Enfoque UTE https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista <p>Enfoque UTE is a scientific journal that publishes research papers in engineering and related areas. The journal is aimed at the international community of researchers, scientists, practitioners and engineers in general, and receives papers written in English or Spanish.</p> <p>Enfoque UTE is a Diamond Open Access journal that firmly believes in the free dissemination of scientific knowledge, which is why it guarantees that its content and its services in general will be totally free for readers (no suscription fees), authors (no APC) and the general public.</p> <p>In its 12 years of life, the magazine has published more than 300 engineering research papers, serving more than 800 authors. All this has been achieved thanks to the selfless participation of its team of editors, reviewers and contributors, as well as the permanent support of the Universidad UTE, which funds the activities of the journal.</p> Universidad UTE en-US Enfoque UTE 1390-9363 <p>This work is licensed under a <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/" rel="license">Creative Commons 3.0 BY EC License</a>.</p> Occupational risks and prevention techniques https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/941 <p>The objective of this review article is to observe and discuss occupational risks and hazards, presenting the prevention standards that must be taken into account in order to avoid occupational hazards and illnesses, for the prevention of occupational hazards various techniques and plans are executed. security to take care of health and to save the lives of employers, it should be noted that strategic and rigorous plans are used in these preventions. This prevention plan is given in order to discover or anticipate any accident at work during the work day. In this section, the measures and methodology of risk prevention will be presented to avoid and reduce risks and diseases derived from work, in turn prevent and make the employer or personnel in charge of the employer's safety aware of the worker's rights so that they do not Accidents or derivatives occur during the work day, in which case you will have problems with the law, since there are regulations that must be taken into account in every company in order to provide safety to its workers, reducing risks and creating work spaces. safe, that do not affect the physical and mental health of workers.</p> dariana chila Copyright (c) 14 1 the OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS AND PREVENTION TECHNIQUES https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/939 <p>The objective of this review article is to observe and discuss occupational risks and hazards, presenting the prevention standards that must be taken into account in order to avoid occupational hazards and illnesses, for the prevention of occupational hazards various techniques and plans are executed. security to take care of health and to save the lives of employers, it should be noted that strategic and rigorous plans are used in these preventions. This prevention plan is given in order to discover or anticipate any accident at work during the work day. In this section, the measures and methodology of risk prevention will be presented to avoid and reduce risks and diseases derived from work, in turn prevent and make the employer or personnel in charge of the employer's safety aware of the worker's rights so that they do not Accidents or derivatives occur during the work day, in which case you will have problems with the law, since there are regulations that must be taken into account in every company in order to provide safety to its workers, reducing risks and creating work spaces. safe, that do not affect the physical and mental health of workers.</p> dariana chila Copyright (c) 14 1 Microbial dynamics in bioreactors packed with stabilized landfill material https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/938 <p>In bioremediation it is always complex and interesting to know which the microbial species are present in the process, therefore, in a stabilized material from a closed landfill, it is important to demonstrate the presence of bacteria that are associated in the bioprocesses of decomposition of organic matter; in this work, bacteria belonging to the phylum Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Acinetobacter, and archaea belonging to the phylum Taumarcheaota and Euryarcheaoaota were found. The biological samples were obtained from a bioreactor packed with stabilized material that had been in operation for more than four months, treating liquids from the Tuxtla Gutiérrez leachate lagoon, performing a metagenomic DNA extraction from a commercial kit, the 16S rRNA gene was amplified, was sent for sequencing and the bioinformatics analysis was performed, as well as the predictive analysis of the metabolic pathways present, by reconstruction of unobserved states.</p> JOSE HUMBERTO CASTANON-GONZALEZ Copyright (c) 14 1 Bibliographic review on the measurement of environmental pollution in urban areas of Ecuador using IoT.) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/937 <p><strong>The present research aims to define a framework of reference on pollution in developing regions such as Ecuador, using the Internet of Things (IoT) as a current technological resource. A systematic review of articles disclosed between 2018 and 2022 was conducted to analyze pollution measurement. It is concluded that there are several alternatives on IoT technologies to monitor and reduce environmental pollution. Among the most common measurements are air quality monitoring, as well as water and noise pollution. Regarding the communication technology used, several options were found, including wireless technologies such as Wifi, Bluetooth and LoRa, as well as wireless sensor network technologies. The measurement data obtained are mainly used to determine the impact of pollution on human health, to make real-time decisions and to design pollution mitigation and control strategies. In addition, they allow developing recommendation systems and analyzing the long-term evolution of pollution in a given region. It is also important to consider that there is great heterogeneity in the way these technologies are used and in the data they collect, so it is necessary to establish a reference framework that facilitates consistent comparison and analysis of the results.</strong></p> Lincold Antonio Zambrano Cevallos Copyright (c) 14 1 Evaluation of the quality in use of a transactional system https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/936 <p>The Peruvian software industry is experiencing constant growth due to the demand of companies, especially SMEs, and there is a need to evaluate the quality of products. In addition, not studies focused on the evaluation of the quality in use of transactional sales systems are recognized, this being used by 45.2% of manufacturing industries and 35.9% of commerce. It was proposed to evaluate the quality in use of the SYSFACT sales system as a case study, applying the ISO/IEC 25000 standard. The characteristics evaluated were effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction, and the ISO/IEC 25022 metrics were used for the measurements. The process was carried out through a technical sheet designed according to the criteria of the researchers and based on the scientific literature. The data was processed in Excel. The results show that the SYSFACT system presented an effectiveness of use of 100%, efficiency of 57% and satisfaction of 93% at a level of importance of 30%, 30% and 40%, respectively. It is concluded that the SYSFACT system has an acceptable quality in use of a satisfactory degree at 84.3%, with a deficit of 15.7%.</p> Ángel Cárdenas-García Lloy Pinedo-Tuanama Juan Carlos García-Castro Wilson Torres-Delgado Copyright (c) 14 1 Español español https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/935 <p>Technology has played a fundamental role throughout history, especially in organizations due to globalization, which is why Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems are essential for the efficient use of Information Technology.&nbsp; Its implementation allows the organization to ingrate the different modules and the exchange of data to manage the areas of the company efficiently; however, the expected results are not always obtained.&nbsp; For this reason, this study analyzes the intentions and attitudes towards using an ERP.&nbsp; For this, a survey was applied to 55 organizations in the province of Azuay, applying the convenience sampling technique to identify behavioural aspects regarding computer solutions.&nbsp; The results show that the level of education, the information needs and the management of business resources positively influence the adoption of ERP systems in organizations.</p> María Gabriela Chica Contreras Español Español Español Español Copyright (c) 14 1 Integración de marcos de gobierno de TI y el impacto en la gestión de servicios de las organizaciones https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/934 <p>Organizations currently look for their processes to be carried out in the best way, generating significant value for their benefit, so it is important to know the impact generated by the integration of IT governance frameworks in the service management of organizations. To develop this systematic review article, 51 articles from different databases between the years 2018 and 2022 were taken into account. There are two fundamental principles of governance that can contribute significantly to the development of a company: compliance and performance. Therefore, with the review, the main benefits obtained by following and implementing IT governance frameworks were found, it was also possible to identify that the most used framework is COBIT, achieving the development of IT management capabilities of the organizations and thus answer the main question: What are the main impacts that the integration of IT governance frameworks has had on service management?, demonstrating that the impact generated by the integration of these frameworks varies significantly, giving different results depending on the sector to which the organization belongs, all these impacts being very beneficial for the ob objectives that have been raised to follow.</p> Henry Carranza Copyright (c) 14 1 Englis english https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/932 <p>The formation of the digital identity is one of the most important tasks or activities that a university student has, due to the handling of data and personal information that is shared depending on the website that is used, which generates the importance of protecting and maintaining privacy. of our data. The objective of this article is to make known how the student manages his digital identity based on academic and professional aspects, for this, as researchers, we designed a knowledge survey about digital identity, validated by a web scraping system that will help to specify the data. more accurately about the use and customs of students on the web. Among the most significant results, we highlight that students have their preferences when creating a profile within the network and recognize the importance of social networks in their relationship by creating social ties. In this way, one of the conclusions we reached is that although students have knowledge, they do not put it into practice, which affects their visibility in the academic and professional spheres, this being a key factor for research and the world of work.</p> Russell Andy vela ramirez Copyright (c) 14 1 Bibliographic review on the measurement of environmental pollution in urban areas of Ecuador using IoT.) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/931 <p>Nowadays, pollution has become a trending topic due to climate change, which causes negative effects on the population. The purpose of this research is to conduct a literature review to define a frame of reference on pollution in developing regions such as Ecuador, all this through the current technological resources represented by the Internet of Things (IoT), which is the sum of several technologies that seek to promote the quality of life of people and can be used to monitor environmental change.</p> <p>The strategy used for conducting the systematic review was the PRISMA methodology, in addition, criteria were used for the inclusion of the literature taking into account articles or case studies published between 2018 and 2022, where the measurement of pollution is analyzed, providing conclusive results.</p> <p>This research discovered with the description of results and recommendations that support the use of IoT tools to improve monitoring tasks especially for data recording in the cloud, also, with the support of statistical software to record changes in different environments periodically to be analyzed later</p> Lincold Antonio Zambrano Cevallos Copyright (c) 14 1 Diseño de procesos basado en Business Process Management (BPM) para la gestión bibliotecaria en una Escuela de Educación Superior Pedagógica Pública del Perú https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/930 <p>There is a need to achieve effective management in higher education institutions, given their constant audits that seek to verify compliance with basic quality standards. The objective was to develop a process management model based on Business Process Management (BPM) for the library management of the EESPPT, in order to characterize the key processes of the business line, develop a process map, model the processes, and adopt the proposal as an efficient management model. A non-experimental, longitudinal, descriptive-propositive, quantitative research was carried out with a sample of 50 students and 15 administrative staff, to whom a questionnaire was applied to collect data on the problem. A questionnaire was applied to them to collect data on the problem. 28.57% of the library staff is aware of the book registry, while more than 75% consider that it has deficiencies. The study concluded with the design of a new process management model based on Business Process Management (BPM). The model consists of 9 processes, 2 strategic: strategic planning, projection and relationship with society; 5 training processes: purchase of physical and online bibliographic material, registration of academic research, home lending and support for teaching and research; and 2 support processes: evaluation of suppliers and user training.</p> Juan Manuel Ormachea Ortiz Cleiser Camizan López Nancy Esther Casildo Bedon Copyright (c) 14 1 Social dynamics of face masks as single-use waste from the COVID-19 pandemic https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/929 <p>The impact generated by Urban Solid Waste (MSW) is associated with the risk in the population due to ignorance of the proper final disposal of single-use waste, specifically with face masks during the COVID-19 pandemic. With the objective of carrying out a national diagnosis on the management and final disposal of waste, a national survey was prepared with the support of the digital tool google form, in order to obtain data to assess the environmental impact on the use and disposal of solid waste. urban masks for mandatory use during the pandemic. It was identified that 35% of the interviewees mix the face masks with household waste, which is a potential factor for public health and environmental problems. 61.5% of these indicated that they were unaware of any COVID-19 waste management plan. This demonstrated the lack of knowledge about these, which causes inadequate management of these residues. The results of this research demonstrated the importance of implementing treatment alternatives to reduce the impact of face masks, highlighting that the most appropriate remedial treatment must be economically viable and with minimal environmental impact in order to properly manage MSW-COVID. -19.</p> María del Refugio Castañeda Chávez Luz María Campos-García Gabycarmen Navarrete-Rodríguez Isabel Araceli Amaro-Espejo Angelica María Pulido-Martínez David Reynier-Valdés Copyright (c) 14 1 Medical Dermatological Images of Covid 19: Erasure Code and Compression. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/926 <p>This paper takes advantage of the quasi-periodicity of the principal components (PCs) in the decomposition into PCs of medical images, which represent dermatological manifestations in paucisymptomatic patients of COVID-19. Here, an album of photos was taken of one of the most frequent patterns in COVID-19, the maculopapular pattern, characterized by an erythmatopapular rash, and compression of one of the medical images was performed. Said compression was conducted in 5 different ways: 1) using two PCs, 2) using both a periodic PC and a non-periodic PC, 3) using two periodic PCs, 4) using a single PC, and 5) using a single periodic PC. In addition, a battery of tests was implemented to avoid false positives or negatives in the diagnosis of the disease. This battery contains the Reed-Solomon erasure code from the zfec library. The results of this research proved that it is possible to work with acceptable reconstructions of compressed images in the field of dermatology, without losing the quality and characteristics that allow to reach a correct diagnosis. Furthermore, the processing times in the recovery of JPG vs PNG files are optimal, and the above achievement permits to correctly classify many diseases without fear of being wrong.</p> Fabricio Rolando Marcillo Vera Copyright (c) 14 1 Bibliographic review on the measurement of environmental pollution in urban areas of Ecuador using IoT https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/925 <p>Nowadays, pollution has become a trending topic due to climate change, which causes negative effects on the population. The purpose of this research is to conduct a literature review to define a frame of reference on pollution in developing regions such as Ecuador, all this through the current technological resources represented by the Internet of Things (IoT), which is the sum of several technologies that seek to promote the quality of life of people and can be used to monitor environmental change.</p> <p>The strategy used for conducting the systematic review was the PRISMA methodology, in addition, criteria were used for the inclusion of the literature taking into account articles or case studies published between 2018 and 2022, where the measurement of pollution is analyzed, providing conclusive results.</p> <p>This research discovered with the description of results and recommendations that support the use of IoT tools to improve monitoring tasks especially for data recording in the cloud, also, with the support of statistical software to record changes in different environments periodically to be analyzed later</p> Lincold Zambrano Copyright (c) 14 1 Lighting evaluation and implementation of an energy efficiency plan in the company MANTRANSVE https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/924 <p>The present investigation focuses on the evaluation of lighting quality in work areas of the Mantransve company, which is preparing to implement a plan to verify the efficiency of energy in the establishment. A descriptive investigation was applied to collect the information, as well as a deductive method to know the object of study with its respective variables. In addition, an initial diagnosis of the company was made through a SWOT matrix in specific areas of the company, to continue with the procedure of the energy efficiency plan. Subsequently, 54 workers were surveyed between the technical and administrative area. Technical lighting data in lumens was taken before and after to give way to the development of the Lighting Energy Efficiency Plan after simulating in DIALUX. Among the results, the contrast of hypotheses indicates that there is a significant improvement and the existence of energy savings in the medium term with respect to lighting in the areas analyzed according to the UNE 12464.1 standard designed for the interior. In this way, it is concluded to propose a total change in the luminaires to meet the level of lighting within the company.</p> Moisés Filiberto Mora Murillo Copyright (c) 14 1 The Digital identity of students based on results of the pattern of use of web pages resulting in Google https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/923 <p>The formation of the digital identity is one of the most important tasks or activities that a university student has, due to the handling of data and personal information that is shared depending on the website that is used, which generates the importance of protecting and maintaining privacy. of our data. The objective of this article is to make known how the student manages his digital identity based on academic and professional aspects, for this, as researchers, we designed a knowledge survey about digital identity, validated by a web scraping system that will help to specify the data. more accurately about the use and customs of students on the web. Among the most significant results, we highlight that students have their preferences when creating a profile within the network and recognize the importance of social networks in their relationship by creating social ties. In this way, one of the conclusions we reached is that although students have knowledge, they do not put it into practice, which affects their visibility in the academic and professional spheres, this being a key factor for research and the world of work.</p> Russell Andy vela ramirez Copyright (c) 14 1 Study of the air quality of the Santa Clara using advanced technologies https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/922 <p>Air quality monitoring in underdeveloped countries is complex, expensive, and not very viable. Without these data, it is unlikely to implement an air quality assessment and control system to mitigate the excessive growth of atmospheric pollution. This work proposes the use of the potential of the Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) on board the Sentinel 5P satellite of the Copernicus series of the European Space Agency to evaluate the air quality of the city of Santa Clara by identifying several elements of the composition of the atmosphere from space, such as: carbon monoxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide. The instrument operates in a swept (non-scanning) configuration, with a swath width of ~ 2600 km on the Earth's surface. The presentation of the results is done by means of maps and point, areal and territorial concentration data, which allows to identify the dynamics and geographical distribution of pollution. Annual concentrations of carbon monoxide of 0.028032886 mol/m<sup>2</sup>, ozone with 0.121398365 mol/m<sup>2</sup> and sulfur dioxide of 1.39641E-07 mol/m<sup>2</sup> were obtained. These values are within the range of low values and for ozone medium values.</p> Judit García Luis Orlando Pichardo Moya Copyright (c) 14 1 Caracterización socio productiva de pequeños sistemas de crianza de cuyes en una zona de la provincia de Cotopaxi, Ecuador https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/921 <p>Guinea pig production stands out for being an economic activity that is channel into breeding, reproduction and market. With the objective of socially and productively characterizing the small guinea pig breeding systems in the Juan Montalvo parish, belonging to the Latacunga canton of the Cotopaxi province, Ecuador, a survey was designed for small producers and local authorities that amounted to 339 people. . This was structure with closed and directed questions. Social variables were evaluate: age, marital status, gender, school level, and training. The productive ones were income level of the producers, weekly and monthly guinea pig production, as well as prices and marketing. The results reflected that the highest percentages of those who handle the animals are women (72), and that there are no illiterates in the families, the training is focus on the subject of market study with 60%. The largest number of producers are between 40 and 49 years old. The highest income was reflect in the minority with only 4%, and guinea pig prices ranged between 6 and 20 USD depending on the completion of the product. It was conclude that the socio-productive characterization of the small guinea pig breeding systems in the Juan Montalvo parish reflected the need to expand training on marketing and increase actions to achieve greater financing that allows increasing the production of a species that has great cultural roots in the region, and improve the living conditions of the inhabitants.</p> Luis Alonso Chicaiza Sánchez Copyright (c) 14 1 Caracterización química de la harina de Brassica oleracea y su empleo en la alimentación de pollos de ceba de la línea Cobb 500 https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/920 <p>Broccoli flour (Brassica oleracea) was characterize and different productive indicators were evaluate when using it in the ration of fattening chickens. For which, 210 animals of the Cobb 500 line were used in a completely randomized design, which were divided into seven groups that constituted the experimental treatments (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% broccoli flour ).The animals were feeding with balanced according to the experimental phase, which was carried out from week one to eight. For flour, dry matter, crude protein, fiber, ash, organic matter and metabolizable energy were determined. In addition, the variables were evaluate: live weight, feed conversion, consumption and viability. A simple classification analysis of variance was perform. To analyze the normal distribution of the data, the Kolmogorov Smirnov test was use, for the homogeneity of the variance the Bartlett test and to compare the Keuls means with the use of the statistic program version 10 for Windows. The results showed high protein values for broccoli flour. The productive indicators reflected that by increasing the days of rearing, the treatment with the use of 30% inclusion of the meal was higher with a live weight of 3.17 kg/birds, a consumption of 5.22 and a conversion of 1,64 g/kg, as well as, no deaths occurred (100% viability). The study showed that up to 30% broccoli flour could be used without affecting the productive indicators and reducing mortality in birds.</p> Edilberto Chacón Marcheco Copyright (c) 14 1 Las Potencialidades de pasturas en sistemas de producción familiares en la provincia Los Ríos, Ecuador. Verano https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/919 <p>With the objective of determining the potentialities of grasses, most used in family production systems in the province of Los Ríos, Ecuador, during the summer. The study was carried out in the areas, Laboratory of Ruminology, and Nutritional Metabolism of the State Technical University of Quevedo, located in the Experimental Campus. "La María", km 7 <sup>1</sup>/<sub>2</sub> of The Quevedo Mocache road, Los Ríos, Ecuador. The species used in the livestock systems were selected to carry out studies of productive behavior (total biomass, total yield of dry matter, leaves and stems) quality (DM, CP, ashes, OM, P, Ca, NDF, ADF, ADL, Cel, Hcel, CC, TT, TP, TCT, IVDMD, ISDMD, ODM, ME and NEL). which underwent cluster analysis to group species with similarity according to productivity and nutritional value. For production and chemical composition in summer, three main components were obtain with eigenvalues greater than one and that explain 87.27 % of the variability between varieties. In component one, 11 indicators related to protein, energy and the structural components of the cell were shown with values of preponderance greater than 0.75. In the second component, only calcium and the leaf/stem ratio were determined, and in the third component, biomass and dry matter yield. For the analysis of conglomerates for pastures, five groups were form, with the best comprehensive results for the third group, made up of M. maximus with medium to high values in CP, leaf/stem ratio, DISMS, EM and variables in the rest of the groups the indicators. All this information would contribute to the design of technological alternatives for sowing, establishment, management and use of its biomass as a source of food where the productivity and sustainability of the ecosystem is minimize. It is recommend carrying out new research to evaluate the impacts of the technological alternatives proposed in the livestock and in the ecosystem.</p> Danis Manuel Verdecia Acosta Copyright (c) 14 1 Bromatological characterization of the husk of three varieties of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and its effect on the organoleptic properties in the preparation of an infusion https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/918 <p>The objective of this study was to determine the influence of roasting temperature (120, 130 and 140 °C) on the bromatological characteristics of three varieties of cocoa husks (Forastero, Trinitario and CCN51) and their effect on the organoleptic properties of an infusion. For the evaluation of bromatological characteristics (humidity, pH and titratable acidity) and alkaloid analysis (theobromine and caffeine). For the organoleptic analysis, a 9-point hedonic test was used, complemented with the Kruskal Wallis test. This allowed determining that the roasting temperature significantly influenced the bromatological characteristics and that the values of the evaluated parameters decreased as the temperature increased. The study of alkaloids showed that the type of cocoa husk had an impact on the content. In addition, high roasting temperature reduces theobromine and considerably increases caffeine. In the case of organoleptic analysis, it was determined that T<sub>1 </sub>(Forastero + 120 °C) obtained the highest scores for aroma, flavor and acceptability. For color, T<sub>4</sub> (Trinitario + 120 °C) stood out with the highest score. It is attributed that the presence of bitter, acidic and astringent flavors is due to temperatures greater than or equal to 140 °C in any type of cocoa husk for the preparation of an infusion.</p> Jhonnatan Placido Aldas Morejon Copyright (c) 14 1 Diseño de procesos basado en Business Process Management (BPM) para la gestión bibliotecaria en una Escuela de Educación Superior Pedagógica Pública del Perú https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/915 <p>Existe la necesidad de lograr una gestión efectiva en las instituciones de educación superior, dado a sus constantes fiscalizaciones que buscan verificar el cumplimiento de estándares básicos de calidad. El objetivo fue elaborar un modelo de gestión por procesos basado en Business Process Management (BPM) para la gestión bibliotecaria de la EESPPT, de manera que se caracterice los procesos claves del giro del negocio, elabore un mapa de procesos, modele los procesos, y se adopte la propuesta como un modelo de gestión eficiente. Se realizó una investigación no experimental, longitudinal, descriptiva-propositiva, de corte cuantitativo, con una muestra de 50 estudiantes y 15 administrativos, a quienes se les aplicó un cuestionario para recoger datos sobre la problemática. El 28.57% del personal bibliotecario tiene conocimiento respecto al registro de libros, mientras que más del 75% considera que tiene deficiencias. Se concluye con el diseño de un nuevo modelo de gestión por procesos, basado en Business Process Management (BPM). El modelo consta de 9 procesos, 2 estratégicos: planificación estratégica, proyección y relación con la sociedad; 5 de formación: compra de material bibliográfico físico y en línea, registro de investigaciones académicas, préstamo domiciliario y apoyo a la docencia e investigación;&nbsp; y 2 de apoyo: evaluación de proveedores y formación de usuarios.</p> Cleiser Camizan Lopez Juan Manuel Ormachea Ortiz Nancy Esther Casildo Bedon Copyright (c) 14 1 An ontology-based approach to support the knowledge management of software quality standards https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/914 <p>Nowadays, the quality of software systems is crucial for companies to provide high-quality services and products. However, a wide number of software projects still fail. To increase the success probability of projects, it is suitable to adopting software quality standards to guide the process. However, standards are commonly described by means of natural language making difficult its analysis. For example, it is not easy to choose the most suitable standard according to the characteristics of the project. Furthermore, the usage of natural language hinders the automatic detection of inconsistencies and ambiguities. On the other hand, ontologies are an artificial intelligence technique which has been successfully used to represent and analyze knowledge in numerous domains. The ontologies represented by means of Web Ontology Language, a formal language based on description logics, enable the automatic validation and consistency checking of the information. This paper aims to describe an ontology-based approach to describe and analyze software quality standards. Since this ontology can represent the knowledge of several standards, a reasoner may automatically validate the information and infer new knowledge. This ontology might support the integration and reduction of conceptual ambiguity of standards descriptions and improve its understanding.</p> Nemury Silega Gilberto F. Castro Aguilar Inelda Martillo Alcívar Katya M. Faggioni Yuri I. Rogozov Vyacheslav S. Lapshin Copyright (c) 14 1 Economic valuation of carbon sequestration as environmental service in La Pita, Manabí-Ecuador https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/913 <p>Through the conservation and sustainable development of forests, climate change has been mitigated. In this research, an economic valuation of carbon capture as an environmental service in the La Pita community, Manabí - Ecuador, is carried out, maintaining a quantitative approach and a type of non-experimental value research. The work is divided into two phases: i) the determination of the captured carbon (t/Ha), where land use was taken into account and ii) the obtaining of the biomass and total in an extension of one hectare using an indirect method. not destructive. It will end that, in the study area there is a total of 144 individuals CO<sub>2</sub> collectors, belonging to 11 tree species; with a potential for carbon sequestration of 5.03x10<sup>9</sup> tons for the high zone and 4.07x10<sup>9</sup> tons for the middle zone, considering the species of <em>Mangífera indica, Samanea saman, Cordia alliodora, Cedrela odorata</em> and <em>Triplaris cumingiana</em> as the ones with the highest carbon sequestration capacity. carbon capture. In conclusion, the La Pita community stores 873.50 tons of carbon, and despite estimating a low value, it implies an economic value of $8 734.98, benefiting the environmental service of carbon capture.</p> José Manuel Calderón Pincay Copyright (c) 14 1 Numerical analysis of operation of a Wave Energy Converter (WEC) using CFD https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/912 <p>The present study numerically analyzes, using CFD, the operation of a wave energy converter (WEC) with local sea conditions. The dynamics of the device caused by the propagation of the waves was characterized by applying domain reduction criteria, structured cells, and dynamic mesh with 6DOF. The commercial ANSYS Fluent software was used to perform 1:5 scale simulations of a real device installed offshore. The prediction of the fluid dynamics was achieved with an error of between 3.6 % and 4.7 % comparing the elevation of the free surface of the waves and between 5 and 6 % in the angular displacement of the solid in relation to the experimental. For the analysis, data was extracted from the INOCAR-SWAN model at points near Esmeraldas and the Gulf of Guayaquil, detailing the feasibility of generating energy from the device in these areas. Better results in terms of device dynamics were obtained in sea states with greater depth and longer wave periods, presenting average mechanical power between 0.165 kW and 0.22 kW.</p> Cristian Andrade-Terán Esteban Valencia Edgar Cando Copyright (c) 2022 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2023-01-27 2023-01-27 14 1 10.29019/enfoqueute.912 Isolation and evaluation of native strains of Trichoderma spp. as root development promoter https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/911 <p>The application of liquid solutions of <em>Trichoderma</em>, of different isolates obtained from four provinces of the Ecuadorian Amazon, of three different crops was studied due to the potential of the fungus to synthesize Secondary Metabolites (SM), as the acid-3-indolacetic acid (AIA), once isolated the strains of <em>Trichoderma</em> of soil, the best ones were selected by means of a screenning, where a solution 1x10<sup>7</sup> of spores of each one of the isolates was applied in corn seed and it was left for one hour in soaking in this solution, after 15 days of growth of the plants, height, thickness and diameter of roots were evaluated, as a result, nine isolates were selected. The liquid solutions of these nine isolates were inoculated on corn plants (DEKALB 7088). The inoculations were carried out every 15 days until the plants were 60 days old, by means of the evaluation of height of plant, diameter of roots.</p> Christopher Wilson Suárez Palacios Nelly Moraima Remache Sánchez Jimmy Trinidad Pico Rosado Ernesto Paredes Puga Jessenia Jiménez Cumbicus Liliana Andrade Olaya Alex Gabriel Delgado Párraga Copyright (c) 14 1 Environmental Dimension in Smart Cities https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/910 <p>The overpopulation of large cities brings with it an increase in waste, which is mostly not recycled. Among waste, the most abundant material is plastic, a material whose degradation is very slow and causes great damage to the environment. Among smart cities &nbsp;strategies should be recycling planning and promoting the reduction of waste volumes that ultimately remain outside of recycling. It is important to note that a very low percentage of the waste considered as garbage is actually recycled. This paper shows a proposal to reduce plastic waste, based on the recycling of bottles (PET plastic - Polyethylene Terephthalate). The procedure shown in this work allows the recycling of these plastic bottles to apply them directly as raw material to build new objects using 3D printing. These new objects not only allows reducing the amount of plastic waste but also reuse it in everyday objects. Achieving a reduction of waste through citizen recycling techniques together with the possibilities of promoting government actions to reduce non-recyclable plastic packaging will have a strong impact on the cities that we plan for the future, smart cities.</p> Rocio Rodriguez Copyright (c) 14 1 Birdwatching to promote ecotourism in the Ricuricocha lagoon in Peru https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/909 <p>Birdwatching is a booming type of tourism that attracts a market segment with high purchasing power, which due to its behavior is friendly to the environment and whose profile is directly linked to ecotourism. The objective of the research was to identify bird species in order to promote ecotourism in the Ricuricocha lagoon in the San Martín region. To do this, an inventory of birds was carried out following the point count, direct count, intensive search and line and strip transect methodologies between June and October 2017. The bird records were compared with the Birds of Peru Guide. The results show the observation of 167 species belonging to 48 families and 22 orders, of which 17 species are of interest for birdwatching; 10 migratory species were also recorded, among them the most representative were from the <em>Tyrannidae</em> family. It is concluded that the registry of birds in the wetland will have information on birds of the Peruvian Amazon for its use for ecotourism, educational and scientific purposes. The importance of this research lies in the diversification of ecotourism in San Martín that contributes to tourism development.</p> Rony Flores-Ramírez Clifor Sosa-de-la-Cruz Henry Gonzales-Pinedo Yoni Rodríguez-Espejo Elia Córdova-Calle Copyright (c) 14 1 Cassava and banana waste evaluation to obtain fermentable sugars https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/908 <p style="margin-left: 1cm; margin-right: 1cm; text-indent: 0cm; line-height: 100%;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;">Cassava and plantain residues are lignocellulosic biomasses, with revaluation potential through biorefining processes. The production of sugars is the stage prior to the fermentation process, hence its importance in studying them. In this work, after characterizing the residues, a chemical pretreatment was carried out in order to evaluate its effectiveness in obtaining total reducing sugars (TRS). A 2<sup>3</sup> factorial design of experiments was proposed, whose factors were: hydrolysis type (acid, alkaline), the concentration of the hydrolyzing agent (1.2% v/v), and reaction time (30, 60 min). The highest TRS content for banana peel was 2.35 g/L and, was obtained by working with 1% NaOH. In the cassava shell, a TRS concentration of 1.95 g/L was reached when using 2% H2SO4. For both residues, the best results were found with a reaction time of 60 minutes. Through the ANOVA it was known that the factors by themselves do not exert a significant influence on the production of ART, although it was shown that there is an interaction between them. It is important to know the relationship that exists between the pretreatment methods used in the production of ART, as a preliminary step to fermentative processes through which it is possible to obtain a variety of bioproducts.</span></p> MARIA RIERA Copyright (c) 14 1 An ontology-based approach to support the knowledge management of software quality standards https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/907 <p>Nowadays, the quality of software systems is crucial for companies to provide high-quality services and products. However, a wide number of software projects still fail. To increase the success probability of projects, it is suitable to adopting software quality standards to guide the process. However, standards are commonly described by means of natural language making difficult its analysis. For example, it is not easy to choose the most suitable standard according to the characteristics of the project. Furthermore, the usage of natural language hinders the automatic detection of inconsistencies and ambiguities. On the other hand, ontologies are an artificial intelligence technique which has been successfully used to represent and analyze knowledge in numerous domains. The ontologies represented by means of Web Ontology Language, a formal language based on description logics, enable the automatic validation and consistency checking of the information. This paper aims to describe an ontology-based approach to describe and analyze software quality standards. Since this ontology can represent the knowledge of several standards, a reasoner may automatically validate the information and infer new knowledge. This ontology might support the integration and reduction of conceptual ambiguity of standards descriptions and improve its understanding.</p> Nemury Silega Gilberto F. Castro Aguilar Inelda Martillo Alcívar Katya M. Faggioni Yuri I. Rogozov Vyacheslav S. Lapshin Copyright (c) 14 1 M Comparative analysis of the thermal efficiency of a flat plate solar collector varying the glass type in the cover https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/906 <p>A comparative analysis of the thermal efficiency of flat plate solar collectors for air heating due to incident solar radiation was carried out. Two flat plate solar collectors and conventional cover of dark and clear glass were used, which allowed determining the incidence of incident solar radiation on the air outlet temperature. Experiments were carried out under equal conditions with real-time data collection every minute for six hours a day and four conditions: without forced air, with forced air at 0.033 kg/s, 0.5 kg/s and 0.061 kg/s. The experimentation allowed to define that the application of dark glass decreases the thermal efficiency, the best values ​​are obtained when using clear glass, the outlet temperature obtained reaches average values ​​of 8.26 °C without forced air. The comparative thermal performance between solar collectors with clear and dark glass covers shows values ​​that reach 12 % in clear glass covers, the experimental incident solar radiation values ​​varied between 200 W/m<sup>2</sup> and 1500 W/m<sup>2</sup>.</p> Enrique Torres Copyright (c) 14 1 Digital gamification in preschool learning: a systematic review of the literature https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/905 <p>In the educational context, gamification has emerged as an effective strategy to enhance learning and motivation. With the rise of information and communication technologies, digital gamification (DG) has emerged. Although there are numerous studies summarizing the contributions of gamification in education, very few have included preschool education. The present systematic review, supported by 25 primary studies published between 2014 and 2022 and indexed in Scopus and Web of Sciences, seeks to close this gap by characterizing the main contributions, and qualitatively synthesizing the effects of DG. The results indicate that there is a growing interest in the topic, where most of the studies originate in Asia; they are published in journals; and are based on the proposal of video games for computers or mobile devices that seek to improve language learning. Narrative approach research predominates, based on samples of less than 10 participants, employing Achievement (Progression) type game elements. The 15 studies that measured the effect of DG report positive results.</p> Fabricio Rolando Marcillo Vera Wilmar Hernández Jimmy Torres Lorena Cusme Eugenio Mora Susana Cobeña Copyright (c) 2022 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2023-01-24 2023-01-24 14 1 10.29019/enfoqueute.905 Experimental investigation and CFD simulation of a direct passive solar dehydrator of wet olive pomace https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/904 <p>In this work, a prototype of a direct passive solar dehydrator of wet olive pomace is designed, with the atmospheric conditions of Jaén, due to the need to reduce the humidity percentage of the wet olive pomace for its subsequent use as an energy source. for its good energy potential. To meet this objective, a prototype is developed, which brings together essential characteristics for dehydration, including the monitoring of variables such as: temperature, humidity and radiation. A CFD simulation of the dehydrator is carried out to know the temperature and speed profiles, this simulation is validated with experimental data obtained by the sensors obtained from the prototype. Subsequently, the design is evaluated by submitting a sample of moist olive pomace to the dehydration process in the prototype, with the daily data collection of the process, the drying curve and the evolution curve of the lower calorific value of the dehydrated olive pomace are constructed.</p> José Omar Cabrera Escobar Copyright (c) 14 1 Improvement of rubber floor properties, obtained by crushing recycled tires, trough the adjustment of manufacture process. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/903 <p>In the research, a study is carried out to improve the properties of the rubber floor product obtained from the crushing of tires that are no longer in use. By experimenting with the manufacturing process for this product, conducting tests through the variation of some process factors such as: temperature, mixing time, pressing time, amount of resin and amount of release agent, which brings about a reduction in the use of raw material by 50% and a decrease in non-compliant product from 54 to 6% which leads to an increase in the efficiency of the floor manufacturing process from 46 to 94%, thus seeking to reduce production costs in relation to current production.</p> Victor Cabrera Copyright (c) 14 1 Analysis of the global solar radiation to estimate the optimal tilt angle for flat-plate solar collectors. Study case: Quito-Ecuador https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/902 <p>This study focuses on global solar radiation as an energy resource for the conversion of solar energy into electrical energy for Ecuador. Based on an anisotropic mathematical model and global solar radiation database, the optimal tilt angle of a photovoltaic system for electrical generation is determined based on the solar radiation of the most unfavorable month for Ecuador's geographic conditions. Through this process, it is concluded that the optimal tilt results chosen by other authors that coincide with the altitude of the place of study, do not favor the use of solar radiation. Therefore, with an inclination of 15° with a view to the north, there is an increase of 25.4% in solar capture concerning the 0° inclination, since the benefits of this turn favor aspects such as self-cleaning by taking advantage of certain climatic conditions.</p> Jaime Antamba Guasgua Vladimir Azanza Vanessa Vallejo Denny Guanuche Copyright (c) 14 1 Implementation of good manufacturing practices in a company that produces cocoa products https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/901 <p>The objective of this work was the initial evaluation of the company AFRODISIAK, in its processes to compare with the requirements demanded by the national resolution ARCSA-DE-067-2015-GGG, in order to generate actions that help to correct the shortcomings and to be able to achieve compliance with these requirements, and thus improve production, reduce costs, have trained personnel and prepare the company for a certification in Good manufacturing practices in the short term, and thus increase the sources of income of the company. The results obtained were favorable, initially presenting 42% compliance based on the requirements checklist, and after the implementation of the improvement actions, the compliance percentage was 96%, also taking into account that 15 items did not apply to the situation of the company.</p> Victor Cabrera Copyright (c) 14 1 Improvement of rubber floor properties, obtained by crushing recycled tires, trough the adjustment of manufacture process. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/900 <p>In the research, a study is carried out to improve the properties of the rubber floor product obtained from the crushing of tires that are no longer in use. By experimenting with the manufacturing process for this product, conducting tests through the variation of some process factors such as: temperature, mixing time, pressing time, amount of resin and amount of release agent, which brings about a reduction in the use of raw material by 50% and a decrease in non-compliant product from 54 to 6% which leads to an increase in the efficiency of the floor manufacturing process from 46 to 94%, thus seeking to reduce production costs in relation to current production.</p> Victor Cabrera Copyright (c) 14 1 An ontology-based approach to support the knowledge management of software quality standards https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/899 <p>Nowadays, the quality of software systems is crucial for companies to provide high-quality services and products. However, a wide number of software projects still fail. To increase the success probability of projects, it is suitable to adopting software quality standards to guide the process. However, standards are commonly described by means of natural language making difficult its analysis. For example, it is not easy to choose the most suitable standard according to the characteristics of the project. Furthermore, the usage of natural language hinders the automatic detection of inconsistencies and ambiguities. On the other hand, ontologies are an artificial intelligence technique which has been successfully used to represent and analyze knowledge in numerous domains. The ontologies represented by means of Web Ontology Language, a formal language based on description logics, enable the automatic validation and consistency checking of the information. This paper aims to describe an ontology-based approach to describe and analyze software quality standards. Since this ontology can represent the knowledge of several standards, a reasoner may automatically validate the information and infer new knowledge. This ontology might support the integration and reduction of conceptual ambiguity in software standards descriptions and contribute to improve the understanding of these standards.</p> Nemury Silega Gilberto F. Castro Aguilar Inelda Martillo Alcívar Katya M. Faggioni Yuri I. Rogozov Vyacheslav S. Lapshin Copyright (c) 14 1 Analysis of the mechanical properties of concrete with the addition of type E glass fibers https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/898 <p>The main objective of this project is to evaluate the influence of the addition of fiberglass on the workability and mechanical properties of concrete. For this, the addition of different percentages of type E glass fiber (0%, 0.5%, 1% and 1.5%) and two lengths (12 and 25 mm) was considered. Abrams slump tests and compressive, tensile, and flexural strength tests were performed for the ages of 14 and 28 days. The results show that fiberglass considerably decreases the workability of concrete. Fiberglass, both 12 and 25 mm long, does not result in significant changes in compressive strength. On the other hand, increases in tensile and flexural strength are observed mainly for 1% glass fiber, regardless of length. Other percentages of fiberglass can increase the average tensile and flexural strength, but it is not statistically significant. Fiberglass can improve the mechanical properties of concrete at adequate percentages; however, there is a loss of workability, which can make it difficult to install.</p> Marialaura Herrera Rosas Joaquin Humberto Aquino Rocha Nahúm Gamalier Cayo Chileno Alejandra Araoz Campos Copyright (c) 14 1 Effect of dietary fiber on immunity: a peruvian case https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/897 <p>Life in big cities brings with it an unbalanced diet with minimal dietary fiber consumption and consequently an increase in comorbidities. The objectives of the present study were: to know the dietary fiber and its physiological effects in humans, to relate dietary fiber with the intestinal microbiota and to know Peruvian foods with a high content of dietary fiber. Sources of scientific information from papers and technical documents were used. The results were: dietary fiber is a set of carbohydrate polymers with ten or more monomeric units that are not hydrolyzable by endogenous enzymes in the small intestine and includes very important non-digestible polymers with three to nine degrees associated with vegetable cell wall components; the physiological effects are: improvements in intestinal health, glycemic control, cholesterol reduction, weight control and increased absorption of minerals; It is related to the intestinal microbiota because it ferments dietary fiber to produce compounds that are easily assimilated by humans. It also promotes the growth and balance of the intestinal microbiota, which is related to immunity. Peruvian foods with high dietary fiber content are: Andean grains, cereals, fruits, vegetables, and seeds. A population educated in nutrition and the importance of dietary fiber consumption will be a population with the minimum number of diseases and infections.</p> Gabriela Cristina Chire-Fajardo Ulises Gonzalo Calizaya-Mamani Alejandrina Honorata Sotelo-Mendez Copyright (c) 14 1 Chemical treatment of sugar cane vinase with hydrogen peroxide https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/895 <p>Vinasse is generated as a residue in the production of ethanol by fermentation-distillation of molasses/sugar cane juice, at a rate of 13 L/L of ethanol. It is an acid liquid, brown in color, with a fine honey odor and malt flavor, characterized by high mineralization and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) values of up to 150000 mg/L, being highly polluting. This work reports results of the oxidative treatment of vinasse, using hydrogen peroxide as a source of hydroxyl radicals, at laboratory scale. The stillage samples were characterized by physicochemical determinations following the standard techniques of Standard Methods. The oxidation tests were carried out with different peroxide/vinasse ratios in a semi-batch reactor under ambient conditions. After 5 days, an 85% decrease in COD and an increase in the Biodegradability Index were achieved. The kinetics of the oxidative reaction was first order with respect to COD, with an apparent rate constant of 0,3694 1/day. Although the COD values allowed by regulations (250 and 500 mg/L, to be deposited in water and soil, respectively) were not reached, the proposed treatment is encouraging due to its simplicity and low cost</p> Adriana Patricia del Milagro Chaile Mercedes Marta Elsa Ferreyra María Emilia Uboldi Copyright (c) 14 1 Impact of the use of technological tools aquaculture https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/894 <p>La acuicultura en el Perú está en auge, por lo que es necesario implementar técnicas de producción y tecnificar el proceso para abordar una perspectiva sostenible, eficiente y competitiva. El objetivo de la revisión ha sido identificar las herramientas tecnológicas que utilizan los países con alta competitividad en el sector y dar a conocer la deficiencia que existe en la acuicultura peruana. Además, analizar los beneficios que tiene el uso de herramientas tecnológicas en la alimentación, el control de los parámetros físico químicas del agua, el conteo y clasificación de peces. La obtención de la información se realizó utilizando el motor de búsqueda google académico para facilitar la filtración de la información utilizada, los artículos tomados comprenden a los años 2016 y 2020, respectivamente. La revisión ha permitido identificar que la tecnología juega un papel importante en la tecnificación del proceso, los países que han aplicado tecnología hoy en día están posicionados como referentes acuícolas. Se concluye que para llegar a posicionarse como un referente acuícola se debe aplicar estrategias, políticas de producción y la implantación de tecnología e innovación en el proceso, y así garantizar una producción de calidad de acuerdo a la demanda del mercado</p> Jhordani Guélac Gómez Jeison Elí Sánchez Calle Copyright (c) 14 1 Sistema automatizado con visión artificial para el procesamiento primario de conchas de abanico (Argopecten purpuratus) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/893 <p>Aquatic products such as scallops or fan shells (<em>Argopecten purpuratus</em>) are very popular with consumers and their visual quality is often detected manually for sorting, species grading, and freshness assessment. Machine vision has been used in the detection of the external quality of various food products, including aquatic products, because of its efficiency, objectivity, consistency and reliability. The objective of this work is to design a system based on artificial vision to automate the primary processing (washing, checking, and coding) of fan shell stems in the fishing company Piura Sea Food S.A.C., in order to detect product defects, and optimize the process. All design guidelines were established including the selection of cameras, lenses, and lighting system, processing methods, programming of system components, and interfaces, image analysis and management. The system based on artificial intelligence for image capture, and processing through the interconnection of equipment coupled to an intelligent PLC control unit, which by means of an HMI unit, and Convolutional Neural Network software, manages to detect the stems with defects, and discard them in real time.</p> Jesus Espinoza Copyright (c) 14 1 El Design of a direct concentration solar system to generate high temperature thermal energy in Huancayo-Peru https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/892 <p>Solar energy in Peru is abundant, therefore, its use should be extended to other possibilities, such as the generation of medium and high temperature energy, and be used in the productive sector, without emitting greenhouse gases into the environment. The direct concentration solar system is a device that captures direct radiation through the parabolic disk concentrator, and it reflects towards the absorber that is at the focus of the system, in which the heat flow is concentrated and its continuity depends of concentrator motion based on azimuth angle and elevation. In this regard there are studies, in which they highlight the way to configure the system, taking into consideration; selection of materials, safety in their use and the optical efficiency of the system, which guarantees the achievement of the required temperature in the focus. The reasons that encourage the study, is the extension of the use of solar energy for more demanding applications, without polluting the environment, such is the case, the purpose of the study is to conceptually and categorically design a direct concentration solar system for produce high temperature thermal energy (T°&gt;250°C), using a design methodology focused on VDI 2221 and a systemic research method. As a result, the system composed of a concentrator, receiver and structure with two degrees of freedom is presented.</p> WUILBER CLEMENTE DE LA CRUZ CIRO ABELARDO ESPINOZA MONTES Copyright (c) 14 1 Geospatial analysis of deforestation caused by oil palm plantations in the canton of San Lorenzo - Ecuador https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/891 <p>Oil palm plantations have grown very rapidly, raising concerns about the loss of forest area. Therefore, the objective of the research was to analyze with geospatial information the deforestation caused by oil palm plantations in the San Lorenzo canton. The geospatial analysis to estimate the area deforested by the establishment of oil palm plantations was carried out with official layers from the Ministry of the Environment, Water and Ecological Transition, the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock and satellite images, achieving a study period from 1990 to 2022. The surface total deforested area is 59.727,43 ha, which represents 21.47% of the forest area in 1990 and an average loss of native forest per year of 2.132,12 ha. The area of ​​palm plantations is 25.049,73 ha, of which 90.34% of the total area of ​​plantations. It was possible to show that 37.89% of the deforested area during the study period corresponds to the establishment of oil palm plantations, which indicates that deforestation could also be associated with other factors such as the expansion of the agricultural, livestock frontier. and the felling of commercial forest species.</p> Diego Armando Ureta Leones Copyright (c) 14 1 Seed viability, germination and seedling quality patterns of three forest species for restoration in Amazonian conditions https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/890 <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality patterns of <em>Switenia macrophylla, Cedrelinga cateniformis </em>and <em>Ochroma pyramidale</em> seeds and seedlings in response to restoration. The seed viability test was performed using 1 % tetrazolium (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) during three staining times and the percentage of viability and vigor levels were considered according to the topological staining pattern. Germination speed, germination capacity, and morphological indices of plant quality were determined using the aboveground belowground ratio, slenderness, degree of lignification and Dickson's quality. The highest percentage of viable seeds with the maximum staining time (3 hours) was verified. The medium vigor category was higher in the three species, as determined by a partial reddish staining pattern as an expression of their physiological quality, which was reflected in the response to germination. The morphological quality indices allowed us to identify the species’ potential for growth and development for acclimatization to the area. The correspondence analysis was significant (p≤0.05), which facilitated the formation of quality groups, <em>C. cateniformis</em> was found to be of a high-enough quality as an indicator of its potential to cover restoration needs in Amazonian conditions.</p> Yudel García Quintana Yasiel Arteaga Crespo María De Decker María del Carmen Castelo Copyright (c) 2022 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2023-01-03 2023-01-03 14 1 10.29019/enfoqueute.890 Evaluation of forest residues of potential species to obtain carbon as clean energy in the Ecuadorian Amazon https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/889 <p>Timber residues due to its use for the construction industry and others provided by the secondary forest and its high content of lignocellulosic material for energy purposes, our objective was to evaluate the forest residues of six species to obtain carbon as clean energy. , which represents great interest for the energy industry. Through the methodology of the study of inventories and sampling of wood residues from sawmills that was in the four cantons of the province of Pastaza, through instrumental techniques of physical, chemical and thermal analysis, the parameters studied were the biomass potential and residue, density, humidity, ashes, volatiles, fixed carbon and higher calorific value (immediate analysis), carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur (CHONS), which allowed obtaining the thermochemical properties, reaching the main results of energy potential, of these three species that can be used for clean energy, due to the amount of ash found in the analyzes below 1% and volatiles (60-80%) of these residues, which clearly shows that it prevents the formation of scale in equipment and damage, in relation to its fixed carbon content on average of 14.78% and its superior calorific value 19.72 Mj/kg, assessing the fact industrial reliability for its energy use that will generate 515.62 GW of clean energy in electrical thermal power annually to meet the needs of vulnerable areas of the Amazon region.</p> Juan Elías González Rubén Darío Ledesma Reinier Abreu Naranjo Copyright (c) 2022 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2023-01-27 2023-01-27 14 1 10.29019/enfoqueute.889 Hydrological modeling of the urban basin of the Bélico river in the city of Santa Clara, Cuba https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/888 <p>Urban floods are a phenomenon associated with heavy rainfall in relatively short periods of time, the causes that cause them are dissimilar and are generally accompanied by poor urban planning that reduces hydraulic sections of rivers, streams, and any drainage channel. The city of Santa Clara in Cuba, presents serious flooding problems near the Bélico and Cubanicay rivers due to the decrease in the section of their channels due to urban indiscipline. This contribution obtains the values of the maximum runoff flow for various control sections located along these rivers, using the TR-55 model (Technical Report 55) of the United States Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), for its acronym in English, formerly named Soil Conservation Service). Three models associated with convective rains Type I, II, III, associated with the peaks of the storms and their temporal location will be carried out, with which the maximum expenses associated with storms of different configuration can be defined for a probability of 1%, 2% and 10%. The results obtained show that the most critical situation occurs for Type III rain and the maximum runoff value for a 1% probability at the basin closure point is 170 m<sup>3</sup>/s.</p> Victor Manuel Carvajal González Carlos Lázaro Castillo García Copyright (c) 14 1 Review of Static and Dynamic Load Balancing Algorithms most commonly used in different environments https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/887 <p>Load balancing guarantees a network better performance and access to its resources by distributing traffic according to its priority either by means of software or hardware using different algorithms that are chosen depending on the type of service to be served and the state of the network servers at the time of the user's request. This article describes the state of the art of static and dynamic load balancing algorithms with better results in performance, decrease of response times and absence of overload, according to the 20 studies reviewed in this research one of the algorithms with better results in static approaches is the Round Robin algorithm with their respective improvements as well as in the dynamic algorithms we have the Accelerated algorithm and the Ant Colony algorithm.</p> Johanna Cedeño Vivas Miguel Joseph Rodríguez Veliz Leonardo Javier Chancay García Copyright (c) 14 1 Comportamiento del consumidor antes y durante la pandemia del COVID-19 en la provincia de El Oro https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/886 <p>La presente investigación analiza el impacto de la pandemia en las preferencias de los consumidores, dentro del marco del comercio electrónico para recomendar estrategias de mercado que acerquen al consumidor hacia una atención más digital, por lo que se hizo uso del estadístico de comparación de muestras relacionadas de Wilcoxon para datos no paramétricos con el fin de realizar una confrontación de frecuencias entre grupos de distintos tiempos que midieron el comportamiento de los usuarios en este mismo intervalo. Se utilizó la encuesta como instrumento de investigación y se pudo evidenciar un incremento en las compras en línea, destacando el uso de las tarjetas de crédito o débito y una reducción de las compras en establecimientos físicos. En el caso de la percepción sobre el comercio electrónico, existió un incremento en la sensación de facilidad, necesidad y mayor grado de utilidad sobre el mismo.&nbsp; Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que la pandemia generó un impacto significativo sobre el comportamiento del consumidor y las percepciones de comercio electrónico en el grupo de estudio.</p> Claudia Quizhpe Bustos Copyright (c) 14 1 Productividad y calidad nutritiva de asociación de Clitoria ternatea con Megathyrsus maximus y Brachiaria decumbens https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/885 <p>Para determinar el comportamiento productivo y nutritivo de la asociación de <em>Clitoria ternatea </em>con <em>Megathyrsus maximus </em>y <em>Brachiaria decumbens. </em>Se utilizaron ocho parcelas (4x4 m, 16 m<sup>2</sup>) de 2 años en un diseño de completamente aleatorizado con arreglo factorial de 2x3: A: Asociaciones (<em>Megathyrsus maximus</em>+ <em>Clitoria ternatea</em> y <em>Brachiaria decumbens</em> + <em>Clitoria ternatea</em>) y B: Edades de corte de 80, 110 y 140 días. Se determinaron el peso de la raíz, biomasa total, rendimiento en materia seca total, de hojas y tallos; relación hoja/tallos y biomasa área/raíz, así como la composición bromatológica del forraje, química y microbiológica del suelo. Se realizó análisis de varianza de acuerdo con el diseño experimental y los valores medios se compararon mediante la prueba de rangos múltiples de Duncan (1955). Para todos los indicadores de la productividad se encontró interacción (P&lt;0,05) asociación x edad de rebrote, los mayores valores para el peso de la raíz, biomasa, RMS total, hojas y tallos; fueron reportados para la asociación (<em>Megathyrsus maximus + Clitoria ternatea</em>) a los 140 días (0,80; 5,98; 2,27; 0,91 y 1,30 t.ha<sup>-1</sup>, respectivamente).Experimentaron disminución con la madures la PB, Hcel, CC y MO, Mientras que, el resto de los componentes de la pared celular FND, FAD, LAD, Cel y ceniza incrementaron sus valores con la edad del vegetal (180 días) con 68,34; 38,27 y 34,15%; la digestibilidad y aporte energético con los valores más altos a los 80 días y la asociación M<em>. maximus+C. ternatea</em> 48,42; 49,71%; 7,12; 3,96 y 3,44 MJ.Kg<sup>-1</sup>. Los análisis microbiológicos de las asociaciones pasto-leguminosa, donde se puede observar que a los 80 días la asociación de <em>M. maximus+C. ternatea</em> presenta una población de bacterias, actinomicetos, Solubilizadores de P y fijadores de N asimbiótico superior al de la asociación <em>B. decumbens+C. ternatea</em> con 3,9 x 10<sup> 5</sup>; 4,7 x 10<sup> 6</sup>; 3,5 x 10<sup> 4</sup> y 1,6 x 10<sup> 3</sup>. En el presente estudio quedo evidenciado el efecto de la asociación de las leguminosas en la productividad, calidad nutricional, mejoramiento de la composición química y microbiológica del suelo. Con su mejor comportamiento para <em>M. maximus</em> por sus características que la hacen muy plástica y adaptable a las condiciones de sombra y acompañamiento de especies arvenses.</p> Guido Álvarez Copyright (c) 14 1 Technology Acceptance Model of ERP software in Small Business: A Systematic Literature review https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/884 <p>Adopting an ERP system could become a task that does not necessarily lead to success. In this work, we have conducted a systematic review of the literature considering the technology acceptance model (TAM) in an exhaustive search of 11 scientific databases, applying the PRISMA method. A total of 341 articles were obtained, and 53 were selected as eligible. The Iramuteq tool under R was applied to perform text analysis to quantify the results. We conclude that the relevant factors to consider in implementing an ERP become the mitigation of computational anxiety. The literature identifies some strategies, such as adequate end-user formation programs, documentation, technical facilitation conditions, social influence, and organizational motivators.</p> Esteban Crespo Catalina Astudillo-Rodríguez Gabriela Chica-Contreras Ana Vásquez-Aguilera Copyright (c) 2022 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2023-01-03 2023-01-03 14 1 10.29019/enfoqueute.884 Optimal stages of RF energy harvesting and storage systems https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/883 <p>This document presents a review of models of Radiofrequency (RF) energy harvesting systems, extracted from articles published in scientific repositories around the world. Its objective is to extract relevant information from each of them, such as: system topology, circuits and characteristics of each stage, electronic components used, dimensions, among others. With this information, the data is tabulated and compared, in order to determine which one has the best characteristics according to each stage and consider it to carry out a deeper investigation and improve its design to capture more energy. To carry out this study, a methodology divided into four phases was used, which are: research, scientific reading, extraction of relevant information and tabulation. Once the study of the selected systems was carried out, a comparison was made between the results obtained in each one and the topology, circuits or elements that obtained the best results for the stages of: Antenna, Coupling, Rectification, Energy Management and Storage were selected. of energy. Finally, an application for Android devices was created in which all the information collected, and results obtained are found so that it works as a reference source for future research.</p> Julio Cuji Danny Merino Geovanni Brito Carlos Gordón Copyright (c) 2022 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2023-01-03 2023-01-03 14 1 10.29019/enfoqueute.883 The environmental impact of concrete production and alternative methods https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/882 <p>In the present work it is possible to determine the negative impact of the production of concrete and alternative methods of its production are presented as possible solutions to find a way to continue using the concrete with the replacement of some of its components by recycled materials contributing to the realization of sustainable construction. This achievement is achieved through the analysis of 11 articles (obtained in databases such as Redalyc, Google Scholar and Dialnet) that are related to the topic to be discussed. In turn, the discussion between the different authors and their content prompted the realization of conclusions through a large majority of coincidences. Within these conclusions we can find that the standardized production process makes it possible to experiment with various additions of materials, this fact being what contributes to the affirmation of the versatility of concrete and contribution to sustainable construction.</p> Aldair Angles Rivera Copyright (c) 14 1 Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle as an Alternative to Generate Topographic Information https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/881 <p>Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming a very versatile technology tool in several application areas for development activities. Topography, as a fundamental area of engineering, provides information related to the three-dimensional location of points on the earth's surface. The objective of this work was to generate topographic information, using UAV as a technological alternative to traditional techniques. The methodology consisted of planning and execution of two photogrammetric flights with the EBEB SQ UAV, instrumented with the Sequoia multispectral camera. Five control points were placed on the ground, georeferenced with a total station, used as control points in the processing of the flight images. The photographs captured in flight were processed by photogrammetry with PIX4Dmapper software on a desktop computer, with an Intel(R) Core (TM) i9-9900K CPU 3.60GHz processor and 32.0 GB of RAM. The photogrammetric flight results consisted of a total of 633 RGB photographs in a flight time of 36:27 minutes, for a coverage area of 57.7 ha. The processing quality report showed an accuracy of 2 mm in the georeferencing of the photographs with the control points. The photogrammetric processing was executed in a time of 48 minutes to generate Orthophotos, Digital Terrain Model (DTM) and three-dimensional point cloud. The generated products reached a spatial resolution of 5 cm/pixel, with millimeter accuracies that allowed the management of secondary topographic information such as slope. The point cloud made it possible to classify the coverage in vegetation and soil, to estimate the height of the cotton crop canopy with an accuracy of 91%. As advantages of the UAV over traditional techniques for topographic surveys, the variety and precision of geospatial products and the optimization of times can be highlighted.</p> Henry Pacheco Gil Emilio Jarre José Ricardo Macias Frank Intriago Bolivar Ortega Edgar Menéndez Copyright (c) 2022 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2023-01-03 2023-01-03 14 1 10.29019/enfoqueute.881 (Physical, chemical and functional characteristics of the grain and starch obtained from ecotypes of colored quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/880 <p>Quinoa grains have high starch content, there are ecotypes that were not studied and these are becoming extinct, the objective was to evaluate the physical characteristics of three ecotypes of colored grains and evaluate yield, physicochemical characteristics and functional properties of starch; First, the physical characteristics of the grain were evaluated, then starch was extracted and yield, physicochemical characteristics of amylose and amylopectin by spectrophotometer and functional properties such as gelatinization temperature by thermometer, while swelling power, absorption capacity and solubility index were evaluated. They were evaluated at constant temperatures for 30 minutes, centrifuged and dried. It was found that the grains contain between 10,57 to 11,25% moisture, 2,31 to 2,86mm<sup>3</sup> in volume, 1250 to 1253kg/m<sup>3</sup> in density, 0,820 to 0,880mm in radius, and 280 to 347 grains per gram, while the hydrated grains showed a significant variation. Yields of 14,62 to 26,76%, 9,46 to 9,74% of amylose, 90,26 to 90,54% of amylopectin, 65,2 to 69,5°C of gelatinization temperature, 6,33 to 15,21g/g swelling power, 1,24 to 4,02% water solubility index and 2,30 to 4,21g/g water absorption capacity in the extracted starches. The quinoa studied has physical characteristics similar to other varieties and the functional properties of this starch are limited by the amylose content.</p> César Paul Laqui Vilca Copyright (c) 14 1 Los Beneficios de usar modelos ITIL en las áreas de TI en empresas del sector económico https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/879 <p>El objetivo de esta investigación es evaluar en qué manera mejoraron las áreas de Tecnologías de Información (TI), al seguir las buenas prácticas de la metodología ITIL evaluando los modelos que implementaron, se tomó como punto de estudio a empresas pertenecientes al sector económico para determinar todos los beneficios que obtuvieron. Para desarrollar este artículo de revisión sistemática de los beneficios que proporciona ITIL a las empresas, se tomaron en cuenta artículos de diferentes bases de datos que se encuentren entre los años 2017 y 2021. Con la revisión se encontró que los principales beneficios que se obtienen al seguir la metodología ITIL e implementar algunos de sus modelos para el manejo de las áreas de TI son: la reducción de los costos, mayor satisfacción de clientes y mejora del trabajo en equipo. Se concluye que el uso de modelos ITIL en diferentes empresas pertenecientes al sector económico ha traído muchas mejoras que ayudan a evitar el estancamiento con respecto a la globalización que el mundo está atravesando con respecto al uso de tecnologías.</p> Henry Carranza Lucas Paolo Ruiz Jara Me Copyright (c) 14 1 Efecto biocida de los extractos vegetales en el control del pulgón de la col (Brevicoryne brassicae) en selva alta peruana https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/877 <p>La introducción de las hortalizas como cultivo alternativo en la selva alta peruana también implican la búsqueda de métodos de control de plagas amigables con el ambiente y el cuidado de la biodiversidad, aquí evaluamos el efecto biocida de los extractos acuosos de neem (<em>Azadirachta indica</em>), barbasco (<em>Lonchocarpus nicou</em> L.) y molle (<em>Schinus molle</em> L.) para el control del pulgo (<em>Brevicoryne brassicae</em> L.) en col (<em>Brassica oleracea</em> var capitata) durante la campaña agrícola 2020, en un diseño de Bloques Completos al Azar (DBCA) con 3 tratamientos, más testigo absoluto y 4 réplicas. Los extractos se prepararon a partir de la combinación de hojas, tallos, corteza, frutos y raíces de las plantas a razón de 1kg y aplicados a una dosis de 6 ml por litro de agua. El barbasco fue el más eficiente en la reducción del número de pulgones por planta y la más toxica para causar en un 75,34% de mortalidad en 45 días de tratamiento, seguida por molle con 61,43% y con peso de pella de hasta 1725 g. Se concluye que los extractos vegetales&nbsp;disminuyeron las poblaciones del pulgón y resultan adecuados para su uso en los programas del Manejo Integrado.</p> AGUSTINA VALVERDE RODRIGUEZ Copyright (c) 14 1 EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND SCALDING TIME ON THE ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF CARAMBOLA (Averrhoa Carambola L.) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/876 <p>Blanching is a thermal technology used in food processing, which decreases the content of bioactive components (antioxidants), which varies according to the species, dimension, maturity, time and temperature at which it is carried out. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of temperature and blanching time on the antioxidant capacity of carambola pulp (Averrhoa carambola L.). The carambola pulp was obtained by subjecting the raw material to 80, 85 and 90 ºC and 5, 10 and 15 minutes. The qualitative phytochemical analysis of the fruit and pulp was carried out applying the general characterization reactions, the determination of the antioxidant capacity consisted in the formation of the blue complex of Phosphorus-Molybdenum (V). The carambola fruit presented an abundant amount of phenolic compounds and reducing sugars, which after being subjected to the blanching process presented a decrease in the amount of phenolic compounds and reducing sugars, with respect to antioxidant capacity, this loss of antioxidant capacity is related to temperature and time, as the scalding temperature and time increases, there is a decrease in the antioxidant capacity in addition to the sensory variation of the flavor attribute of the pulp.</p> José Carlos Belizario Ferrel Copyright (c) 14 1 Robust tracking of the water level in a coupled-tank system employing Linear Matrix Inequalities https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/874 <p>Most of the methods employed in the industrial process control are based on the linearization of the mathematical model equations around an operating point. This leads to neglect some dynamics of the process and the loss of robustness of the controller. Liquid level control is a fundamental problem in the process industry. In this work, the nonlinear model of a coupled-tank system is described exactly by a linear parameter varying system (LPV). The parameter vector is defined as a function of the level of the tanks, which are supposed to be uncertain but changing between the technological operation limits of the tanks. This allows to describe the LPV system by a polytope inside the operating range of the tanks and in this way, using linear matrix inequalities (LMI), design a robust controller that assures the tracking of input references used frequently in practice with zero-state error and some desired specifications in the closed-loop transient response</p> Pedro TEPPA-GARRAN Miguel FAGGIONI Copyright (c) 14 1 Climatic Variability in the hydrographic basin of the Chalpi Grande river in Napo-Ecuador https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/872 <p>The watershed basin of the Chalpi Grande River is located in the Ecuadorian Amazon. This basin, being above 3200 m a.s.l. It has characteristics of Andean and Amazonian ecosystems. The conservation of this basin is extremely important because the supply of 2.2 m3/s for the Metropolitan District of Quito depends on this river. The objective of this research is the characterization of the additional climate of 31 years (1985-2015) of records of temperature, precipitation and flow of the Chalpi Grande River based on the historical records of INAMHI, EPMAPS and FONAG. These were systematized records filled in based on statistical methods and remote sensors for data validation. The climatic temperature shows increases both in the behaviors and in the trends of the winter and summer seasons; as well as in the trends of climatic parameters that can be the effect of atmospheric phenomena, such as the latent problem of climate change.</p> Christian Andrés García Rengifo Sixto Durán-Ballén Ochoa Copyright (c) 2022 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2023-01-03 2023-01-03 14 1 10.29019/enfoqueute.872 La Simulación de procesos y su importancia en el diseño, evaluación y mejoras de sistemas de endulzamiento del gas natural: Una revisión https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/871 <p>CO<sub>2</sub> and/or H<sub>2</sub>S removal during gas processing is focused on preventing undesirable effects, such as natural gas decrease in the heat capacity, corrosion problems, environmental pollution, among others; and generally the natural gas treatment units are simulated, using different computational techniques that allow the process engineer to have better system visualization. For this reason, in this article the importance and transcendence of the different investigations were investigated, regarding the modeling, evaluation and improvements of natural gas sweetening systems. As conclusive aspects, it was found that simulation represents an important tool in process engineering because it allows expanding the experimental results, providing significant predictions about the treatment plants performance, in addition, in the case of the sweetening units, these are designed considering the impurities present in the feed fluid and their permissible limits in the gas for sale; finally, process simulators also provide other theoretical tools to evaluate and improve a sweetening unit based on variations in operational conditions and future compositional changes experienced by the fluid to be processed.</p> Luis Antonio Castillo Copyright (c) 14 1 Standing frame device to cerebral palsy infants https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/869 <p>A low-cost, passive-supine model of a standing frame for patients with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy is presented. The modeling of the constituent elements was developed based on the anthropometric measurements of children from 1 to 4 years of age. Likewise, the head, trunk, pelvis, knees, and foot support elements were developed in order to achieve adaptation to the particular size of the user. In addition, elements that allow the knee abduction movement were considered. From the functional point of view, the device starts from an initial position in the supine position and with gradual movement can adopt the biped position, until the patient is positioned, in the frontal plane, at 10° with respect to the vertical plane. On the other hand, the placement of an adaptable table, the trunk level, was considered for the realization of activities during the therapy period. A numerical analysis of the structure was carried out, assigning materials available in the country, considering the two extreme positions that the device can adopt and the loads generated in both configurations. For all the conditions imposed, satisfactory results were obtained for stresses, displacements, and safety factor.</p> Brizeida Gámez David Ojeda Copyright (c) 14 1 Circular antenna array with a transmission line to form a Yagui-Uda WiFi antena https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/868 <pre>The present paper describes the design of a Yagi-Uda stacked antenna array for 2.4 GHz applications. Its structure comprises 4 layers, the first layer contains the active element, the reflector, and the feed transmission line. Layers two, three and four have circular patches that work as directors. The implementation of a "D" shaped patch is incorporated in the active element, in which simulation results show that the proposed antenna can achieve significantly wider bandwidth than the traditional circular patch antenna. The dimensions of the circular patch directors and their distances were also modified in order to have the highest directivity. The antenna simulation is performed in Ansoft Designer and Ansys HFSS 15.0 software.</pre> Dorian Caiza Copyright (c) 14 1 Susceptibility of six insecticides in brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Kallar tract of Punjab, Pakistan; 2015-2019 https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/867 <p>Brown planthopper (BPH), <em>Nilaparvata lugens</em> (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) is an economically important insect pest of rice crop worldwide including Pakistan. The use of chemicals insecticides to control the BPH population has been considered an effective strategy. However, long-term and intensive use of insecticides has resulted in resistance against this pest. In this study, six recommended insecticides were tested against BPH over the period of 2015-2019 to determine the susceptibility level. From 2015-19, susceptibility of BPH was reduced to all tested insecticides. Increasing trend of LC<sub>50</sub> values was recorded in fipronil (18.23-35.11 mg/L), imidacloprid (64.22-128.8 mg/L), buprofezin (185.01-315.0 mg/L), chlorantranilipyrole (199.2-263.3 mg/L), pymetrozine (248.2-315.5 mg/L), and nitenpyram (21.07-34.3 mg/L) respectively from 2015 to 2019. Correlation coefficient values indicated a significant relation (<em>P &lt; 0.05</em>) between fipronil, imidacloprid, and buprofezin. The study will be helpful for resistance management strategies to prevent the resistance development in BPH against insecticides.</p> Muhammad Rizwan Muhammad Afzal Muhammad Arshad Misbah Rizwan Noshaba Mubeen Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza Bilal Atta Arshed Makhdoom Sabir Copyright (c) 2022 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2022-10-01 2022-10-01 14 1 10.29019/enfoqueute.867 Characterization of the content of anions and metals of potatoes, tomatoes and onions marketed in Cuenca, Ecuador to obtain a classification model https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/866 <p style="font-weight: 400;">Due to the accelerated growth of the population, the need for food has increased, this added to the differentiated climatic factors that Ecuador has, causes users to use pesticides and fertilizers in an alarming way, in search of increasing the productivity of crops, exploit an accumulation of residues in food and soil. In this study, the concentrations of metals and ions from fertilizers in four high-consumption products will be limited: INIAP Cecilia and Chaucha Amarilla potatoes, Kidney Tomato and Paiteña Onion found in markets and supermarkets. The metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry with mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) and the ions through a UV-visible spectrophotometer. The values ​​found were within the norm. Differences were found between the metal content of the potato between peel and pulp where the latter will appear the highest concentrations. Multivariate statistics showed that the samples are grouped by the planting site and not the type of sample, which shows the importance of the soil and the cultivation process. The generation of a classification model for fed products with the analyzed parameters is discussed.</p> Verónica Pinos Astrid Alvarez-Blacio Claudia Alvitres-Medina Cynthia Castro Josselyn Verdugo Andrés Pérez-González María Dolores Tonon Piercossimo Tripaldi Copyright (c) 2022 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2022-10-01 2022-10-01 14 1 10.29019/enfoqueute.866 LA CHOCOLATE PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/864 <p>The national consumption of chocolate in Peru has increased in the last 15 years, however, the volume figures of the chocolates that are on the market are not known, in addition to the comparison with world consumption and the participation of the agents of the chocolate value chain. Sources for this study include statistics from different relevant institutions both Peruvian national and international, include relevant data on the Peruvian production of chocolates such as domestically produced cocoa, Peruvian chocolate imports and exports. Peruvian domestic consumption was estimated at 8 614 tons in 2018. From 2010 to 2020 Peru chocolate exports increased from US $ 11 287 000 to US$ 25 396 000. Further, the factors that influence the chocolate consumption: quality and safety, socioeconomic and cultural aspects, environmental aspects, Peruvian standardization, and regulation of chocolate; the proposals were made for the chocolate business, considering strategies at the medium and long term. In conclusion, there is a sustainable growth in the production and consumption of chocolate in Peru as a candy and as a functional food, however, it is necessary to know the specific level of consumption of chocolate and consumer groups.</p> Jorge Hilario Guzman GABRIELA CRISTINA CHIRE FAJARDO Copyright (c) 14 1 Integration of the components of Integrated Pest Management in the cultivation of Pisum sativum in the Huánuco region, Peru https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/863 <p>The investigation was carried out in two sowing periods of <em>Pisum sativum</em> L, agricultural campaign 2019 and 2021, the registered data correspond to the period 2021 because similar responses to the previous test were obtained. The objective was to comparatively integrate more than one control strategy to regulate pests in the crop. In a completely randomized block design with 3 treatments, 4 replications. Being the treatments: (T0) Without applications, (T1) Zea mays live barriers + color traps + Ruta chalepensis extract + toxic baits, (T2) Lupinus mutabilis live barriers + color traps + Bacillius thuringiensis + toxic baits. Weekly evaluations were carried out to identify the insects and determine the density of each pest species in the crop. All plots share the same pests. In T2, the lowest averages of each species were recorded, being Agrotis sp with 0.67 to 2.33 larvae/plot, Aphis sp between 1.33 to 4 aphids per bud, Bemisia sp with 5 to 7 per leaf, Epitrix sp between 4 to 0/plant and Liriomyza trifolii between 3 to 4 larvae/leaf. It is concluded that the integration of the T2 components are the most efficient in the regulation of pests in bean crops.</p> Rene Eugenio Ruiz Agustina Valverde Rodriguez Esteban Nolberto Efrain David Miltao Edelio Campos Albornoz Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 14 1 10.29019/enfoqueute.863 ARQUITECTURA DE INTERNET DE LAS COSAS PARA LA AUTOMATIZACIÓN Y CONTROL DE HOTELES https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/862 <p>En un mercado cada vez más competitivo, la experiencia del huésped se ha vuelto uno de los diferenciadores más importantes en la industria hotelera: Wi-Fi, lealtad y aplicaciones móviles orientadas al cliente para huéspedes son las inversiones más importantes en la transformación digital. Muchos turistas desconocen de los avances tecnológicos que pueden aplicarse en los hoteles y por ende no creen necesario que se les brinden estos servicios. Por lo expuesto, el objetivo de este estudio es plantear una arquitectura del internet de las cosas para la automatización y control de los hoteles y generar un conocimiento. Como metodología se adoptó la revisión sistemática, con enfoque cualitativo que orienta a realizar una revisión bibliográfica sintetizada sobre los diferentes estudios relacionados al tema que se investiga. El método bibliográfico fue necesario para explicar teóricamente las variables estudiadas y esquematizar de forma ordenada la información. Como herramienta se utilizó la ficha bibliográfica para el análisis y sustentación de las investigaciones realizadas. Los resultados evidencian procesos para el funcionamiento de la automatización de los hoteles con software especializados con el propósito de tener resultados exactos. Se concluye que, la automatización de hoteles es un aspecto poco tratado e implementado y a través de este estudio se pretende dar a conocer las ventajas del IoT para que sea implementado.</p> <p>Palabras clave: Globalización, tecnología automatización, hospedaje, satisfacción del cliente.</p> Liliana Saltos Copyright (c) 14 1 Adaptability of regression algorithms to protein Plant behavior https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/861 <p>The behavior of components of protein plant is of vital importance for animals that consume them in their diet. The objective of this research is to evaluate regression algorithms, to determine the behavior of the expressions that best adapt to the procedures of a traditional laboratory and to estimate the chemical components of protein plants, in this sense the MULAN library of java has been used, that contain automatic learning algorithms capable of adapting to dissimilar problems. Three data set were created for each species treated in this study; each of these include the main elements to be evaluate in each experiment, these are delimits by: secondary metabolites, cell wall components and digestibility element for training files one, two and three, respectively; subsequently, they were evaluated through learning supervised and cross-validation of each to determine the best fit by aRMSE (Average Root Mean Square Error). The learning results were compare with previous experiments, where there was a learning variant that contained in a single dataset all the components to be evaluates in a single prediction. The result of the comparison shows that the lazy algorithms based on instances have a better learning behavior than the others evaluate.</p> Hernán A. Uvidia-Cabadiana Pedro M. Estrada-Jiménez Rocio del Carmen Herrera-Herrera Luís G. Hernández-Montiel Danis M. Verdecia-Acosta Jorge L. Ramírez-de la Ribera Pedro J. Noguera-López Edilberto Chacón-Marcheco Copyright (c) 2022 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2023-01-25 2023-01-25 14 1 10.29019/enfoqueute.861 Estimación de metabolitos secundarios en Gliricidiasepium a partir de compuestos primarios y edad de rebrote https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/860 <p>Con el objetivo de determinar efecto de la edad de rebrote en el contenido de metabolitos primarios (nitrógeno, fructosa, glucosa y sacarosa) y su contribución a la síntesis de compuestos secundarios en <em>Gliricidia sepium</em>. Se desarrolló el presente estudio, siguiendo un diseño en bloques al azar, con tres tratamientos (60, 120 y 180 días) y n repeticiones. Se evaluó para la validación el contenido de nitrógeno (N), glucosa (Glu), fructosa (Frut) y sacarosa (Sac). Además, se validaron modelos matemáticos para la estimación de metabolitos secundarios a partir de los primarios y edad de rebrote. Para establecer relación funcional entre edad y metabolitos primarios, se analizaron las ecuaciones de regresión. Reportándose disminución para N, Glu, Frut y Sac con mayores valores a los 60 días, y se ajustaron ecuaciones cuadráticas con R<sup>2 </sup>superiores 0.91. La edad de rebrote tuvo efecto marcado sobre los contenidos de metabolitos primarios (N, Glu, Frut y Sac), lo que explican la estrecha relación, a través de las ecuaciones de regresión establecidas. Así como, quedó evidenciado que la validación de modelos para predecir metabolitos secundarios en ambos períodos del año, pueden ser aplicados por la dependencia de estos compuestos de sus precursores (nitrógeno y azúcares).</p> Yankiel Ramírez Copyright (c) 14 1 Implementation of a system to evaluate the coverage of the sigfox network inside buildings https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/859 <p>Low-energy wireless wide-area networks are a key technology for the development of the Internet of Things. Like any wireless communications system, it requires that during the design the place where the network will be deployed be inspected to determine the locations where the signal is weak. Sigfox is a network with wireless access that provides the connectivity service for the Internet of Things. When the sensor nodes are located inside buildings, the level of the received signal can vary, due to internal obstructions and interference, so it is necessary to have systems that take into account the technical characteristics of the Sigfox network, to measure the levels. signal strength inside buildings and identify locations where there is no signal. The implemented system allows obtaining information on the signal levels inside the buildings in order to identify the locations in which the nodes do not have connectivity with the network and find solutions to this problem before implementing the network. The system implementation uses Sipy nodes programmed with Pymark and the Sigfox cloud, while the application development uses API and APIREST in the Visual Studio development environment.</p> Carlos Egas Acosta Eduardo Revelo Vizcaino Copyright (c) 2022 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2023-01-03 2023-01-03 14 1 10.29019/enfoqueute.859 Aplicación de la metodología DMADV para mejorar un sistema de enfriamiento de sulfuro de hidrógeno https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/858 <p>In this research, the Six-Sigma DMADV methodology was applied in order to improve the thermal efficiency of a hydrogen sulfide cooling system that is installed in an industrial plant. In the initial stage "Define", the Pareto diagram was utilized as auxiliary tool. During the "Measure" stage, a non-experimental research design was applied. Next step, "Analyze", was based on the Ishikawa diagram. Based on previous results, the "Design" stage was subsequently focused on transforming some aspects of the heat exchangers, once compared to recommendations for prestigious researchers. Finally, the "Verify" step facilitated transition between the computational simulation and process industrialization, using a heat-exchangers validated model. The applied methodology allowed identification of critical design factors and upgrade propositions for the equipment, which made it possible to increase the heat transfer rates during the process and raise the system thermal efficiency between 23.3 and 27.2 %. The design for Six-Sigma process, as a management tool, helped to address existing problems from a different perspective, providing new ideas and insights. The study has contributed to continuous improvement of management skills in energy transformation processes.</p> Andres Adrian Sánchez-Escalona Copyright (c) 14 1 A Check-List for Evaluation of the Usability of Government Web Sites https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/857 <p>Usability is the ability of the software by which users can interact more easily, comfortably, safely, and intelligently as possible. Usability is considered a key feature for the success of any website and even more so for government sites. Various methods for usability analysis and evaluation have reported several problems in government websites.&nbsp; The objective of this work is to provide a new method to facilitate the analysis and evaluation of the usability of government websites. For this, a checklist is proposed that was developed from the integration and combination of web usability guides for existing government sites. The resulting checklist considers 122 usability conditions, which are grouped into five categories. For the assessment, a scale of importance is also considered for each condition. Correspondence with Nielsen's heuristics has also been established. The checklist was applied to three real websites from the government of the Province of Santa Cruz, Argentina, which allowed us to identify usability problems and suggest some recommendations for improvement.</p> Sandra Casas Copyright (c) 14 1 Chemical composition of the foliage meal of Tithonia diversifolia https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/856 <p>With the objective of determining the nutritional constituents, amino acids and the content of secondary metabolites of the foliage meal of Tithonia diversifolia. For this, plant material was collected 70 days after regrowth. The percentages of DM, CP, P, Ca, Si, CF, NDF, ADF, ADL, Cel, Hcel, CC were determined; amino acid profile (methionine, cystine, methionine + cystine, lysine, threonine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, alanine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, serine, phenylalanine, arginine, histidine), and content of TT, TP, TCT, TBCT, FCT, Flv, Sap, Alk, Trit and TS. For statistical processing, descriptive techniques (mean and standard deviation) were used. The plant material of Tithonia diversifolia analyzed showed percentages of 22.23, 2.62, 0.013, 45.7, and 29.8% and 6.09 MJ/kg (CP, Ca, P, NDF, ADF and ME). For the secondary metabolites, they presented concentrations of 5.35, 12.38, 13.7, 9.58, 4.15, 24.49, 0.86, 1.36, 7.71 and 10.75 g/kg MS for total tannins, total phenols, total condensed tannins, total bound condensed tannins, free condensed tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, triterpenes and total steroids). The highest concentrations of amino acids were for lysine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, serine and phenylalanine with values ​​of 13-30 g/kg of protein. It is concluded that the foliage meal of Tithonia diversifolia presents an adequate relation in its quality.</p> Danis Manuel Verdecia-Acosta Carlos Olmo-González Luis Guillermo Hernández-Montiel Alcibiades Ojeda-Rodríguez Jorge Luis Ramírez-de la Ribera Yordan Martínez-Aguilar Copyright (c) 2022 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2022-10-01 2022-10-01 14 1 10.29019/enfoqueute.856 Impacto de ITIL v4 en la gestión de incidencias de una Clínica Peruana https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/854 <p>The help desk is characterized by being the assistance operations center where user requirements are managed; provides first level support, allowing daily decisions that influence the solution of technological incidents. In this sense, the objective was to improve incident management in the area of ​​Information Technology through the implementation of a help desk based on the ITIL V4 reference framework at the Ana Stahl Adventist Clinic. For this, a pre-experimental investigation was carried out with a sample of 10 workers who were given a questionnaire to measure the degree of satisfaction in reference to the help desk implemented. The results of the data analysis to through the Student's t test for related samples were favorable since the p values ​​were less than 0.05. On average, more than 75% of the respondents recognized improvements in the clinic, which marks a large difference between the pre and posttest, from 51% to 75%. It is concluded that the research has managed to improve the management of incidents in the information technology office of the Ana Stahl Adventist Clinic, based on the 3 fundamental pillars of the study: response capacity, efficiency and quality</p> Leydi Madany Bernal Ticlla Mirian Noemí Bances Marín Diana Carolina Sayan Ramirez Danny Levano Rodriguez Copyright (c) 14 1 Abandoned Solid Waste Final Disposal Sites in the Sotavento Region of the State of Veracruz, Mexico, using GIS tools https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/853 <p>In Mexico, when municipal solid waste final disposal sites are closed or complete their life cycle, municipal authorities abandon them without carrying out remediation processes. In the Sotavento Region, state of Veracruz, Mexico, through geographic information systems, interviews with municipalities and field visits, 9 abandoned dumpsites were located: two sanitary landfills, two controlled final disposal sites called controlled dumps, and five uncontrolled final disposal sites known as open-air dumps. The results using Google Earth made it possible to determine that these dumps, as a whole, occupied an area of 366,852 m<sup>2</sup>, with an accumulated volume of waste of 2,015,500m<sup>3</sup> and an estimated quantity of 2,498,571 tons of confined waste without control. Such results represent a series of environmental impacts that are commonly not detected and whose knowledge can be the starting point for its closure in accordance with the applicable Mexican regulations.</p> Manuel Alberto Susunaga-Miranda Benigno Ortiz Muñiz María del Refugio Castañeda Chávez Fabiola Lango Reynoso María del Consuelo Hernández Berriel Copyright (c) 2022 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2022-10-01 2022-10-01 14 1 10.29019/enfoqueute.853 THe SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE FOR THE CREATION OF A SECURITY METHODOLOGY FOR ONLINE BANKING FINANCIAL PLATFORMS IN THE PROVINCE OF MANABÍ https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/849 <p>Online banking is real in these times, which has generated that banking services concur on the internet, but also online are prone to attacks by cybercriminals who intend to steal information for personal gain.<br>This article is built based on the schematic search for information in scientific articles, using the SLR Systematic Literature Review methodology, using various aspects in its state of the art, where the state of the art will be reviewed by means of keywords that will allow you to search for the necessary information in these articles. After creating that, a filter of articles will be carried out that will allow the implementation of an SLR matrix to know the relevance of the information and finally where important information will be extracted to be processed to apply in data protection projects in the online banking of financial entities. . All these data will be subjected to a discussion about these results and through conclusions and recommendations. All results are submitted in a discussion about results and through conclusions and recommendations it will have tbe results about the Systematic Literature Results SLR</p> Xavier Morales García Copyright (c) 14 1 Dynamic encryption method for a file delivery service. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/851 <p><em>The documents sent through email have a very important relevance because information is transmitted that compromises individuals, companies and public institutions, framed this premise an alternative encryption method is generated, using asymmetric RSA and symmetric 3DES encryption algorithms with an expiration date on the documents sent, likewise this allowed the recipient of the encrypted documents to be the only entity authorized to access the document sent, as a result a more robust encryption was obtained where the data is not only encrypted if not that they expire after the scheduled time, thus protecting the information of third parties, thus fulfilling the purpose of protecting the information.</em></p> Joe Steven Mero Delgado Copyright (c) 14 1 Tithonia Chemical composition of the foliage meal of Tithonia diversifolia https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/848 <p>To determine the composition of the foliage meal of <em>Tithonia diversifolia</em>, the foliage was collected at 70 days old. It was determined for the basic chemical composition, amino acid profile and content of the main secondary metabolites responsible for biological activity. The data using descriptive statistics and the mean and standard deviation were analyzed. The foliage meal of <em>Tithonia diversifolia</em> (FMTD) showed percentages of CP, Ca, P, NDF, FAD and ME of 22.23%, 2.62%, 0.013%, 45.7%, 29.8% and 6.09 MJ/kg, respectively. In FMTD, a wide variety of secondary metabolites were found, such as tannins, phenols, total condensed tannins, adhered total condensed tannins, free condensed tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, triterpenes and steroids in concentrations of 5.35; 12.38; 13.7; 9.58; 4.15; 24.49; 0.86; 1.36; 7.71 and 10.75g/kg DM. The highest concentrations of amino acids in FMTD were for lysine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, serine, and phenylalanine with percentages among 13-30 g/kg of crude protein. It is concluded that the foliage meal of <em>Tithonia diversifolia</em> is protein feed, with a good balance of amino acids and with a low content of secondary metabolites, which could be commonly used in non-ruminant animal diets to reduce production costs associated with feed.</p> Danis Manuel Verdecia Acosta Copyright (c) 14 1 Retrospective of flood scenarios in the coastal region of Ecuador: A vision of its impacts at a local urban scale https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/847 <p>The Santa Ana canton over the years has been affected by flood events causing economic, human and environmental impacts. The purpose of this research is to determine the impacts caused by floods through the validation and support of the bibliographic review that analyzes the characteristics of the contributing micro-basins, the spatial-temporal hydrogeomorphology of the Portoviejo River and the recurrence of floods in the urban area of Santa Ana canton. The methodology of this research was based on the compilation and analysis of bibliographic information on the records of flood events for the quantitative determination of the impacts and the situations of the affectations and the geomorphological parameters of the micro-basins. The Visquije, Chamucame and Taina estuaries are the largest tributaries in rainy seasons which generate floods in the center of the city when they collapse their contributing capacity. Over 20 years, 56 reports of emergencies due to flood events were recorded, considering that 18,959 were affected, including 350 evacuated, 204 injured and 5 deceased; the real estate affected is estimated at 4,134 homes, and hundreds of hectares of crops and public property.</p> Español Español Español Español Español Español Copyright (c) 14 1 Aprovechamiento de la cáscara de naranja (Citrus X sinensis) para la obtención de extracto esencial como un desengrasante natural. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/845 <p>The diagnosis of waste management was carried out through an interview with the company "Jugos Sunset", resulting in the total amount of the different processed fruits, half are waste without any type of use. The obtaining of the essential extract was developed under the technique of direct extraction by reflux, and for the determination of the quality of the extract, the parameters of: pH, total solids, % of acidity, relative density and determination of limonene were measured. Glycerin and betaine were used as factors of studies, being environmentally friendly substances. For the formulation of the natural degreaser, a bifactorial DCA was applied with the ADEVA and Tukey test at 95% significance. Resulting in significant difference only in the pH variable. In the application of the natural degreaser, the pH and turbidity were measured, in which, the interaction of 150 ml of orange extract and 15% of betaine (A<sub>2</sub>B<sub>1</sub>) obtained a greater detachment of lubricating grease, with a value of 2471 NTU and a pH of 5.46.</p> Luis David Balarezo Saltos María Belén Vinces Obando Carlos Ricardo Delgado Villafuerte Copyright (c) 14 1 The Distribution of heavy metals (Pb, Cd and Cu) in water, sediments and fish of the Carrizal river, Manabí – Ecuador: an analysis https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/841 <p>Given the notable degradation of water resources, the objective of this research was to analyze the distribution of heavy metals (Pb, Cd and Cu) in water, sediments and fish from the Carrizal River, Manabí - Ecuador. 21 monitoring stations for water and sediment were established. In addition, specimens of <em>Hoplias microlepis, Aequidens rivulatus</em> and <em>Oreochromis niloticus</em> were captured, from which samples of liver, gill and muscle tissue were extracted. The concentrations of these elements were evaluated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Pb content in water of up to 0.41 mg/l was found, without significant differences between zones or sampling months; no levels of Cd or Cu were detected at the monitoring points. In sediments there was a maximum concentration of 0.03 mg/kg of Pb, being the levels of Cd and Cu not detectable. In gills of <em>Hoplias microlepis</em> (0.181 mg/kg) and in muscles of <em>Aequidens rivulatus</em> (0.149 mg/kg) the highest levels of Pb were obtained, while in tissues of <em>Oreochromis niloticus</em> it was not detected. The fish species studied presented undetectable levels of Cd or Cu. The level of Pb in surface water exceeds the established limit; evidencing a distribution and possible biomagnification of this metal.</p> Ana Maria Aveiga Ortiz Copyright (c) 14 1 Influence of the use of an information system on the management of histories clinics in small health centers in East Lima https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/840 <p>The present investigation subscribes to the relationship of influence between the management of clinical history processes and the implementation of a web system, bearing in mind the analysis, design and determination of a significant difference between traditional actions in patient care and the use of a medical records web system. This study held the same as ours to 84 patients who were applied the designed instrument through two representative groups, in which the results can be inferred with a margin of error of 5% and a confidence level of 95%, where depending on Therefore, the sample for the control group was 42 people and 42 for the intervention group. The results obtained show that the use of a web system significantly influenced the quality of clinical record management for this case in the "Virgen del Carmen La era" health center. In addition, the empirical evidence is visualized to subscribe that the implementation of a system to manage clinical records generates satisfaction in the face of cumbersome care methods, in addition, through the analysis of information it can be affirmed that the implementation of the referred system improves the management of clinical records, finding a significant difference in the pre-test and post-test applied.</p> Adiel Joshua Preciado Rodriguez Copyright (c) 14 1 Speech recognition based on Spanish accent acoustic model https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/839 <p>The objective of the article was to generate an Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) model based on the translation from human voice to text, being considered as one of the branches of artificial intelligence. Voice analysis allows identifying information about the acoustics, phonetics, syntax, semantics of words, among other elements where ambiguity in terms, pronunciation errors, similar syntax but different semantics can be identified, which represent characteristics of the language. The model focused on the acoustic analysis of words proposing the generation of a methodology for acoustic recognition from speech transcripts from audios containing human voice and the error rate per word was considered to identify the accuracy of the model. The audios were taken from the Integrated Security Service ECU911 that represent emergency calls registered by the entity. The model was trained with the CMUSphinx tool for the Spanish language without internet connection. The results showed that the word error rate varies in relation to the number of audios; that is, the greater the number of audios, the smaller number of erroneous words and the greater the accuracy of the model. The investigation concluded by emphasizing the duration of each audio as a variable that affects the accuracy of the model.</p> Johanna Gabriela Plaza Salto Sánchez-Zhunio Cristina María Inés Acosta Urigüen Marcos Patricio Orellana Cordero Irene Priscila Cedillo Orellana Jorge Luis Zambrano-Martínez Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 14 1 10.29019/enfoqueute.839 Open data and open government in the regional and local governments of Peru https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/838 <p>The objective of the research is to carry out a review of the literature to establish a theoretical reference framework for the implementation of open data in open government strategies in Peru. For the development of this article, a systematic review of the scientific literature was carried out, articles from the Scopus database between the years 2017 and 2021 were taken into account. As a result of this study, it was determined that there is 1 regional government and 4 regional governments. that have implemented their open data portals, this represents 0.26% of the level of compliance, in addition, the level of compliance with the transparency dimension of open government is 38.16%. It is concluded that the Metropolitan Municipality of Lima complies with all the principles of open data and has a complete implementation in all categories, which can be accessed in different formats.</p> Cristian García-Estrella John C. Santa-Maria Mirleth Reina Celis Hernandez Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 14 1 10.29019/enfoqueute.838 El Análisis de Riesgos Financieros en las Pymes en el Ecuador https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/837 <p>The analysis of financial risks in SMEs in Ecuador is of utmost importance when it comes to requiring financing to fill the cash deficit, or to invest in new projects to expand business activity; these companies are more sensitive to market uncertainty and are exposed to financial risks; Investors must overcome some factors when investing, required by the national financial system and the market in general. Therefore, the objective of this document is to analyze financial risks in SMEs through a conceptual approach; for which the following risks have been described: liquidity risks, interest risks, exchange risk, credit risks, market risks and operational risks. It is also important to mention that in Ecuador and in general the productive sector has suffered serious deterioration, due to the health emergency caused by the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic; where SMEs must reorganize in all aspects, administrative and financial. A descriptive study of the financial risks that affect the growth of small and medium-sized companies in Ecuador was developed. Through the analysis, it was identified that the risks allow us to know the impact of each risk, it depends on the retrospective occurrence and according to the behavior of the risk. The implementation of a methodology depends on the amount of risks that are identified in the company, in this study it is oriented to financial risks, however, risks in general are taken as a basis, knowing the scope of analysis. Consequently, it is concluded that; Financial risks are more evident in companies, they have taken on more and more space in business management, the administration of companies has taken great interest in exhaustive control and implementing measures to prevent situations that compromise resources of the organization and third parties Therefore, administrators must implement control measures and ensure that the organization does not lose its objectivity in the development of management.</p> Roque Juan Cagua Hidrovo Copyright (c) 14 1 Physicochemical and biological characterization of leachate from the uncontrolled final disposal site in Tlapacoyan, Veracruz, Mexico https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/836 <p>One of the main problems in Mexico is contamination by leachates that are produced in final waste disposal sites, since they are highly toxic and damage the biota. This research focuses on determining the characteristics of the leachate produced in the uncontrolled final disposal site in the municipality of Tlapacoyan, Veracruz (Mexico). <br />As a result, it was determined that the parameters that cause damage to the biota are total nitrogen (152.759 mg L<sup>-1</sup>), mercury (0.006 mg L<sup>-1</sup>), cadmium (0.003 mg L<sup>-1</sup>), copper (0.052 mg L<sup>-1</sup>), chromium (0.0731 mg L<sup>-1</sup>), nickel (0.0524 mg L<sup>-1</sup>), lead (0.005 mg L<sup>-1</sup>) and total coliforms (&gt; 2 400 MPN), as they do not meet at least one of the national and international standards of maximum permissible limits. Likewise, it was determined that the leachate produced at this site is of the mature and poorly biodegradable type (BOD/COD=0.018), so that the typical or bioremediation methods are not recommended for its treatment.</p> Miguel Angel López Ramírez Yasser Armando Aburto Gutiérrez Keila Elena Ocaña Drouaillet Castellanos Onorio Olaya Pirene Fabiola Lango Reynoso Maribel López Ramírez Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 14 1 10.29019/enfoqueute.836 (Strategic Plan as a competitive guide for MSMEs based on the 3Cs model and new technologies. Case: Cloud Computing in Azogues city) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/835 <p>Introduction: MiPymes in the Azogues city have become the largest generators of employment and productivity thanks to the entrepreneurship of many people; however, not all of them carry out a marketing process that allows them to improve their productivity. Objective: to develop a strategic plan based on new technologies and applying Kenichi Ohmae's 3C's model, focused on the Corporation, Competition and Clients. The use of Cloud Computing in Azogues city is analyzed. Method: application nature, field research to collect the necessary data. Results: there is little knowledge about Cloud Computing in these companies, and most lack marketing planning, so it is important to execute a strategic plan to improve their productivity. A web services platform adjusted to the needs of these companies was implemented, which will serve as a starting point for their digital transformation. Conclusions: the implementation of the 3 C's model and the new technologies offer the opportunity to improve the commercial activities of these MSMEs, the effectiveness increases if there is external support from professionals in the area, who define what each company needs.</p> CRISTIAN CACERES Copyright (c) 14 1 (Characterization of energy consumption agents in the residential sector of Ecuador based on a national survey and Geographic Information Systems for modelling energy systems) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/834 <p>The residential sector is an example of the challenges that arise when modelling the heterogeneity of the energy system to assess energy policy. Some of the characteristics that influence the supply and demand of energy in the residential sector are the type of consumption, household income, family composition, type of dwelling, the climatic zone of residence, among others. The objective of this research is to characterize the agents of energy consumption in the residential sector of Ecuador. To achieve this goal, this article presents a methodology that combines a national survey (online and door-to-door) with Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The survey allows defining the main motivations, investment objectives and decision method of the agents when renewing or maintaining home energy technologies. For this, the agents have been classified based on their income level. GIS allows the agents to be spatially located and to have an estimate of the population that belongs to each agent by income level. The results are presented by income level for each group of agents and the agents are geolocated, characterizing them spatially. The quantitative attributes of each agent are determined in order to be used in energy systems modelling.</p> Manolo Muñoz Espinoza Copyright (c) 14 1 THE THE FRONTEND. ADAPTIVE WEB DESIGN AND RESPONSIVE WEB DESIGN FOR WEB APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/833 <p>El desarrollo web ha evolucionado a gran escala, en el presente artículo se realizó una comparativa entre dos importantes marcos de diseño que son indispensables para el desarrollo de interfaces web, como son el marco responsivo y adaptativo, destacando sus principales ventajas y diferencias a través del método experimental, propiamente enfocado en el desarrollo de un portal web, con el objetivo de mostrar información de publicaciones científicas realizadas por las Facultades de la Universidad Técnica de Manabí, para el estudio comparativo se usó la herramienta Google Page Speed Insights, donde se aplicaron métricas de evaluación impuestas por W3C, con respecto al rendimiento y optimización. Para garantizar la calidad de la investigación se aplicó el método Delphi, en un cuestionario dirigido a 50 Docentes de diferentes Universidades Ecuatorianas, con la finalidad de conocer el marco de diseño más adecuado al momento de desarrollar y producir sistemas web.</p> Jhonny Chávez Walter Daniel Zambrano Romero Emilio Antonio Cedeño Palma Dannyll Michellc Zambrano Zambrano Gabriel Agustín Cotera Ramírez Copyright (c) 14 1 Quick method for penetration testing. A case study https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/832 <p>This research develops a method for penetration testing execution, that it’s easy and fast to deploy, especially for small companies that do not have IT staff or have limited staff in this area. To achieve this, the developed method is based on the execution of automated tools, while providing techniques and processes that are necessary for its proper implementation. The application of the case study allowed to verify that the developed method is effective, fast and optimizes the use of resources. The results demonstrate a lack of awareness of companies in cybersecurity related issues and reveal little knowledge of IT professionals in this topic.</p> Martin Gonzalez Copyright (c) 14 1 Detection of motorcyclists without a safety helmet through YOLO: support for road safety https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/831 <p><em>In the present investigation, the YOLOv4 algorithm based on deep learning was used with the objective of detecting people who wear a safety helmet while driving a motorcycle, as well as those who do not use a safety helmet while moving around. the streets of a city, violating road safety regulations. In this context, the proposed methodology consisted of seven phases that go from the determination of the data source to validation and deployment, in which the labellmg tool and the Google Colab online platform are used, due to their capacity and flexibility. in the work environment. The model was developed using 287 images, of which 80% correspond to training images, 15% validation and 5% to perform the tests. In addition to this, additional shots were taken at different times of the day in order to determine the behavior and precision of the model. The results show us that the trained model has a detection efficiency of 85% and using YOLOv5x could improve the detection quality by having a greater number of layers.</em></p> OSCAR JHAN MARCOS PEÑA CÁCERES Copyright (c) 14 1 Evaluation of the addition of rye (Secale cereale) in the formulation of belgian pale ale craft beer https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/830 <p>This research has focused on the use of malted and unmalted rye to brew a Belgian Pale Ale style craft beer. The objective is to innovate and explore the attributes provided by this cereal, in addition to evaluating the physicochemical (color, pH, acidity, alcohol content and turbidity), microbiological (molds and yeasts) and sensory (flavor, odor, color and texture) parameters. An experimental design with a bifactorial A*B arrangement was applied, with 3 replicates per treatment and 1 control, using the Dunnett test. Regarding the sensory test, the Kruskal Wallis test of contrasts was applied using SPSS Statistics software. Thus, it was found that the addition of malted and unmalted rye significantly influenced the characteristics evaluated in the craft beer, giving rise to a profile typical of a Belgian Pale Ale, with the distinctive touch provided by the rye. The most outstanding treatments in terms of flavor and texture were T5 (80% base malt + malted rye); in terms of odor, T1 (90% base malt + malted rye) stood out, and T4 (85% base malt + unmalted rye) stood out in terms of color.</p> Sheyling A. Segobia Muñoz Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 14 1 10.29019/enfoqueute.830 Dried muña leaves (minthostachys mollis): Modeling, kinetics and thermodynamic properties https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/827 <p>The muña leaf is consumed as an infusion, it has pharmacological properties and is used to relieve digestive and respiratory symptoms. Therefore, drying is important for preservation and storage until use or processing. The objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of drying temperature on kinetics, diffusion coefficient and thermodynamic properties. We worked with muña leaves that were subjected to different pretreatments (bleached at 1% ascorbic acid, immersion in water at 60 ° C and without pre-treatment) dried at three temperatures (40, 50 and 60 ° C). The effective diffusion coefficient, activation energy, was determined and the drying process was described using eight mathematical models to represent the drying curve. The Logarithmic model was selected as the one with the best fit to represent the drying kinetics of the muña. Activation energy values ​​were similar between treatments. The increase in temperature promotes: decrease in enthalpy and entropy; increase in Gibbs free energy and effective diffusion coefficient. Therefore, it is essential to reduce the water content by drying to maintain the quality of the muña leaves.</p> Reynaldo J. Silva Paz Reynaldo J. Silva Paz Dante K. Mateo Mendoza Amparo Eccoña Sota Patricia A. Della Rocca Copyright (c) 2022 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ 2022-10-01 2022-10-01 14 1 10.29019/enfoqueute.827 (Impact of social isolation produced by COVID 19 on eating habits and emotional states in Peru) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/826 <p>This research describes the impact produced by COVID-19 during social isolation in the Peruvian population in the face of food and emotional states. A national survey was conducted with 1534 participants, where 79% between the ages of 18-29 (52% male) with multiple-choice questions and emoticons. According to food consumption, it was found that beans, legumes, dried fruits, water, eggs and rice showed an increase, although the consumption of fish-shellfish, sweets, sauces, salty or stuffed biscuits, ice cream-desserts, and dried fruits decreased. and feet. In addition, the application of emoticons allowed to express in an easy and intuitive way the emotional state, home service and the feeling of food consumption. The most used emoticons were: crazy or fun face, face that enjoys food and face with a protective mask. Furthermore, people indicated not eating excessively, feeling happy about the recovery of the environment, staying at home with the family. However, they were worried about the increase in prices. Likewise, 76% of the participants increased the use of cell phones, portable equipment and TV, 51% had the fear of losing their job, 54% had the fear of contracting the virus and 56% have reduced their physical activities, as a consequence of stress and emotional problems.</p> Flora Elizabeth Inocente Quiroz Copyright (c) 14 1 The Impact of the use of technological tools aquaculture productivity https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/825 <p>Aquaculture in Peru is booming, so it is necessary to implement production techniques and modernize the process to address a sustainable, efficient and competitive perspective. The objective of the review has been to identify the techniques used by countries with high competitiveness in the sector and to publicize the deficiency that exists in Peruvian aquaculture. The information has been obtained using the google academic search engine to facilitate the filtering of the information used, the articles taken cover the years 2016 and 2020, respectively. The review has made it possible to identify that technology plays an important role in the technification of the process, the countries that have applied technology today are positioned as aquaculture references. It is concluded that in order to position itself as an aquaculture benchmark, strategies, production policies and the implementation of technology and innovation in the process must be applied, and thus guarantee quality production according to market demand</p> Jeison Elí Sánchez Calle Jhordani Guélac Gómez Miguel Ángel Valles Coral Copyright (c) 14 1 Quick method for penetration testing. A case study. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/824 <p>This research develops a methodology for penetration testing execution, that it’s easy and fast to deploy, especially for small companies that do not have IT staff or have limited staff in this area. To achieve this, the developed methodology is based on the execution of automated tools, while providing techniques and processes that are necessary for its proper implementation. The application of the case study allowed to verify that the developed methodology is effective, fast and optimizes the use of resources. The results demonstrate a lack of awareness of companies in cybersecurity related issues and reveal little or no knowledge of IT professionals in this topic.</p> Martin Gonzalez Copyright (c) 14 1 Dried muña leaves (minthostachys mollis): Modeling, kinetics and thermodynamic properties https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/822 <p>The muña leaf is consumed as an infusion, it has pharmacological properties and is used to relieve digestive and respiratory symptoms. Therefore, drying is important for preservation and storage until use or processing. The objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of drying temperature on kinetics, diffusion coefficient and thermodynamic properties. We worked with muña leaves that were subjected to different pretreatments (bleached at 1% ascorbic acid, immersion in water at 60 ° C and without pre-treatment) dried at three temperatures (40, 50 and 60 ° C). The effective diffusion coefficient, activation energy, was determined and the drying process was described using eight mathematical models to represent the drying curve. The Logarithmic model was selected as the one with the best fit to represent the drying kinetics of the muña. Activation energy values ​​were similar between treatments. The increase in temperature promotes: decrease in enthalpy and entropy; increase in Gibbs free energy and effective diffusion coefficient. Therefore, it is essential to reduce the water content by drying to maintain the quality of the muña leaves.</p> Reynaldo Justino Silva Paz Copyright (c) 14 1 Effect of beneficial fungi on Chaetanaphothrips signipennis (Bagnall) under controlled conditions https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/821 <p>The production of muses is affected in their production due to the damages caused by the trips <em>Chaetanaphothrips</em> <em>signipennis</em> (Bagnall), with respect to the quality of the fruit. The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of beneficial fungus applications on <em>C</em>. <em>signipennis</em> under controlled conditions. Two isolates of <em>Beauveria</em> <em>bassiana</em>, <em>Metarhizium</em> sp., <em>Lecanicillium</em> sp., <em>Purpureocillium</em> <em>lilacinum</em>, and <em>Trichoderma</em> <em>asperellum</em> whose concentration was 1x108 spores / fungi plus a control were studied. The entomopathogenic fungi caused different percentages of insect mortality from 55% for <em>T</em>. <em>asperellum</em>, <em>L</em>. <em>lecanii</em> 86% and 100% for the other fungi and, in relation to spotting in the clusters, <em>P</em>. <em>lilacinum</em> (8%), T. asperellum (8%), and L. <em>lecanii</em> were the ones with the lowest percentage of damage, unlike the two isolates <em>B</em>. <em>bassiana</em> and <em>Metarhizium</em> that caused 100% mottled fruit or reddish spots.</p> Alex Delgado Copyright (c) 14 1 Dangers of phishing and its impact on the financial sector: A review https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/820 <p>In recent years, Phishing has been the most used cyber threat to deceive people and harm them economically or socially, reaching a use of 59% followed by Malware with 39%, Malicious Domains with 22% and others less used threats. For this reason it is intended to show the dangers caused by phishing attacks and see their impact on the financial sector taking a specific period of time from 2016 to 2021, since between these years it was where the technology was most developed and at the same time the computer hazards. It seeks to answer the question posed: What are the dangers caused by phishing and its impact on the financial sector from 2016 to 2021? For this, certain objectives were set that were met in order to be able to meet using the information collected from the databases on the subject of the research. It was concluded that phishing affects the trust of users when carrying out online operations and in turn the reputation of entities focused on the financial system, causing an imbalance in its operation.</p> Henry Carranza Narro Lucas Ruiz Jara Alberto Mendoza de los Santos Copyright (c) 14 1