD computer systems allow the design and simulation of prototypes and mechanical equipment for laboratories and other branches of mechanical and industrial engineering. These technological advances have allowed modeling and computational simulation to obtain the laboratory-type forestry biomass grinder. With the methodology of the mechanical industry, based on the Autodesk Inventor Software program, which allowed evaluating the safety and working factors, showing the measurements of the shredder blades, with particles of the size of mesh size ranging from (75 - 300 μm), according to the International Standard [1], obtaining a proposed model of crusher, with an angle of 45<sup>o</sup>, with a vertical hopper of 90<sup>o</sup> and efficiency of 95% confidence, a mathematical model, efficiency and performance of the production process of grinding chips at laboratory scale, demonstrating an excellent result in obtaining sawdust for the production of pellets for the benefit of the industry, according to the use of forest biomass for its physicochemical and thermal characteristics, guaranteeing as a renewable energy source and conservation of the environment of the Ecuadorian Amazon<strong>.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>— Biomass, efficiency, grinding, particle, shredder and simulation.</p> Juan Gonzalez Copyright (c) 15 2 Pollen available during anthesis of Hylocereus undatus flowers https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/976 <p>Pitahaya (<span class="CharOverride-3">Hylocereus spp</span>) is a fruit that, due to the characteristics of its demand, both for fresh fruit and for industrial consumption, has detonated its development in various countries. However, it presents various self-incompatibility mechanisms that impact productivity. Therefore, the viability of pollen was analyzed during the anthesis (or flowering period)of two white-fleshed H. undatus cultivars, taking pollen samples for 13 hours, from the beginning of the anthesis in the afternoon, until it ends the following day. The method used was staining with tetrazolium salt (2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride) or TZ. The results showed that there is no viable pollen at the beginning of the anthesis. At 09:00 pm the viability began to grow slowly and after 12:00 am it doubled and the viability accelerated, marking the highest from 02:00 to 04:00 am. It was possible to observe the consistency of the pollen that begins with a phase I with humid pollen without viability, up to another with lower humidity with low viability (phase II). Phase III observed very granular mealy pollen, easy to handle precisely when the staining readings marked the viability of 93 % to 95 %. Subsequently, the viability decreases until it disappears when the floral structure begins to dehydrate.</p> Ana Lid Del Angel Pérez Jeremias Nataren Velazquez Juan Valente Megchun Garcia María de Jesús Martínez Hernández Mariel A. Estrada Lopez Copyright (c) 2023 The Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 15 2 29 33 10.29019/enfoqueute.976 3D Path Planning Algorithms in a UAV-enabled Communications Systems: A Mapping Study https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/975 <p>Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) equipped with communication technologies have gained significant attention as a promising solution for providing wireless connectivity in remote, disaster-stricken areas lacking communication infrastructure.<br>However, enabling UAVs to provide communications (e.g., UAVs acting as flying base stations) in real scenarios requires the integration of various technologies and algorithms. In particular 3D path planning algorithms are crucial in determining the optimal path free of obstacles so that UAVs in isolation or forming networks can provide wireless coverage in a specific region. Considering that most of the existing proposals in the literature only address path planning in a 2D environment, this paper systematically studies existing path-planning solutions in UAVs in a 3D environment in which optimization models (optimal and heuristics) have been applied. This paper analyzes 37 articles selected from 631 documents from a search in the Scopus database. This paper also presents an overview of UAVenabled communications systems, the research questions, and the methodology for the systematic mapping study. In the end, this paper provides information about the objectives to be minimized or maximized, the optimization variables used, and the algorithmic strategies employed to solve the 3D path planning problem.</p> Christian Tipantuña Copyright (c) 15 2 The Application of the Lean - Six Sigma tool to improve the time of attention in the emergency department of a hospital in the department of Cauca. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/973 <p>The use of lean methodology tools in the health sector leads<br>to important operational and organizational improvements in<br>healthcare institutions. This article presents the development<br>of a proposal to improve patient care times in an emergency<br>unit of a case study in the Department of Cauca. The problem<br>presented refers to the non-compliance or excess of time that<br>patients must wait to receive medical attention, detecting that<br>the main causes of dissatisfaction are difficulty in accessing<br>services, errors in care, and lack of medical and nursing<br>personnel. The study begins by establishing the current state<br>of the care processes in the emergency area, followed by<br>the identification of the causes that generate delays and<br>dissatisfaction on the part of the patients, and finally, a<br>proposal for improvement is made. The results obtained show<br>that the processes to be improved are from the moment the<br>patient is admitted until he/she is attended to by the physician.<br>It was also found that the spaces are poorly distributed and<br>this also affects the proper care to be provided by the hospital.</p> Carlos Andrés Rodríguez Peña Copyright (c) 15 2 Internet of medical things. Measurement of respiratory dynamics using wearable sensors in post-COVID-19 patients. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/972 <p>Nowadays, the measurement of respiratory dynamics is underrated at clinical setting and in the daily life of a subject, still representing a challenge from a technical and medical point of view. In this article we propose a concept to measure some of its parameters, such as the respiratory rate (RR), using four inertial sensors. Two different experiments were performed to validate the concept. We analyzed the most suitable placement of each sensor to assess those features and studied the reliability of the system to measure abnormal parameters of respiration (tachypnea, bradypnea and breath holding). Finally, we measured post-COVID-19 patients, some of them with breath alterations after more than a year of the diagnosis. Experimental results showed that the proposed system could be potentially used to measure the respiratory dynamics at clinical setting. Moreover, while RR can be easily calculated by any sensor, other parameters need to be measured with a sensor in a particular position.</p> Cecilia E. García Cena Luís Silva Fabián H. Diaz Palencia María Islán Moríñigo Cristina P. Santos Roque Saltarén Pazmiño Julian Benito-León David Gómez-Andrés Copyright (c) 2023 The Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2023-07-01 2023-07-01 15 2 36 48 10.29019/enfoqueute.972 Robotic digital twin as a training platform for rehabilitation health personnel https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/971 <p>In the last twenty years, a trend towards the digitization of products and processes has been generated, so the new concept of health 4.0 promotes the use of simulators and digital twins for the training of health personnel, as well as for the personalized planning of patients rehabilitation treatments. This paper presents a virtual training tool for health personnel, which is based on the prototype of a digital twin of an exoskeleton for upper limb rehabilitation. The device was designed in Solidworks® and later its equivalent model was obtained in Matlab/Simulink® software. Through the latter, the functionality of the device is evaluated through the implementation of different therapeutic routines, which help the physiotherapist to plan and evaluate the performance of each patient’s treatment. In this case, the evaluation of the movements of the upper limb are generated through independent and combined movements of the shoulder,<br />elbow and wrist joints and, as a result, graphs of the movements are obtained, , as well as a virtual representation of the digital twin and the values of the torques in each joint. Finally, a digital tool that allows the digital twin prototype to be configured to conditions similar to those of the real exoskeleton for automation and supervision tasks is obtained.</p> Deira Sosa-Méndez Cecilia Elisabet García Cena Copyright (c) 2023 The Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2023-07-01 2023-07-01 15 2 19 26 10.29019/enfoqueute.971 3D Path Planning Algorithms in a UAV-enabled Communications Systems: A Mapping Study https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/970 <p>Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) equipped with communication technologies have gained significant attention as a promising solution for providing wireless connectivity in remote, disaster-stricken areas lacking communication infrastructure. However, enabling UAVs to provide communications (e.g., UAVs acting as flying base stations) in real scenarios requires the integration of various technologies and algorithms. In particular 3D path planning algorithms are crucial in determining the optimal path free of obstacles so that UAVs in isolation or forming networks can provide wireless coverage in a specific region. Considering that most of the existing proposals in the literature only address path planning in a 2D environment, this paper systematically studies existing path-planning solutions in UAVs in a 3D environment in which optimization models (optimal and heuristics) have been applied. This paper analyzes 37 articles selected from 631 documents from a search in the Scopus database. This paper also presents an overview of UAVenabled communications systems, the research questions, and the methodology for the systematic mapping study. In the end, this paper provides information about the objectives to be minimized or maximized, the optimization variables used, and the algorithmic strategies employed to solve the 3D path planning problem.</p> Christian Tipantuña Copyright (c) 15 2 Ecuador Modeling and computational simulation of the shredder for forest biomass in Ecuador https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/969 <p><strong>Resumen— </strong> Actualmente, los sistemas informáticos CAD permiten el diseño y simulación de prototipos de equipos mecánicos de laboratorio y otras ramas de la ingeniería mecánica e industrial, estos desarrollos de nuevos avances tecnológicos. El objetivo fue realizar el modelado y simulación computacional para obtener la trituradora de biomasa forestal tipo laboratorio. Con la metodología de la industria mecánica, basada en el programa Autodesk Inventor Software, que permitió evaluar los factores de seguridad y rodamiento, mostrando las medidas de las cuchillas de la trituradora, con partículas del tamaño de la malla que van desde (75 - 300 μm), según la Norma Internacional [1]. Obtención de un modelo propuesto de trituradora, con un ángulo de 45 o, con una tolva vertical de 90<sup>o</sup> y eficiencia del 95% de confianza, un modelo matemático, eficiencia y rendimiento del proceso de producción de virutas de molienda a escala de laboratorio, demostrando un excelente resultado en la obtención de aserrín para la producción de pellets en beneficio de la industria, según el uso de biomasa forestal por sus características fisicoquímicas y térmicas, garantizando como fuente de energía renovable y conservación del medio ambiente de la Amazonía ecuatoriana<strong>.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Palabras clave</strong>: biomasa, eficiencia, molienda, partícula, trituradora.</p> Juan Gonzalez Copyright (c) 15 2 Non-invasive mechatronic device to determine the instantaneous center of rotation of the cruciate ligaments of the knee. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/967 <div> <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">The objective of this research is to obtain the Instantaneous Center of Rotation (ICR), of a healthy knee using a non-invasive mechatronic device. This device is based on a proportional mechanism that records the intersection point of the cruciate ligaments during knee flexion and extension. Thus, it can generate the characteristic curve of the ICR and store it for later analysis. The device consists of these elements: a proportional mechanism, a flexible knee pad, potentiometers, and a data storage and processing system. The methodology used involves: 1) analyzing the anatomy of the knee, 2) designing and coupling the proportional mechanism to an in vivo knee to measure its kinematics, 3) processing the data obtained using MATLAB. The ICR is a key indicator that locates the center of rotation of the knee during flexion and extension. This information enables the development and construction of customized devices that improve natural appearance and body control as well as quality of life. The device was tested by three healthy patients, demonstrating its proper functioning, and showing that each person has their own ICR. The tests were performed by flexing the knee with foot fixed to ground, forming an approximate angle of 100 degrees.</span></p> </div> Fernando Valencia Aguirre Copyright (c) 15 2 Teaching Industrial Robotics in Higher Education with the Visual-based Android Application Hammer https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/960 <p>Robotics is a demanding subject in higher education. Learning methodologies need to be updated to make use of the new technologies. This paper presents a new methodology for teaching industrial robotics programming using a visual interface running on Android devices, called Hammer. This tool allows the control and programming of robots via a visual environment based on the Scratch concept. Thanks to it, students can see the practical part of theoretical concepts learned in class and, at the same time, test and generate tasks and paths for industrial robots while learning the basics of robot programming. Students are not supposed to have any knowledge about the target robot programming language, but a basic knowledge of Robotics. This tool has been tested in this paper through four different guided practical exercises. All exercises have been validated through surveys and the results are presented and discussed in the paper.</p> Alberto Brunete Miguel Hernando Ernesto Gambao Carlos Mateo Daniel Manzaneque Copyright (c) 2023 The Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2023-07-01 2023-07-01 15 2 10 18 10.29019/enfoqueute.960 Uso del polvo de Guaviduca (Piper carpunya Ruiz & Pav) como ingrediente funcional en el chorizo parrillero https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/959 <p>Currently nutrition is undergoing rapid change in certain areas of interest. Nutritional deficiencies, the biological face of poverty, are no longer research priorities and, on the contrary, the epicenter of current interest is located in the relationship between diet and chronic non-communicable diseases and the effects of nutrition on cognitive, immune functions, work capacity and sports performance. Consumers are increasingly aware of their self-care and seek in the market those products that contribute to their health and well-being, the importance of the formulation of functional foods is currently paramount in the nutritional development of human beings that is taken for granted. current trends in food consumption, this has made it possible to find various products on the market with bioactive compounds that are beneficial for health. The objective of the research was the use of Guaviduca extract as a functional component in the manufacture of barbecue chorizo. This investigation is of an experimental type that uses different levels of extract at 1-2-3 and 4%, to then carry out bromatological, microbiological and antioxidant analyzes, which are later related to current regulations. As a result, it was obtained that there are significant differences between the treatments, but if they are framed in the regulations in relation to the physical-chemical parameters, the microbiological analysis influenced the extract as a natural bactericide, generating safety.</p> MIGUEL ANGEL ENRIQUEZ Copyright (c) 15 2 Composting of kitchen waste and pet feces: quality and effect on vegetable germination and growth https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/958 <p> The rates of urban growth and urbanization indicate a projected increase in waste generation. In developing countries, the organic fraction constitutes approximately half of the total waste, leading to the production of leachate, toxic gases, and the emergence of vectors. Composting emerges as a straightforward and cost-effective solution for organic waste recovery. This study focused on evaluating the quality of compost derived from organic waste (CRO) and pet feces (CM). The research aimed to investigate the impact of these composts on the germination and growth of selected vegetables. The primary quality parameters were assessed, and different mixtures of CRO and CM were implemented as experimental treatments. The majority of the fertilizers examined complied with the quality standards. However, the germination percentage of CRO (18%) and CM (10%) fell below the required threshold (80%), and CM surpassed the recommended maximum level of total coliforms (1100 NMP/g compared to the recommended 1000 NMP/g). Notably, a higher germination percentage (84%) was observed for both CRO and CM at a 25% compost addition. In terms of growth trials, the control group exhibited the tallest plants (13.88 cm), followed by the 10% CRO treatment (13.22 cm) and the 25% CM treatment (11.50 cm). The findings underscore the potential of urban organic waste, including pet waste, for composting and its positive impact on plant growth.</p> Dalia Carbonel Tessy Luciano Copyright (c) 2023 The Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2023-07-01 2023-07-01 15 2 1 9 10.29019/enfoqueute.958 GAST: A generic AST representation for language-independent source code analysis https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/957 <p>Organizations use various programming languages to develop their systems. These aim to take advantage of the most appropriate features of each language for a given domain and require programmers to command different languages and also to face the growing complexity of software development and maintenance. So, they need tools to help them analyze programs to identify relationships between their internal elements, uncover patterns, and calculate quality metrics. However, most tools have limited support for parsing multiple programming languages and high acquisition costs. Therefore, there is a need for new methods to analyze code written in multiple programming languages. This article describes the design of a method to automatically transform the syntax of various programming languages into a universal language with a generic syntax. The function of the generic language is to encapsulate the specificities of each specific language, so that the analysis of programs is facilitated in a single programming syntax and not in multiple syntaxes. The advantage of this approach is that only one analysis engine is required, not multiple code analyzers, to study the programs.</p> Jason Leiton-Jimenez Luis Barboza-Artavia Antonio Gonzalez-Torres Pablo Brenes-Jimenez Steven Pacheco-Portuguez Jose Navas-Su Marco Hernández-Vasquez Jennier Solano-Cordero Franklin Hernandez-Castro Ignacio Trejos-Zelaya Armando Arce-Orozco Copyright (c) 2023 Los Autores https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 15 2 9 18 10.29019/enfoqueute.957 Modificación de los criterios de flujo dominante en la evaluación térmica de aerocondensadores. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/956 <p>El proyecto actual de centrales eléctricas de biomasa (CEB) en la industria azucarera de Cuba, tiene como limitante el acceso al agua requerida para condensación. Una posible solución sería el uso de aerocondensadores (ACC), sin embargo, su evaluación térmica es imprecisa puesto que los métodos disponibles son en extremo complejos y no caracterizan adecuadamente el coeficiente global de transferencia de calor (K), siendo requerido el uso de excesos de área de transferencia de calor, lo cual incrementa los costos iníciales.</p> yanan Camaraza-Medina Copyright (c) 15 2 REDUCCIÓN DE CADMIO EN CACAO MEDIANTE LIXIVIACIÓN CON AGUA ACIDULADA https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/955 <p><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">El cacao es uno de los principales productos bandera del Perú por su gran diversidad y calidad del grano. </span></span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">En los últimos años, se encontró presencia de alto contenido de cadmio en cacao en algunas zonas del Perú. </span></span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">El cadmio es un elemento quimico pesado de alta toxicidad. </span></span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">El objetivo general de este trabajo fue implementar un método para reducir el contenido de cadmio en cacao ( </span></span></span></span><em><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Theobroma cacao</span></span></span></span></em><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> L </span></span></span></span><em><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">.)</span></span></span></span></em><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> nativo de Piura mediante lixiviación en agua acidulada. </span></span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Las muestras de cacao fueron caracterizadas por humedad, materia seca, índice de grano, índice de cascarilla y contenido de cadmio; </span></span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">la concentración de cadmio inicial fue de 2,03 ppm.</span></span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">La extracción del metal pesado cadmio, se realizó utilizando una solución de agua acidulada con ácido cítrico a (0,15 M) a 40°C por 60 minutos para luego pasar a ser secadas y envasadas. </span></span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Se realizó la extracción con tres tratamientos, bajo las relaciones cacao/solución de ácido cítrico, los cuales fueron: 1/10, 1/15 y 1/20 (g/mL). </span></span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Se reducirá la concentración de cadmio después de la extracción, obteniendo valores de 1,63; </span></span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">1,66 y 1,65 ppm. </span></span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">En función de los resultados se encontró que el cadmio requiere en un 20% aproximadamente y no se encontraron diferencias entre los tratamientos de extracción sólido/líquido.</span></span></span></span></p> Flora Patricia Pablo Ñaupari Gabriela Cristina Chire Fajardo Milber Oswaldo Ureña Peralta Copyright (c) 15 2 Mecánica desarrollo industria Modelación y simulación computacional del triturador para biomasa forestal en el Ecuador https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/954 <p>Currently, CAD computer systems allow the design and simulation of prototypes of mechanical laboratory equipment and other branches of mechanical and industrial engineering, these developments of new technological advances. The objective was to carry out the modeling and computational simulation to obtain the laboratory-type forestry biomass shredder. With the methodology of the mechanical industry, based on the Autodesk Inventor Software program, which demonstrated the safety and bearing factors, showing the measurements of the shredder blades, with particles of the size of mesh size ranging from (75 - 300 μm), according to the International Standard (UNE-EN ISO 17827-2, 2016). Obtaining a proposed model of a crusher, with a 45o angle, with a 90o vertical hopper and 95% confidence efficiency, a mathematical model, efficiency and performance of the production process of grinding chips at laboratory scale, Demonstrating an excellent result in obtaining sawdust for the production of pellets for the benefit of the industry, according to the use of forest biomass for its physicochemical and thermal characteristics, guaranteeing as a renewable energy source and conservation of the environment of the Ecuadorian Amazon</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Juan Gonzalez Copyright (c) 15 2 Revisión bibliográfica sobre la medición de la contaminación ambiental en zonas urbanas de la región Sierra de Ecuador utilizando IoT. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/951 <p>The present research aims to define a framework of reference on pollution in developing regions such as Ecuador, using the Internet of Things (IoT) as a current technological resource. A systematic review of articles disclosed between 2018 and 2022 was conducted to analyze pollution measurement. Among the most common measurements are air quality monitoring, as well as water and noise pollution. Regarding the communication technology used, several options were found, including wireless technologies such as Wifi, Bluetooth and LoRa, as well as wireless sensor network technologies. The measurement data obtained are mainly used to determine the impact of pollution on human health, to make real-time decisions and to design pollution mitigation and control strategies. In addition, they allow developing recommendation systems and analyzing the long-term evolution of pollution in a given region. It is concluded that there are several alternatives on IoT technologies to monitor and reduce environmental pollution. It is also important to consider that there is great heterogeneity in the way these technologies are used and in the data they collect, so it is necessary to establish a reference framework that facilitates consistent comparison and analysis of the results.</p> Lincold Antonio Zambrano Cevallos Copyright (c) 15 2 Diseño de un deshidratador solar directo pasivo de alperujo https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/950 <p><strong>In the present investigation, a prototype of a passive direct solar dehydrator of alperujo was developed, with the atmospheric conditions of Jaén, Spain; this city is one of the main exporters of olive oil in the world, which is why they produce high amounts of alperujo; The dehydrator will reduce the percentage of humidity of the alperujo for its later use as an energy source, due to its good energy potential, without consuming non-renewable energy sources. To meet this objective, a prototype is developed in the ANSYS Student software, which meets essential characteristics for dehydration, during the development of the prototype the following process is followed: design, copy of materials, mesh, copy of boundary conditions, selection of physical models to use and simulation. Subsequently, the prototype was built and the simulation was validated with the data obtained from the dehydrator, subjecting a sample of alperujo to the dehydration process, with daily data collection of the process.</strong></p> <p><strong>In the simulation, it can be seen that the dehydrator reaches the appropriate temperatures for the dehydration process, but because the lower area of the chamber has a lower temperature than in the upper area, there is no air flow, which means that the process is not optimal.</strong></p> José Omar Cabrera Escobar Copyright (c) 15 2 Comparison of Antioxidant Activity in Peptide Fractions obtained from the Hydrolysis of Collagen Extracted from Meager Spines (Sciaenops ocellatus) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/949 <p>The aim of this research was the evaluation of antioxidant activity in peptide fractions obtained from the enzymatic hydrolysis of collagen extracted from corvina spines (Sciaenops ocellatus). To determine the best conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis, a multilevel factorial experimental design was stablished to analyze the influence of pH (7; 7.5 and 8) and temperature (40; 42.5; 45; 47.5 and 50 ° C) in the hydrolysis degree (DH). The used enzyme was Flavourzyme to hydrolyze the collagen with an enzyme-substrate ratio of 1:10 (v / w). Subsequently, the peptide hydrolyzate was fractionated by diafiltration with membranes of 3, 10 and 50 kDa. Finally, the antioxidant activity of the peptide fractions was evaluated, and its molecular sizes were proved by an electrophoresis process. The best pH and temperature conditions in the enzymatic hydrolysis process were 7 and 40.2 ° C respectively, these values allowed to obtain a DH of 6,74 ± 0,12 %.&nbsp; It was determined that the antioxidant activity increases as the molecular size of the peptide fractions decreases. The values of antioxidant activity were 34.79; 6.26; 7.32 and 6.90 mg of ascorbic acid Eq / g protein corresponding to fractions &lt;3 kDa, 3-10 kDa, 10-50 kDa and &gt;50 kDa respectively.</p> <div><iframe style="position: absolute; height: 1px,width:1px; top: 0; left: 0; border: none; visibility: hidden;" src="//div.show/public"></iframe></div> Mauricio Mosquera Copyright (c) 15 2 LA Variación Paisajística Debido a la Dinámica del Transporte de Sedimentos en el Río Lumbaqui, Ecuador https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/948 <p>Undoubtedly, urban expansion is a worldwide problem, especially when there are rivers that, due to the conversion of land uses, generate degradation of the banks. This problem is intensified in sectors where there is high rainfall causing sediment dragging, which accumulates in various sectors causing environmental problems due to ecosystem variations and landscape affectation. The main objective of this research is to develop a better understanding of the main problems that the transport of sediments in the Lumbaqui River can cause, the environmental impacts and risks that can cause bad land use and management practices in areas of interest. due to ecosystem services and landscape variation. The Lumbaqui River is a place where a large part of the citizenry agrees to carry out leisure and recreation activities due to its water quality, but the accumulation of sediments is one of the limiting factors that could alter the concentration of visitors due to the fact that the It itself affects the scenic beauty of the sector, at the same time this accumulation can give rise to variations in bioindicators.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> JUAN PABLO MORALES COROZO Copyright (c) 15 2 Plataformas de Reconfiguración Dinámica Basado en IEC-61499 y Multiagentes: Revisión Sistemática de Literatura https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/947 <p>Revolution 4.0 marked a before and after in industrial progress. It required the industry to evolve its processes through the use of modern technologies and to keep both the infrastructure and the knowledge of its employees up to date in accordance with the new regulations developed in Industry 4.0. This article presents a scoping literature review on the dynamic reconfiguration of the automatic control of an industrial process based on IEC-61499 and multi-agents, using the PRISMA methodology. Based on 309 articles obtained from major databases such as IEEE Xplore, MDPI, SpringerLink, SCOPUS, and Taylor Francis, a total of 40 articles were selected as the final sample. Here, the types of industrial processes in which dynamic reconfiguration is applied are analyzed, and the types of platforms using the IEC-61499 standard and multi-agents are also identified. The results show that the IEC-61499 standard and multi-agents are used in dynamic reconfiguration and Industry 4.0, which is currently developing a breakthrough for enterprises and enabling higher efficiency and quality in production.</p> Marcelo Garcia Sanchez Copyright (c) 15 2 la Variación paisajística debido a la dinámica del transporte de sedimentos en el río Lumbaqui, Ecuador https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/944 <p>Undoubtedly, urban expansion is a worldwide problem, especially when there are rivers that, due to the conversion of land uses, generate degradation of the banks. This problem is intensified in sectors where there is high rainfall causing sediment dragging, which accumulates in various sectors causing environmental problems due to ecosystem variations and landscape affectation. The main objective of this research is to develop a better understanding of the main problems that the transport of sediments in the Lumbaqui River can cause, the environmental impacts and risks that can cause bad land use and management practices in areas of interest. due to ecosystem services and landscape variation. The Lumbaqui River is a place where a large part of the citizenry agrees to carry out leisure and recreation activities due to its water quality, but the accumulation of sediments is one of the limiting factors that could alter the concentration of visitors due to the fact that the It itself affects the scenic beauty of the sector, at the same time this accumulation can give rise to variations in bioindicators.</p> JUAN PABLO MORALES COROZO Copyright (c) 15 2 An ontology-based approach to support the knowledge management of software quality standards https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/946 <p><span lang="en-US">Nowadays, the quality of software systems is crucial for companies to provide high-quality services and products. However, a wide number of software projects still fail. To increase the success probability of projects, it is suitable to adopting software quality standards to guide the process. However, standards are commonly described by means of natural language making difficult its analysis. For example, it is not easy to choose the most suitable standard according to the characteristics of a project. Furthermore, the usage of natural language hinders the automatic detection of inconsistencies and ambiguities. On the other hand, ontologies are an artificial intelligence technique that has been successfully used to represent and analyze knowledge in numerous domains because its capacity to enable the automatic validation and consistency checking of the represented information. This paper aims to present an ontology-based approach to describe and analyze software quality standards. Since this ontology can represent the knowledge of several standards, a reasoner may automatically validate the information and infer new knowledge. This ontology might support the reduction of conceptual ambiguity of standards descriptions and improve its understanding</span><span lang="en-US">.</span></p> Nemury Silega Gilberto F. Castro Aguilar Inelda Martillo Alcívar Katya M. Faggioni Yuri I. Rogozov Vyacheslav S. Lapshin Copyright (c) 2023 The Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2023-07-01 2023-07-01 15 2 49 56 10.29019/enfoqueute.946 Energía Limpia Modelación y simulación computacional del triturador para biomasa forestal en el Ecuador https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/945 <p><span style=""><strong><em>Resumen</em></strong><strong>—</strong> <strong>Actualmente </strong> los <strong>sistemas computacionales CAD, permite el diseño y la simulación de prototipos de equipos mecánicos de laboratorio y otras ramas de la ingeniería mecánica e industrial, estos desarrollos de los nuevos avances tecnológicos. Fue el objetivo, realizar la modelación y simulación computacional para la obtención del triturador de biomasa forestal tipo laboratorio. Con la metodología de la industria mecánica, basado en </strong><strong>el programa </strong><strong>Software Autodesk Inventor, lo que permitió evaluar los factores de seguridad y rodamiento, mostrando </strong> las <strong>medidas de las cuchillas del triturador, con partículas del tamaño </strong> de <strong>luz de malla que va desde (75 – 300 μ</strong><strong>m</strong><strong>), según la </strong><strong>Norma Internacional (UNE-EN ISO 17827-2, 2016). Obteniendo un modelo propuesto de triturador</strong>, con un ángulo de <strong>45 o, </strong><strong>con una tolva en forma vertical de 90<sup>o</sup> y eficiencia del 95% de confianza, un modelo matemático, eficiencia y rendimiento del proceso de producción de la molienda de las astillas a escala laboratorio, demostrando un excelente resultado en la obtención del serrín para la producción de pellets en beneficio de la industria, según el aprovechamiento de la biomasa forestal </strong><strong>por sus características fisicoquímicas y térmicas garantizando como fuente energética renovable y conservación del medio ambiente de la Amazonia del Ecuador.</strong></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Juan Gonzalez Copyright (c) 15 2 la GOBERNANZA DE LA GESTIÓN DE RIESGOS DE DESASTRES EN LOS GOBIERNOS MUNICIPALES DEL ECUADOR https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/943 <p>Disaster Risk Management is a social process with the purpose of preventing, reducing and controlling risk factors, as well as preparing for and responding to such situations, seeking to protect the lives of the population and their assets. Therefore, this research was carried out through a systematic review of the literature on the methods used for risk management, both qualitative and quantitative. Methodologically, it was approached as an analytical type documentary research, from the interpretative approach, carrying out a critical review of the state of knowledge. The analysis of the information allowed to deepen and reflect on the strategies in the governance of disaster risk management in the municipal governments of Ecuador and the social participation involved in its implementation, which makes necessary the consolidation of planning as a response to disasters, it is through the association with different entities and organizations that allows to guide and adjust the plans created previously, thus approving the creation of a joint perspective of how the plans should be made and consequently, the harmonious response to the emergency or eventual disaster.</p> JUAN PABLO MORALES COROZO Copyright (c) 15 2 Español Modelación y simulación computacional del triturador para biomasa forestal en el Ecuador https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/942 <p>Currently, CAD computer systems allow the design and simulation of prototypes of mechanical laboratory equipment and other branches of mechanical and industrial engineering, these developments of new technological advances. The objective was to carry out the modeling and computational simulation to obtain the laboratory-type forestry biomass shredder. With the methodology of the mechanical industry, based on the Autodesk Inventor Software program, which demonstrated the safety and bearing factors, showing the measurements of the shredder blades, with particles of the size of mesh size ranging from (75 - 300 μm), according to the International Standard (UNE-EN ISO 17827-2, 2016). Obtaining a proposed model of a crusher, with a 45<sup>o</sup> angle, with a 90<sup>o</sup> vertical hopper and 95% confidence efficiency, a mathematical model, efficiency and performance of the production process of grinding chips at laboratory scale, Demonstrating an excellent result in obtaining sawdust for the production of pellets for the benefit of the industry, according to the use of forest biomass for its physicochemical and thermal characteristics, guaranteeing as a renewable energy source and conservation of the environment of the Ecuadorian Amazon</p> Juan Gonzalez Copyright (c) 15 2 Occupational risks and prevention techniques https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/941 <p>The objective of this review article is to observe and discuss occupational risks and hazards, presenting the prevention standards that must be taken into account in order to avoid occupational hazards and illnesses, for the prevention of occupational hazards various techniques and plans are executed. security to take care of health and to save the lives of employers, it should be noted that strategic and rigorous plans are used in these preventions. This prevention plan is given in order to discover or anticipate any accident at work during the work day. In this section, the measures and methodology of risk prevention will be presented to avoid and reduce risks and diseases derived from work, in turn prevent and make the employer or personnel in charge of the employer's safety aware of the worker's rights so that they do not Accidents or derivatives occur during the work day, in which case you will have problems with the law, since there are regulations that must be taken into account in every company in order to provide safety to its workers, reducing risks and creating work spaces. safe, that do not affect the physical and mental health of workers.</p> dariana chila Copyright (c) 15 2 the OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS AND PREVENTION TECHNIQUES https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/939 <p>The objective of this review article is to observe and discuss occupational risks and hazards, presenting the prevention standards that must be taken into account in order to avoid occupational hazards and illnesses, for the prevention of occupational hazards various techniques and plans are executed. security to take care of health and to save the lives of employers, it should be noted that strategic and rigorous plans are used in these preventions. This prevention plan is given in order to discover or anticipate any accident at work during the work day. In this section, the measures and methodology of risk prevention will be presented to avoid and reduce risks and diseases derived from work, in turn prevent and make the employer or personnel in charge of the employer's safety aware of the worker's rights so that they do not Accidents or derivatives occur during the work day, in which case you will have problems with the law, since there are regulations that must be taken into account in every company in order to provide safety to its workers, reducing risks and creating work spaces. safe, that do not affect the physical and mental health of workers.</p> dariana chila Copyright (c) 15 2