Enfoque UTE https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista <h3>Enfoque UTE - Scientific Engineering Journal</h3> <p>Enfoque UTE is a scientific journal that publishes research papers in engineering and related areas. The journal is aimed at the community of teachers, researchers, undergraduate and graduate students in general.</p> <p>It is clearly oriented towards an international audience and receives collaborations in both English and Spanish, with authors, reviewers and collaborators in general, from all regions and with a great diversity of approaches.</p> <p>Enfoque UTE firmly believes in the free dissemination of scientific knowledge, which is why it guarantees that its content and its services in general will be totally free for readers, authors and the general public.</p> <p>In its 11 years of life, the magazine has published more than 300 engineering research papers, serving more than 800 authors. All this has been achieved thanks to the selfless participation of its team of editors, reviewers and contributors, as well as the permanent support of the Universidad UTE, which funds the activities of the journal.</p> <p>Enfoque UTE is registered and indexed in several of the main international databases such as Web Of Science (ESCI), Redalyc, Scielo, REDIB, Latindex, DOAJ, OAJI, MIAR, Periódica, BibLat, Google Scholar, among many others.</p> en-US <p><a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="http://i.creativecommons.org/l/by/3.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a><br />This work is licensed under a <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/" rel="license">Creative Commons 3.0 BY EC License</a>.</p> enfoque@ute.edu.ec (Comité Editorial) enfoque@ute.edu.ec (Comité Editorial Enfoque UTE) Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 OJS 3.2.0.2 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Multi-stage solar desalination system for water production in coastal areas of Ecuador https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/701 <p>A solar desalination system with heat recovery has been developed for coastal areas of Ecuador with a shortage of fresh water. The prototype consists of a 3 stage distillation tower connected to a thermosiphon flat plate solar collector. The modular design of the equipment allows water production to be varied, from a few liters to more than a cubic meter per day. The system is simple and can be quickly disassembled, greatly facilitating its operation and maintenance. The average monthly production of the desalination unit varies between 4.3 and 5.8 liters per day (2.44 and 3.29 L/m<sup>2</sup>). A simulation program was created in Matlab-Simulink to predict the temperature profiles, distillate output, and heat flows in the unit. The simulation results were very satisfactory, with a small variation between theoretical and experimental data. After verifying its accuracy and validity, the simulation was used to analyze modifications that improve yield and system performance.</p> Marcelo Moya Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/701 New control method for the industrial process of cookies manufacturing https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/700 <p>The Biostructured Process Control Method (BPCM) was applied in the industrial manufacture of cookies. The control biostructure, designed considering the characteristics of the process, was made up of five sub-processes (mixing, molding, baking, sandwiching and packaging) and three sub-processes as part of the mixing sub-process; also, 16 control parameters were identified. Control variable data were evaluated over a five-month period. The control was performed according to the efficacies of the sub-processes and control variables, for which target values were set. During the evaluation period, the process achieved between 95% and 98.1% efficacy, with the company’s requirements being 95% as an internal standard. Opportunities for improvement were identified in sub-processes with lower efficacies. The BCPM is a new method similar to a dashboard like the Balance Score Card, with a quantitative control based on compliance with standards.</p> Milber Oswaldo Ureña-Peralta Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/700 Harina de cefalotórax de camarón en dietas alimenticia de pollos Brolier Cobb-500 en etapa inicial https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/699 <p>Feed conversion in early stage Cobb-500 broiler chickens was determined by the inclusion of shrimp cephalothorax meal. The by-product was obtained from the shrimp company DUFFER (Montecristi, Manabí). A completely randomized design was applied with three treatments T1 (38%), T2 (40%) and T3 (42%) and three repetitions. The experimental unit was 14.69 kg of shrimp cephalothorax meal. Bromatological parameters (moisture, fiber, ash and protein), microbiological (aerobic mesophiles and Salmonella) and the feed conversion factor were evaluated using the equation FC = AC / PPV. The% humidity in the three treatments presented values ​​below the allowed limit (13%), %fiber and %ash, treatment 3 (42%) presented the upper value of the allowed limit (5%) and (8%), respectively. The protein analysis was within the allowed limit (20%). The count of CFU/g of aerobic mesophiles did not exceed the allowed limits (1.2 x 106), established in the NTE INEN 1829 (2014). The feed conversion factor showed that by including 38, 40 and 42% a weight gain of 1.81 is obtained; 1.82 and 1.83, respectively. It is concluded that the inclusion of shrimp cephalothorax meal efficiently influences the diet of Cobb-500 broiler chickens, increasing their weight.</p> Diana Carolina Cedeño Alcivar Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/699 New control method for the industrial process of cookies manufacturing https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/697 <p>The Biostructured Process Control Method (BPCM) was applied in the industrial manufacture of cookies. The control biostructure, designed considering the characteristics of the process, was made up of five sub-processes (mixing, molding, baking, sandwiching and packaging) and three sub-processes as part of the mixing sub-process; also, 16 control parameters were identified. Control variable data were evaluated over a five-month period. The control was performed according to the efficacies of the sub-processes and control variables, for which target values were set. During the evaluation period, the process achieved between 95% and 98.1% efficacy, with the company’s requirements being 95% as an internal standard. Opportunities for improvement were identified in sub-processes with lower efficacies. The BCPM is a new method similar to a dashboard like the Balance Score Card, with a quantitative control based on compliance with standards.</p> Gabriela Cristina Chire-Fajardo Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/697 Biomass Biomass potential and kinetics of drying model of Piptocoma discolor (pigüe) as a source of renewable energy source in Ecuador. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/695 <p>The importance of <em><u>Piptocoma discolor</u></em> is a predominantly fast-growing native species of secondary forest. Currently this wood is used to transport fruits and the waste does not have an industrial alternative, with possible use to produce electrical energy. However, there is limited information available on its biomass potential and energy value. The objective was to obtain fresh biomass and drying kinetics, we worked in the four cantons of the Pastaza province with 20 plots of 400 m<sup>2</sup> and 600 m<sup>2</sup> that had an average of 15 to 20 trees, whose chest height diameters ranged from 10 and 33 cm., Establishing the following values: a) Average number of trees per hectare (1274 NA2/ha); b) Biomass in 100,987 hectares with an average of 41,097,686.87 tons, which means that it contributes with 49.72% of water and 50.28% of solid matter; c) A kinetic model of R2 = 0.9855, the estimate of a = 1.1318, k = 0.0637765, n = 0.560617 and b = -0.193993, based on a standard error of 0.0301682 and residual autocorrection of 0.182239 on drying kinetics; and d) Total energy means more than 13.5 GW of thermal energy using 100% biomass.</p> <p><strong><em>Key Words</em></strong>: Biomass, Renewable Energy Source, Biofuel.</p> Juan González Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/695 Design of a micro-network for recharging electric vehicles in the commercial sector. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/694 <p><strong>Abstract </strong>This document examines the investigation of a microgrid for recharging electric vehicles. Numerical methods are very useful when modeling an electrical energy system since we will know the behavior that the system will have in the face of a representative change in its demand, when introducing a large load such as the charging stations, the voltage in our system will reduce and by Therefore the power, the system will suffer an imbalance between generation and demand, and the objective of the system is to maintain a constant frequency and this will be affected by the increase in demand, with our analysis we will know the percentage of voltage drop and see solutions To compensate for that voltage drop, one solution is to implement a capacitor bank at specific nodes to assist the power electrical system in frequency regulation, but that is a very separate analysis that this document focuses on seeing the percentage of voltage drop, we will observe the system a and its behavior of having implemented this load in the system, this study can ap licarse to any electrical power system.</p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p><strong><em>Index Terms</em></strong><strong>— Micro Grid,</strong> <strong>Electrical Power System, Charging Station. </strong></p> dario gonzalez Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/694 ELECTRICAL ENERGY QUALITY ANALYSIS IN INTELLIGENT MICRO NETWORKS BASED ON THE MANAGEMENT OF ITS PRIMARY RESOURCES https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/693 <p>As centuries of new technological innovations, which is directly related to the use of electricity, the high production and demand for energy quality globally, is the part of preferential analysis in relation to the creation of micro-networks in the innovative years, the increase in society is important for the consumption of energy that is rising , the analysis of actions for the increase and analysis of new power generation plants, the same that are being limited to the production of high-impact reserves, for the reasons defined, this article aims to establish a management model for distributed primary resources of an intelligent micro-network based on a policy of demand response such as the valuation of critical peaks , that allow the improvement of energy quality indicators, it is intended to carry out adequate studies for the quality of electrical service, reliability of coefficients based on the ISO50001 standard, with respect to initial and future conditions, to carry out distributed power generation, we will have a model of management of the distributed resources of a micro-network that allows the best development of energy quality in the country.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Katherine Andrade Granja Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/693 The Economic valuation of the water environmental service of the community La Pita https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/692 <p>Water resource presents serious supply and management problems. In La Pita community (Manabí-Ecuador) there is a wide range of anthropic activities, for which the water resource is extracted directly from the mountains, therefore, this research aims to assess the water environmental service of the La Pita community from the micro basin of the Carrizal river. The contingent valuation method was applied and through surveys the socioeconomic characteristics of the inhabitants of La Pita were determined. After collecting the information, the Logit model was applied to establish the economic value of the water service. 24 water sources that supply the 32 homes where the surveys were applied were identified, each source was georeferenced using the ArcGis 10.4.1 Geographic Information System. About water consumption, in La Pita 65.63% of the inhabitants consume between 0.5 and 3 m<sup>3</sup> of water per month. The economic valuation of the water service in La Pita is 195.00 USD per month. This study has shown that it is possible to value environmental services and generate proposals focused on improving the quality of life in rural areas</p> Isa Delgado Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/692 Management of the resources distributed in a virtual plant, which allows determining the cost of electrical energy. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/690 <p>The implementation and management of a virtual power plant require processes which integrate the different types of conventional and unconventional generation, in the same way to enter electrical markets requires optimal operation and to be competitive in these, optimization can be carried out by means of different mathematical models, which take variables from the virtual power plant to carry out said optimization and comply with all the technical requirements that allow its integration into the electricity markets. By analyzing investigations by different authors, it was possible to get to know that there are several methods to have an optimization of a virtual power plant and that this can be integrated into electricity markets obtaining profits that are reflected in the operation of the plant.</p> Edison Agreda Cuenca Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/690 Impacto de la penetración de generación fotovoltaica en la estabilidad transitoria del Sep https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/689 <p>Con acelerado desarrollo de la tecnología cada vez se hace más frecuente la implementación de generación fotovoltaica en distintas naciones, por su constante reducción de costo en la producción de los panales, esto hace más accesible a países más pequeños poder implementar fuentes de generación renovable con menor costo de inversión que hace una década, y con un elevado beneficio para el planeta, ya que se de alguna manera se contribuye a la reducción de la contaminación, para ello es importante analizar qué tan beneficioso puede llegar a ser este tipo de fuente generadora, ya que ecológicamente va un paso adelante, pero del aspecto técnico no tiende a ser elogiado, en pequeñas cantidades de penetración no puede ser perjudicial, pero cuando se habla de una integración elevada esta puede tener distintos efectos, en el caso de la estabilidad transitoria se analiza con simulaciones distintas perturbaciones en el sistema y poder corroborar si una elevada penetración de este tipo podría ser viable de acuerdo al sistema, ya que el sistema parablemente acepte un límite de esta generación para que pueda garantizar la demanda requerida sin presentar inconvenientes.</p> Alex Chamba Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/689 Automated large scale cleaning of aquaculture raceways https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/688 <p>In modern industry, minimising cost is a very important part of production. Aquaculture production often occurs in long raceways. The raceways are often stained by the product in the form of a scum line that forms throughout the process. Currently, it costs a local company approximately AU$565 to clean a single raceway. A high-pressure water system and its supporting frame were proposed to aid in the cleaning process. The cleaning effectiveness of high-pressure water at different impingement angles and stand- off distances was determined. It was found that the best combination was 90° of impingement and a stand-off distance of 120 mm. This combination caused the high-pressure water to completely clean the sample in a single pass travelling at 50 mm s<sup>-1</sup> with no pre-wetting of the sample. Further, a frame was designed from 6061 aluminium, with a total weight of 36 kg. The machine requires one person to push the frame along the raceway. The new operating cost was reduced to AU$100. The manufacture and materials cost were estimated to be as low as $1000. It greatly reduces the cost of cleaning the raceways and, in turn, increases profitability.</p> Greg Wheatley, Willem Pelser, Rong Situ, Azad Hamzehpour Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/688 Características de la Arena Sílica de Alvarado, Veracruz, México como material para Barreras Reactivas Permeables para la Remediación de Acuíferos contaminados con Lixiviados de Basureros No Controlados https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/687 <p>En este artículo se caracteriza la arena sílica de las costas del municipio de Alvarado, Veracruz, México y comparar sus propiedades con los materiales usados para las Barreras Reactivas Permeables y que permitan su uso como una solución para la remediación de acuíferos contaminados con lixiviados de basureros no controlados, mediante análisis granulométrico, determinación de humedad y concentración de Sílice y Fierro, obteniendo partículas con diámetro de 0.707 mm, humedad relativa de 0.52% y concentración de SiO<sub>2</sub> y de Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> 87.38% y 2.72% respectivamente, lo que comparando con materiales reactivos en uso cumple con los criterios para ser usado como Barrera para la Remediación de Acuíferos con lixiviados</p> Manuel Alberto Susunaga Miranda, Bertha Maria Estévez Garrido, Rodrigo Manuel Susunaga Estévez Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/687 State of art: control Strategies for microgrids with Distributed energy resources https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/686 <p><strong>Abstract:</strong></p> <p>The present document aims to be a recompilation o the different methods that have been used though the years to improve the microgrid performance in its different operation modes, and each characteristics of the grid. For the implementation of control strategies for microgrids in order to improve some aspects of the migro grid connected o islanded here will be presented many types of control strategies. Through this document the strategies Will be explained and will be given many ideas to be consider for the implementation of any control strategy according to the loads type, the parameter to be stabilized.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> microgrid, control strategy, voltage, frequency, power.</p> Sandra Gualotuña Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/686 Diseño y construcción de una cámara de envejecimiento acelerado para ensayos de corrosión en pinturas, recubrimientos y otros materiales https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/684 <p>The objective was the design and construction of an accelerated aging chamber for corrosion tests on paints, coatings and other materials. The NTE INEN 1032-84, ASTM G154 - 06 and G 151 - 00 standards were used as the basis for carrying out the project and meeting the stated objectives, combining various criteria of each standard. The prototype is made of AISI 304 stainless steel and different accessories such as UV lamps, among others. Finally, it was concluded with the validation of the equipment comparing the data of an uncoated plate tested in the chamber with the data obtained in another investigation, finding that there is an approximate error of 2%, validating the chamber. The specimens were exposed inside the chamber for 200 hours by specifications of the aforementioned standards, working with alternate cycles of light and dark, appearing both day and night, thus achieving visible results such as the loss of weight of all the Exposed plaques, discoloration, and rusting of up to 33% of non-corrosive paint, which is indicative of corrosion, in addition to the presence of rust and blistering on the surface of the specimens. Concluding that the built-in accelerated aging chamber acts in the same way as professional cameras.</p> José Omar Cabrera Escobar Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/684 State of the Art of Turbine Model in Transient Stability Study https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/683 <p><em>Transient stability assessment is a dynamic safety analysis of power systems and basically assesses the ability of the system to remain in equilibrium under a contingency in the SEP. Therefore, the assessment of transient stability is becoming an indispensable requirement for the security of energy systems. Blackouts that have arisen in developed countries have shown the most frequent great need for comprehensive studies of transient stability. The analysis of the transient stability implies a meticulous study that is carried out step by step. In you can see the step study of each machine in the system. In the SEP it is constantly subjected to disturbances, only the fact of turning on an appliance can be considered as a disturbance, however, being so small compared to the size of the system, they are insignificant.</em></p> Oscar Rojas Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/683 Survey of Requirements, Protocols, and Challenges in LWSN https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/681 <p>Wireless sensor networks are applicable in different topologies, a special case is the linear topology which is present in the monitoring of large-scale linear infrastructures. Linear topology requirements differ from other topologies. The architectures and protocols for wireless sensor networks are references that are modified depending on the particular application, these architectures and protocols are very complex when applied to linear topologies with thousands of nodes. This article discusses the existing standards and protocols applicable to linear wireless sensor networks, defines its very particular characteristics and how existing protocols can satisfy the requirements of networks with linear topology. Then we present our vision related to linear Wireless sensor networks, medium access control, routing, transport and the specific requirements of this type of networks. Finally, we identify the challenges for the existing protocols and some challenges to the new protocols design to linear topology.</p> carlos roberto egas, Juan Rivera Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/681 la Application of a quality management system in the dairy plant “Ecolac” https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/679 <p>The consumption of milk and dairy products in the world population is growing significantly. The demand of the consumers to acquire safe and quality products, causes that the medium and small companies, have the urgent necessity to implement Quality Management Systems (QMS), in such a way that it allows them to enter the highly competitive markets. This research analyzes the effects of the application of the QMS on the organoleptic, physical-chemical and microbiological parameters of raw and pasteurized milk. The samples were taken in the processes of raw material reception, pasteurization and storage, and the analyses were performed in triplicate for each of the samples. For the analysis of the data a student t test was applied, to determine the differences after the application of the QMS. The results indicate that the application of QMS had positive effects on the physicochemical parameter of acidity and on the microbiological load of mesophilic aerobes in the milk reception process. On the other hand, not effects on organoleptic characteristics, density, pH, fat and total coliforms growth were evidenced. These findings are important since they can be replicated in other dairy processing plants.</p> Byron Herrera Chávez Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/679 Efficient Prediction and Analysis of the possible evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 applying the SEIR model in Santo Domingo de los Tsa´chilas, Ecuador. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/678 <p>In Ecuador, in the Santo Domingo de los Tsa´chilas province, a Special Operations Committee (SOC) was created to take containment measures against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-VOC-2). This research deals with an analysis of the possible spread of the SARS-COV-2 virus causing the infectious disease caused by new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) using the Susceptible, Exposed, Infected and Recovered (SEIR) model as a prediction method according to the rigor of the containment measures evaluated. with the acceptability of people through a survey (95%, CI) in which three parameters (α) severity of containment measures, (k) social impact of the pandemic and (β) transmission rate, are determined, which we then used as β (t) with initial value of β = 1. All this considering the rapid proliferation of the virus in the province and having an average of α = 3.23 (95% CI: 3 - 4) and for k = 4.10 (95% CI: 4 - 5) that the authorities will use to mitigate the spread of the virus, as well as future outbreaks of the disease.</p> Moisés Filiberto Mora Murillo, Walter Alfredo Mora Murillo, Digvijay Pandey Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/678 Route design for solid waste collection using graph theory and the algorithm of the Traveling Agent in dynamic programming, in the municipality of Santo Domingo, Río Verde parish, Ecuador https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/677 <p>In Santo Domingo de los Tsa´chilas province, Ecuador, the population grows proportionally to the territorial extension in urban parishes and rural parishes; therefore, the conception of solid domestic waste has increased exponentially. It has a background that in the canton, the distribution of routes for the collection waste has not been treated technically in recent years, nor has it been explored or sustained categorically since 2011; This year, the contract with the company in charge of the collection ends. This research aims to apply graph theory to the sector and generate new routes using python software by applying the Traveler Agent Problem (TSP) in dynamic programming, applying parametric techniques to compare the usual route with the new route and test the hypothesis in the Río Verde parish.</p> Moisés Filiberto Mora Murillo, Walter Alfredo Mora Murillo, Luis Xavier Orbea Hinojosa, Arlys Michel Lastre Aleaga, Gabriel Estuardo Cevallos Uve, Marc Jorba Cuscó; Digvijay Pandey Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/677 Numerical analysis of flow behavior in the throat section of an experimental conical nozzle https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/676 <p>The flow pattern in supersonic nozzles is defined by the aerodynamic profiles of the geometry of the internal walls, among other parameters, the throat being a critical section. In the present work, the objective is to analyze the behavior of the flow in the straight section of the throat of an experimental conical nozzle of a solid fuel probe rocket engine. The overexpanded flow was simulated with the ANSYS-Fluent code in a 2D computational domain, using the RANS model and the Menter turbulence model, and the Sutherland equation for viscosity as a function of the temperature. Five case studies were performed for the throat length in the range of 1-10 mm. Fluctuations of Mach number, pressure and temperature, oblique shock waves in the throat section were obtained for the length of 10 mm; for shorter lengths the intensity of the shock magnitude decreased. It is concluded that, for the throat length of 1 mm, the flow is transonic without the presence of oblique shocks. In the diverging section, shock waves vary in intensity and change position.</p> San Luis Baudilio Tolentino Masgo, john Ferreira, Maria Alejandra Parco, Leonardo Lacruz, Vicente Marcano, Simón Caraballo, Jorge Mírez Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/676 Effects of applying saturated steam as an Organic Sterilization System (OSS) in capsicum baccatum var. pendulum and capsicum chinense https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/675 <p>It was determined the influence of weight, temperature and time of injection of saturated steam as an organic sterilization system (OSS), on the microbial load, capsaicin and nutritional components in <em>Capsicum baccatum</em> var. <em>pendulum</em> and <em>Capsicum chinense</em>. Samples of 4 and 3 kg were subjected to 100 and 105°C for 2 and 3 minutes, at a pressure between 20 and 25 kPa, respectively. The controls performed before and after the treatment were: proximal analysis, capsaicin, count of viable misophilic aerobes, coliforms, <em>E. coli</em>, <em>Salmonella</em>, fungi and yeasts. The samples containing 3 kilos, subjected to 105°C for 3 minutes achieved a greater reduction of aerobes and molds. The proximal analysis reported an increase in the content of carbohydrates, proteins, fiber and fat; to which capsaicin decreased by 4.8 and 14.3 % in <em>Capsicum baccatum</em> var. <em>pendulum</em> and <em>chinense</em>, respectively.&nbsp; The statistical evaluation found significant differences between the interactions of the variables: weight, temperature and time for panca chili; weight and temperature for mirasol chili, on the reduction of microbial load.</p> AMÉRICO GUEVARA PÉREZ, Elizabeth Villanueva-Quejia, Diana Nolazco Cama, Gabriela Llontop , Keidy Cancino Chávez Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/675 español https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/674 <p>The objective of this paper is to characterize the silica sand that is extracted from the coasts of the municipality of Alvarado, Veracruz, and to compare its properties with the materials used for the Permeable Reactive Barriers that allow its use as a solution for the remediation of contaminated aquifers with leachates from uncontrolled landfills, samples provided by a local company were analyzed, which were subjected to a granulometric analysis, determination of the moisture content and concentration of silica and iron, obtaining a fairly homogeneous pattern in terms of its size and statistically similar with a particle diameter of 0.707 mm, a relative humidity of 0.52% and concentration of SiO<sub>2</sub> and Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> 87.38% and 2.72% respectively, which comparing with materials in use demonstrates that it meets the optimum selection criteria of a reactive material</p> Manuel Alberto Susunaga Miranda Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/674 Impacto del Laboratorio Social de Vinculación realizada por la Comunidad de la UIDE en la Parroquia de Llano Chico Quito, Septiembre – Diciembre 2019 https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/672 <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Este proyecto tuvo como objeto contribuir con técnicos automotrices la divulgación de la importancia de la seguridad y salud industrial en cuatro talleres artesanales de mecánica automotriz, además de formar a los gestores de dichos talleres en el área administrativa. El proyecto se dio a cabo en la parroquia de Llano Chico ubicado al noreste del Distrito Metropolitano de Quito. Para la ejecución del proyecto se realizó un plan de capacitación sobre equipos de protección personal e implementación de seguridad industrial por parte de estudiantes y docentes de la Universidad Internacional Del Ecuador como estrategia para reducir el índice de accidentes laborales. Los resultados de las capacitaciones por medio de evaluaciones y verificaciones indican que los establecimientos seleccionados implementaron las respectivas normas de seguridad reflejando así un ambiente seguro tanto para los trabajadores como para los clientes de la comunidad.</span></p> Denny Guanuche Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/672 The Soil fertility management for the production of gulupa for its exportation (Passiflora edulis Sims) in production areas of Caldas region https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/671 <p>The department of Caldas is the fifth coffee producer in Colombia; however, gulupa (<em>Passiflora edulis Sims</em>) has emerged in the last five years. The incorporation of technologies such as automation, greenhouses, planting distances and fertigation has put a production potential of 33Mg/ha. The objective of this work is to evaluate the response of the gulupa farming, to the application of fertilizers, through a fertigation system; the following treatments were established: fertigation, fertilizers in solid form with irrigation and application of fertilizers in solid form without irrigation. With the information collected from production to date (kg/ha), an analysis of variance was applied for a randomized block arrangement with three repetitions. The analysis allows inferring, that there is variability with 95% reliability, in addition the 5% LMS test was applied to compare the treatments. In addition, it allows establishing that fertigation compared to traditional fertilization treatments, establish significant differences. The results indicate that fertigation is a high efficiency technology, compared to the traditional practice of solid fertilizer applications to the soil.</p> Alvaro Hernán Cortés Duque Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/671 Effects of ultrasound and vacuum drying on vitamin C levels in Aguaymanto (Physalis peruviana https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/668 <p>Uring the osmodehydration process for drying the Aguaymanto, the availability of nutrients such as the ascorbic acid necessary in the diet is decreased. The effect of ultrasound and vacuum drying was evaluated to obtain raisin-type Aguaymanto from three study areas. A 40 kHz ultrasound tub and vacuum drying equipment were used. A randomized complete design (DCA) was applied, for ultrasound with a factorial arrangement of 3x3 at 900, 1050 and 1200 Watts (W); at 45, 50 and 55 ° C, in a time of 20.30 and 40 min respectively, and a second analysis of 3x2, considering the three production areas of Aguaymanto and 2 vacuum conditions at a pressure of 15 kPa and 10kPa, at temperatures of 45, 50 and 55 ° C structured in 120 treatments. With the 20 best treatments, it was verified if there were differences between treatments using the Tukey test. Optimal vitamin C levels for ultrasound were obtained at a power of 1050W, 50 ° C for 20 minutes and for vacuum a pressure of 15 kPa at 50 ° C. No significant differences were observed between the 3 zones. The results show that the greater the application of power and the greater the vacuum, the better the conservation of vitamin C is.</p> ITALO WILE ALEJOS PATIÑO, ROGER ESTACIO LAGUNA, GREGORIO CISNEROS SANTOS, RUBEN MAX ROJAS PORTAL, BELISARIO ESTACIO LAGUNA Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/668 Physico-chemical and functional characterization of seven varieties of Sweet Potato from Manabí-Ecuador https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/666 <p>The present research focused in the physical-chemical and functional characterization of seven varieties of sweet potato in raw and cooked condition from Estación Experimental Portoviejo-INIAP. The varieties of studied sweet potato presented different tonalities (yellow, orange and purple), they influenced in the significant statistical differences (p&lt; 0.05) between varieties. The protein and fat value was not significant for being a tuberous plant; however, the sweet potato presented important starch content between 48.20-66.97 (g /100g dry basis) and dietetic fiber. With respect to bioactive compounds, the anthocyanins emphasized especially in purple fleshed varieties (204.68-109.04 mg/100g), the highest antioxidant capacity searched in Morado Brasil sweet potato variety (16661.44 µg of equivalents of trolox/g); with application of thermal cooking process affected the decrease of these compounds and their antioxidant capacity. However, the results showed that sweet potato studied varieties can be used as flours in food formulation or baking industry.</p> Gabriela Armijos, Elena Villacrés , Maria Belén Quelal, Gloria Cobeña, Javier Álvarez Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/666 Automated large scale cleaning of aquaculture raceways https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/665 <p>In modern industry, minimising cost is a very important part of production. Aquaculture production often occurs in long raceways. The raceways are often stained by the product in the form of a scum line that forms throughout the process. Currently, it costs a local company approximately AU$565to clean a single raceway. A high-pressure water system and its supporting frame were proposed to aid in the cleaning process. The cleaning effectiveness of high-pressure water at different impingement angles and stand- off distances was determined. It was found that the best combination was 90° of impingement and a stand-off distance of 120 mm. This combination caused the high-pressure water to completely clean the sample in a single pass travelling at 50 mm s<sup>-1</sup> with no pre-wetting of the sample. Further, a frame was designed from 6061 aluminium, with a total weight of 36 kg. The machine requires one person to push the frame along the raceway. The new operating cost was reduced to AU$100. The manufacture and materials cost was estimated to be as low as $1000. It greatly reduces the cost of cleaning the raceways and, in turn, increases profitability.</p> Greg Wheatley Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/665 In vitro digestibility of protein and bioactive compounds in accessions of kiwicha (Amaranthus caudatus L., 1753) toasted https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/664 <p>The proximal composition of ten kiwicha accessions from the Santa Ana Experimental Station in Huancayo Peru was analyzed, as well as the Antioxidant Capacity with the DPPH method that was 219.28-545.24 ug eq Trolox / g and with the ABTS method was of 1165.58-1320.34 ug eq Trolox / g, from which the 5 accessions with the highest AC were chosen, which were: 87-25 I, EC-K CCA-051, EC-K CC-062, ECOTIPO 2009, Taray 90, whose average CA between DPPH and ABTS was 838,965 - 911,285 ug Trolox Eq ​​/ g tissue on a dry basis; with the aim of determining the effect of two roasting temperatures (100° C and 150 °C) on in vitro protein digestibility, on total phenolic content and on Antioxidant Capacity by the DPPH and ABTS method.</p> <p>The AC of the 5 accessions of raw and roasted kiwicha at 100ºC and 150ºC are similar, being higher with the ABTS method than with the DPPH.</p> <p>The Total Phenolic Content, expressed in gallic acid, of the five accessions of roasted kiwicha at 150 ° C were significantly higher than those roasted at 100ºC and this one higher than raw kiwichas.</p> <p>The DVP, on a dry basis, of the five kiwichas accessions was higher in the roasted kiwicha at 100ºC than at 150ºC, so it is recommended to consume the roasted kiwicha at 100 °C.</p> Flor de María Vásquez Castillo Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/664 Heat transfer incremental on a jacketed coolers system through optimization of the water flowrates https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/663 <p>&nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0cm 28.3pt 0pt 1cm; line-height: normal; text-indent: 0cm;"><span style="font-family: Arial; font-size: small;">En esta investigaci&oacute;n se propuso un esquema optimizado de distribuci&oacute;n de agua para incrementar la termotransferencia en un sistema de enfriadores de sulfuro de hidr&oacute;geno. El sistema est&aacute; compuesto por dos intercambiadores de calor de tubos y coraza enchaquetados, instalados en un arreglo serie-paralelo. Cada equipo opera con tres fluidos y posee dos v&iacute;as principales de intercambio t&eacute;rmico. La optimizaci&oacute;n de los flujos de agua se realiz&oacute; mediante Algoritmos Gen&eacute;ticos, utilizando un modelo basado en el m&eacute;todo ɛ-NUT para la simulaci&oacute;n de los intercambiadores de calor. Se estim&oacute; un incremento del calor transferido entre 3695 y 10514 W, as&iacute; como una disminuci&oacute;n de la temperatura del gas a la salida del sistema entre 2,9 y 9,8 K. La recuperaci&oacute;n termoenerg&eacute;tica calculada oscil&oacute; entre 3,90 y 22,16%, con 12,44% como promedio. Mediante regresi&oacute;n lineal m&uacute;ltiple se determinaron las funciones para soluci&oacute;n tecnol&oacute;gica del problema investigado. </span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 28.3pt 0pt 1cm; line-height: normal; text-indent: 0cm;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0cm 28.3pt 0pt 1cm; line-height: normal; text-indent: 0cm;"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Arial',sans-serif; font-size: 11pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-fareast-theme-font: major-fareast; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;">This research proposed an optimized water distribution scheme in order to increase the heat transfer on a hydrogen sulphide gas coolers system. The system is comprised by two jacketed shell and tube heat exchangers, installed in a series-parallel arrangement. Each equipment operates with three streams, hence two major thermal communications are present. The water flowrates optimization was performed through Genetic Algorithms, using a model based on the ɛ-NTU method for simulation of the heat exchangers. The heat transfer incremental was estimated within the range 3695 to <br />10514 W, while the gas temperature reduction at the system outlet was projected between 2,9 and 9,8 K. Calculated heat recovery varied from 3,90 to 22,16%, averaging 12,44%. Multivariate linear regression was implemented for determination of the functions that solves the studied problem from a technological point of view.</span></p> Andres A. Sánchez-Escalona, Yanán Camaraza-Medina, Yoalbys Retirado-Mediaceja, Ever Góngora-Leyva Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/663 Heat transfer incremental on a jacketed coolers system through optimization of the water flowrates https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/662 <p>&nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0cm 28.3pt 0pt 1cm; line-height: normal; text-indent: 0cm;"><span style="font-family: Arial; font-size: small;">En esta investigaci&oacute;n se propuso un esquema optimizado de distribuci&oacute;n de agua para incrementar la termotransferencia en un sistema de enfriadores de sulfuro de hidr&oacute;geno. El sistema est&aacute; compuesto por dos intercambiadores de calor de tubos y coraza enchaquetados, instalados en un arreglo serie-paralelo. Cada equipo opera con tres fluidos y posee dos v&iacute;as principales de intercambio t&eacute;rmico. La optimizaci&oacute;n de los flujos de agua se realiz&oacute; mediante Algoritmos Gen&eacute;ticos, utilizando un modelo basado en el m&eacute;todo ɛ-NUT para la simulaci&oacute;n de los intercambiadores de calor. Se estim&oacute; un incremento del calor transferido entre 3695 y 10514 W, as&iacute; como una disminuci&oacute;n de la temperatura del gas a la salida del sistema entre 2,9 y 9,8 K. La recuperaci&oacute;n termoenerg&eacute;tica calculada oscil&oacute; entre 3,90 y 22,16%, con 12,44% como promedio. Mediante regresi&oacute;n lineal m&uacute;ltiple se determinaron las funciones para soluci&oacute;n tecnol&oacute;gica del problema investigado. </span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0cm 28.3pt 0pt 1cm; line-height: normal; text-indent: 0cm;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-ansi-language: EN-US;"><span style="font-family: Arial; font-size: small;">This research proposed an optimized water distribution scheme in order to increase the heat transfer on a hydrogen sulphide gas coolers system. The system is comprised by two jacketed shell and tube heat exchangers, installed in a series-parallel arrangement. Each equipment operates with three streams, hence two major thermal communications are present. The water flowrates optimization was performed through Genetic Algorithms, using a model based on the ɛ-NTU method for simulation of the heat exchangers. The heat transfer incremental was estimated within the range 3695 to <br />10514 W, while the gas temperature reduction at the system outlet was projected between 2,9 and 9,8 K. Calculated heat recovery varied from 3,90 to 22,16%, averaging 12,44%. Multivariate linear regression was implemented for determination of the functions that solves the studied problem from a technological point of view. </span></span></p> Andres A. Sánchez-Escalona, Yanán Camaraza-Medina, Yoalbys Retirado-Mediaceja, Ever Góngora-Leyva Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/662 The KINETIC STUDY OF POLYPHENOLOXIDASE IN DIFFERENT COFFEE VARIETIES https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/661 <p>En este trabajo, se estudió la cinética enzimática de la Polifenoloxidasa (PPO) en diferentes variedades de café arábico, (Tipico, Caturra, Salchimor). Se evaluaron el pH y la temperatura óptimos de la PPO, su actividad enzimática (U) y la constante de Michaelis Menten. Para determinar la actividad enzimática se utilizó un espectrofotómetro UV-Visible modelo JENWAY 7305 con una longitud de onda de 410nm. Se determinó que la temperatura y el pH óptimo de la PPO fue 50 C° y 7.0 respectivamente, siendo constante en las variedades estudiadas. Se estudió la afinidad de la enzima por el sustrato, así como la actividad de la PPO utilizando catecol como sustrato: Los resultados en las diferentes variedades fueron Tipico&nbsp; K<sub>M</sub> =(0.622*10-<sup>1 </sup>Mm y 6234,32 U/mL);Salchimor K<sub>M</sub>=(0.822*10-<sup>1</sup> mM y 5612.10 U/mL);y Caturra K<sub>M</sub>=(0.933 *10-<sup>1</sup> Mm y 3710.86 U/mL).</p> <p>Finalmente se evaluó la oxidación del catecol (sustrato) observando el tiempo de desaparición que se estableció en 160 s para la variedad con la actividad más alta.</p> <p>En este trabajo, se estudió la cinética enzimática de la Polifenoloxidasa (PPO) en diferentes variedades de café arábico, (Tipico, Caturra, Salchimor). Se evaluaron el pH y la temperatura óptimos de la PPO, su actividad enzimática (U) y la constante de Michaelis Menten. Para determinar la actividad enzimática se utilizó un espectrofotómetro UV-Visible modelo JENWAY 7305 con una longitud de onda de 410nm. Se determinó que la temperatura y el pH óptimo de la PPO fue 50 C° y 7.0 respectivamente, siendo constante en las variedades estudiadas. Se estudió la afinidad de la enzima por el sustrato, así como la actividad de la PPO utilizando catecol como sustrato: Los resultados en las diferentes variedades fueron Tipico&nbsp; K<sub>M</sub> =(0.622*10-<sup>1 </sup>Mm y 6234,32 U/mL);Salchimor K<sub>M</sub>=(0.822*10-<sup>1</sup> mM y 5612.10 U/mL);y Caturra K<sub>M</sub>=(0.933 *10-<sup>1</sup> Mm y 3710.86 U/mL).</p> <p>Finalmente se evaluó la oxidación del catecol (sustrato) observando el tiempo de desaparición que se estableció en 160 s para la variedad con la actividad más alta.</p> Felipe Arturo Jadán Piedra Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/661 Evaluation of an experimental induced ignition engine under different gasoline https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/660 <p>The Ignition Internal Combustion Engine induced (MEP), is a thermal machine that allows mechanical power to be obtained from the chemical energy of a fuel. The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of an experimental MEP through the balance of energy and exergy, under the individual use of the three gasoline sold in Ecuador (Super, Extra and Ecopais). The experimental methodology consisted of starting under the individual use of gasoline until reaching its maximum power at engine speed, where measurements of temperature, specific fuel consumption and the air-fuel ratio were taken for a time of 3 minutes. The results show an energy efficiency of 11.31% for Super gasoline, 10.75% for Extra gasoline and 10.39% for Ecopaís gasoline. Regarding exergy efficiency, 58.81% was established for Super gasoline, 58.89% for Extra gasoline and 59.19% for Ecopaís gasoline. The results allow us to conclude that there is an exergy potential for improvement (PEM) that may be an opportunity to increase energy efficiency.</p> Edilberto Antonio Llanes Cedeño Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/660 Thermo-energetic analysis of the steam generation system in a 49 MW power plant https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/659 <p>In the work carries out a comprehensive thermo-energetic analysis of the steam generation system of a 49 MW thermal power plant, which has not been rigorously studied from an energy point of view. In a algorithm synthesizes the methodology for calculating the gross thermal and exergetic performances of the boilers that comprise it, aspects that have not been interrelated in previous studies. The results show a high degree the harnessing of thermal energy and a low capacity for using the exergy available in the facilities, caused by the deterioration of some of its operationals parameters and by irreversibilities inherent in the process of transforming water into steam. The thermal and exergetic yields of the system amounted to 90,106 and 45,491%, respectively. The proposed algorithm foresees the calculation and the comparison of the real thermo-energetic parameters of the boilers with the nominal ones and the scientific and technical-organizational actions to develop out to achieve superior thermo-exergetic performances. Its future implementation will take into account the analysis of the net thermal yields, the economic-environmental indicators and the energy-operational optimization of the boilers.</p> Yoalbys Retirado Mediaceja Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/659 Manufacture material characteristic analysis of original and alternative auto parts. Case Study: Brake Disc https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/658 <p>All powered vehicles have a braking system adopted according to the type of vehicle and work for which they are designed. In Ecuador, there is a great variety of auto parts that are proposed as alternative replacement, varying in cost and quality. This research aims to quantitatively analyze the characteristics of the brake disc material between original and alternate auto parts. This research analyzes three brake disc samples (A, B, C) from different manufacturing sources, using the ASTM E415-08 spectrometry test and the metallography test under the ASTM A247-16A standard. The spectrometry detects 15 elements in each sample, the carbon equivalent of sample A is 18% and 20% higher in relation to sample B and C, which significantly influences the microstructure. The metallographic tests indicate a pearlitic matrix in each sample, however, there is a different distribution and size of the graphite flakes. According to the SAE J431 standard, each auto part meets the material conditions for the brake disc function.</p> Jaime `Antamba Guasgua, Vladimir Azanza, Gorky Reyes; Alvaro Remache, Soraya Ruiz Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/658 an Aquaponic systems for the sustainable development of rural areas in Manabí https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/657 <p>Aquaponics is an integrated multitrophic system that combines recirculating elements from aquaculture and hydroponics. The objective of this research is to evaluate the production of two aquaponic systems for the sustainable development of rural areas in Manabí. The first system built was the floating root system in a 2: 1 ratio (two plants per fish), 60 lettuce plants (<em>Lactuca sativa</em>) and 30 tilapias (<em>Oreochromis sp</em>) were grown. The second system was nutrient layer (NFT), with a ratio of 1: 1, lettuce and celery (<em>Apium graveolens</em>) (15 plants of each species) and 30 Nile tilapia (<em>Oreochromis niloticus</em>) were grown. Analysis of the physicochemical parameters of the water was carried out in both systems obtaining adequate levels for the development of the food to be produced (turbidity, color, pH, nitrates, ammonium, calcium and carbonate hardness); dissolved oxygen, nitrites and phosphates presented levels outside the optimal ranges; however, 100% survival of the cultivated products was achieved. The growth rate (TC) of lettuce and tilapia was calculated. Aquaponic systems were shown to be a sustainable production practice, with floating root being the system with the best results.</p> Isa Delgado Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/657 The Services supply capacities of the mobile operators of the Republic of Ecuador. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/656 <p><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Este artículo analiza la distribución del mercado entre los operadores de telecomunicaciones en la República del Ecuador, los tipos más extendidos de servicios de telecomunicaciones proporcionados por los operadores de telecomunicaciones, así como el costo de estos servicios.</span></span></p> German Leon Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/656 Environmental impacts on the littoral coastal strip by anthropic action in the city of Trujillo, Peru https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/655 <p>This research describes and analyzes the impacts of the anthropic transformation of the coastal strip of the city of Trujillo, due to the systematic construction and expansion of a rigid structure called the sand retaining mole in the port of Salaverry. The main impacts are related to the modification of the coastline, along with the destruction of beaches and the alteration of ecosystems. Erosion as a phenomenon has been affecting many coastal areas, but in this particular one the problem has increased and seems not to stop even knowing all the aspects and climatic impacts that this may generate, destabilizing natural habitats and changing the behavior of the tides. Directing them to unforeseen areas. With the problems raised, the impacts of the anthropic transformation of the strip and its consequences due to the construction of the retaining mole are described and analyzed. Satellite images, photographs and hydrographic charts were used for the respective analysis, seeking to raise awareness and encourage scientists, authorities and the general public to conserve the coast and save it.</p> CARLOS BOCANEGRA GARCÍA, BILMIA VENEROS URBINA, Zoila Gladis Culquichicón Malpica Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/655 COMPARISON OF THE RADIAL AND AXIAL INDUCTION MACHINE THROUGH THE STUDY OF DIMENSIONAL EQUATIONS, SPECIFIC TORQUE AND TORQUE DENSITY https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/654 <p>The most used motors in the industry are three-phase alternating current. They are not only used in constant speed electric drives, but they have practically displaced direct current ones thanks to the frequency inverters. Axial flow motors have certain advantages over radial flow motors. The present investigation focused on comparing electric induction machines by means of their dimensional equations. The influence of the number of poles on the torque to be obtained was studied. The respective graphs of the specific torque and torque density were made as a function of the Kr factor. It was concluded that the torque of the axial machine depends on its outer diameter. In cases where large axial machines cannot be placed, it is redesigned by increasing the number of stages. Thus, it is in front of a great solution in cases where you want to install motors with very high specific torque and less weight. In addition, they are compatible with various applications, from the car to wind power generators, and have the great advantage that they do not require as much maintenance.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> LISBETH LOZANO, RODOLFO BERRIOS Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/654 Thermo-energetic analysis of the steam generation system in a 49 MW power plant https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/653 <p>In the work carries out a comprehensive thermo-energetic analysis of the steam generation system of a 49 MW thermal power plant, which has not been rigorously studied from an energy point of view. In a algorithm synthesizes the methodology for calculating the gross thermal and exergetic performances of the boilers that comprise it, aspects that have not been interrelated in previous studies. The results show a high degree the harnessing of thermal energy and a low capacity for using the exergy available in the facilities, caused by the deterioration of some of its operationals parameters and by irreversibilities inherent in the process of transforming water into steam. The thermal and exergetic yields of the system amounted to 90.106 and 45.491%, respectively. The proposed algorithm foresees the calculation and the comparison of the real thermo-energetic parameters of the boilers with the nominal ones and the scientific and technical-organizational actions to develop out to achieve superior thermo-exergetic performances. Its future implementation will take into account the analysis of the net thermal yields, the economic-environmental indicators and the energy-operational optimization of the boilers.</p> Yoalbys Retirado Mediaceja, Héctor Luis Laurencio Alfonso, Andres A. Sánchez-Escalona, Yanán Camaraza-Medina, Marcelo Fabián Salazar Corrales, Marbelis Lamorú Urgelles, Ever Góngora Leyva Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/653 Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Mass trapping of Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) using light and sex-pheromone traps in cotton https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/652 <p>The pink bollworm, <em>Pectinophora gossypiella</em> (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is an important insect pest of the cotton crop worldwide. The effectiveness of sex-pheromone and light traps was evaluated for the monitoring of adult <em>P. gossypiella</em> in Bt cotton field for the years 2017-18 at southern Punjab, Pakistan. The sampling of infested bolls was done to record the damage level of <em>P. gossypiella</em>. The sex-pheromone traps captured approximately 2-3 times more adults than light traps in all locations for both study years. For sex-pheromone traps, temperature showed negative and strong relation with trap catches. Fewer bolls were infested in plots where sex-pheromone traps were installed (7.0-9.0%) compared to check plots (32-37%). Therefore, the pheromone trapping proved an effective and eco-friendly tool for the monitoring and management of <em>P. gossypiella</em>. Our findings are helpful to improve adult <em>P. gossypiella</em> monitoring and should be considered while developing an integrated pest management program for this pest.</p> Muhammad Arshad Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/652 Simulation of an all-terrain vehicle driving experience using virtual reality https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/649 <p>The present work consists of the creation of a virtual driving experience of an all-terrain vehicle that includes the use of an industrial robot in order to promote engineering careers at a private Mexican university. In its development, a product design and development methodology was used that consisted of virtualizing the route, in this case an off-road track, using computer-aided design and the Unity platform. The robot programming consisted of simulating seven physical movements of the path. For the validation of the experience, a questionnaire was created with 13 items that covered visual aspects such as the recreation of the vehicle's interior, the route such as curves, ascents and descents, and the general experience in terms of duration, sounds and similarity. to a real environment. It was applied to a non-probabilistic sample for the convenience of undergraduate students and was validated based on its Cronbach alpha value. The findings show that the participant's experience and physical integrity are the strengths achieved with this development, a situation that allows its use for the stated purposes.</p> Luis Cuautle Gutiérrez, José de Jesús Cordero Guridi, Johannes Carrillo Aguilar, Eduardo Lebano Pérez Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/649 Artificial Intelligence System for Braking Control of a Car https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/648 <p>An Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithm based on neural networks is developed, which allows you to control the braking system of a car. For this, a simulation model is used to test the neural network algorithm, the parameters for entering the neural network are the speed of the car and the distance or proximity to the car that goes ahead called the safety distance, as an output parameter. It has the information to activate the brake system. Other parameters used in the weighting of the error function associated with the RN are the driving mode, for example the fact of driving fast or slow, or for example when driving fast, apply the brakes more frequently. In the first instance, the algorithm learns from the human the driving mode, forward speed, braking, proximity to the front vehicle, then the algorithm must be tested in unknown situations and verify the learning capacity.</p> Iván Ernesto Yánez ZUrita Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/648 Performance SQL Database Management Systems: MariaDB and PostgreSQL https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/647 <p>El almacenamiento de información en las bases de datos es un tema importante para toda organización en la actualidad. Son los Sistemas Gestores de Bases de Datos conocidos como SGDB encargados de ocultar la complejidad que conlleva la administración de las base de datos. Es común que cada día sean almacenados millones y millones de datos más aún porque en la actualidad existen nuevas tendencias y exigencias para el procesamiento de grandes volúmenes de datos a gran velocidad. Por lo tanto, es indispensable que los SGBD tengan un correcto rendimiento para hacer frente a estas nuevas exigencias. El presente trabajo muestra los resultados obtenidos al realizar pruebas de rendimiento en los Sistemas Gestores de Base de Datos MariaDB y PostgreSQL, aplicando la arquitectura de tres capas para los escenarios de prueba. Ambos SGBD son potentes y muy utilizados por diferentes sistemas. Los resultados obtenidos están relacionados con la cantidad de peticiones por segundo procesadas por estos sistemas. En este caso MariaDB fue superior que PostgreSQL a medida que aumentó la cantidad de usuarios que realizaban en diferentes escenarios gracias a sus motores de búsqueda que generan mejores velocidades para el procesamiento de datos. &nbsp;</p> ANABEL ELENA PILICITA GARRIDO Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/647 Plan de Ahorro Energético en el Hogar de Alumnos de la Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Ambientales de la Universidad Internacional SEK https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/646 <p>Los recursos energéticos que posee el país merecen que se consuman de manera correcta y adecuada. Esto no solo representa un ahorro económico para el país sino ayuda indispensable para el cuidado del ambiente. El presente trabajo reúne un análisis de la eficiencia del consumo de la energía eléctrica en los hogares de 22 alumnos de séptimo semestre de la carrera de Ingeniería Ambiental y quinto semestre de la carrera de Biotecnología de la Universidad Internacional SEK durante los años 2018 - 2019. El registro o factura consumo mensual en KWH para los dos años, permite elaborar la tendencia del consumo y conocer el inventario de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI) de cada una de las familias. Este estudio del ahorro energético, se realiza siguiendo la guía metodológica para la aplicación de la Norma NTE INEN ISO/IEC 14064- 1:2006, para los gases de efecto invernadero de organizaciones, se realiza utilizando el factor de emisión para la actividad eléctrica que es de 0,319 kg CO2 /KWH. De esta manera y con ayuda de gráficas se evalua el comportamiento del consumo de las 22 familias, constatando una elevada emisión de gases de efecto invernadero y un alto consumo en un curso con 60645,14 KWH en comparación con el otro curso que fue de 44793 KWH. Este estudio nos permite consolidar la educación ambiental en hogares ecuatorianos para beneficio de la sociedad.</p> Walberto Efraín Gallegos Eras Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/646 Identifying stakeholders in a smart lab using conceptual techniques for collaborative inquiry SAS2 https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/645 <p>This article is the result of the analysis of stakeholders for the project called "Smart Environment for the joint training macro-lab at the Faculty of Energy of the Universidad Nacional de Loja Smart Lab " using collaborative research and applying the techniques Nominal Identification, Social Analysis CLIP (Collaboration, Conflict, Legitimacy, Interests, Power) and Force Field, as established in the SAS<sup>2 </sup>A Guide to Collaborative Inquiry and Social Engagement. The results obtained from the research made it possible to find the stakeholders involved in the project and the relationships that exist among them, involving factors such as gains, losses, influences and driving forces; thus making it possible to know the elements that counteract the fact that students reflect low learning results in the mastery of practical processes, which prevents agile links in professional practice. Finally, it was demonstrated that by using these techniques, short-term decisions can be made, avoiding risks that could be very expensive for the execution of the project</p> Pablo F. Ordoñez-Ordoñez, Hernán L. Torres Carrión, Oscar Cumbicus, José Benavides, María del Cisne Ruilova, Cristian Narváez Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/645 Physical-chemical characterization and quality of compost produced in Rupa Rupa-Huánuco https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/644 <p>Cocoa and coffee are important crops in the area and are managed under organic production standards, and the use of organic fertilizers is high, especially compost. For this reason, physical-chemical indicators were evaluated and the quality of the compost produced with different inputs and marketed in the Rupa Rupa district, Huánuco-Peru region, was determined. It is a non-experimental correlational investigation with statistical adjustment of completely randomized design, the treatments are the identified compost: Alborada compost (CAL), M&amp;F Organic compost (CMF), municipal waste compost (CML), compost from the Divisoria cooperative (CCD) and formulated commercial compost (CCF). Physical (humidity) and chemical indicators (ashes, pH, MO, N, P2O5, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) were evaluated and the quality was determined according to the Colombian technical standard (NTC 5167) , the Chilean official standard (NOCh 2880) and the quality standards of the World Health Organization-OMS. The Results show no differences in the physical-chemical indicators, except for the N levels and according to the NTC and the OMS correspond to good quality compost and the NOCh classifies them as medium quality compost. In conclusion, the evaluated compost that is marketed in the district is of medium quality and the norm that best determines the quality is the NOCh</p> nelino florida rofner Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/644 Comparative analysis of the asphaltene stabilizing efficiency of Anacardium occidentale peel oil and commercial products https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/643 <p>The research objective was to compare the inhibiting and stabilizing efficiency of asphaltenes from <em>Anacardium occidentale</em> (CNSL) husk oil mixtures in diesel and commercial dispersant products, to evaluate the oil as an alternative anti-asphaltenes chemical treatment of crude oil. The precipitation flocculation onset with n-heptane and the dispersion point by addition of xylene were determined, both by direct observation of asphaltenes floc formation under an optical microscope. The experimental design used was factorial, with four response variables (flocculation onset, inhibitory activity, instability index and stabilization efficiency) and two experimental factors (product and dose). Five products with CNSL and three commercial products, all in doses 2, 4, 6 and 8 µl in 10 ml of a medium crude oil sample, were evaluated. The statistical analysis was based on multifactorial ANOVA and Fisher's minimal significant difference test (LSD) with α = 0.05. It was obtained that the two experimental factors significantly influenced the individual response variables and also their interactions. The products with CNSL were more efficient as inhibitors and the commercial ones more efficient as stabilizers.</p> Dany Day Josefina Arriojas Tocuyo, Tomás Darío Marín Velásquez Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/643 Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Comparative study for vegetative propagation of Chondracanthus Chamissoi “Yuyo” on three types of substrate in a controlled environment and its viability in the Moquegua region https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/642 <p>The research compares the vegetative propagation of Chondracanthus Chamissoi, commonly called "Yuyo" in Peru on three different types of substrate, under laboratory controlled conditions. The substrates used for comparison were; TA; clam leaflet, TB; Fruit mesh, CT; cape of propylene and TP; Concholepas concholepas shell.</p> <p>According to the study, there was better survival in TB; determining the formation of (DFS) from 20 to 23 days, according to the results, the vegetative propagation strategy is viable for commercial escalation in the coast of Moquegua, Peru.</p> JOSE CARLOS ZAPATA ROJAS, Alejandro Marcelo Gonzales Vargas , SHEYLA AMANDA ZEVALLOS FERIA Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/642 Estudio Experimental study on the low power CO2 laser cutting of natural fibers reinforced plastic composite https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/641 <p>The application of plastics reinforced with natural fibers in the industry can be increased using faster and more flexible technologies, such as laser cutting. The anisotropic nature and the degree of combustion of natural fibers in these types of compounds make laser processing very challenging. This study deals with the cutting performance of a low power CO2 laser to cut polymer composite plates (matrix of polyester and epoxy resin) reinforced with natural fibers (Abaca and rice husk) with an average thickness of 3 mm. An experimental DOE design and an ANOVA analysis of variance were used to determine the significant and influential parameters in the quality of cut and the thermal effect on the material. The processing parameters were the cutting power, cutting speed and type of thermoset matrix. The cuts with a minimum zone affected by heat, of approximately 600 mm and a minimum Ra of 3.18 μm, were achieved by working with 76 W and 14 mm/s of power and cutting speed respectively in the composite material of reinforced polyester matrix with rice fiber.</p> Cristian Fabian Pérez Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/641 A Tag Recommendation Hybrid Model for Social Tagging Systems https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/640 <p style="margin: 0px 41.2px 0px 37.79px; text-indent: 0cm;"><span lang="EN-US" style="margin: 0px; line-height: 105%;"><span style="font-family: Arial;">Social tagging consists of classifying Web resources using words or tags freely chosen by users. The simplicity and openness of social tagging systems to organize resources is the key to your success on the Web. There are numerous approaches to facilitate the labeling process for the user, allowing them to reuse labels and thus optimizing their limited reading and writing time. This document presents a simple way to supplement, with the user's labeling history, a prior approach to recommending tags based solely on the content of the resource to be labeled, thus creating a hybrid recommendation model.</span></span></p> Elías Portilla Olvera Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/640 Un A Tag Recommendation Hybrid Model for Social Tagging Systems https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/638 <p style="margin: 0px 41.2px 0px 37.79px; text-indent: 0cm;"><span lang="EN-US" style="margin: 0px; line-height: 105%;"><span style="font-family: Arial;">Social tagging consists of classifying Web resources using words or tags freely chosen by users. The simplicity and openness of social tagging systems to organize resources is the key to your success on the Web. There are numerous approaches to facilitate the labeling process for the user, allowing them to reuse labels and thus optimizing their limited reading and writing time. This document presents a simple way to supplement, with the user's labeling history, a prior approach to recommending tags based solely on the content of the resource to be labeled, thus creating a hybrid recommendation model.</span></span></p> Elías Portilla Olvera Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/638 the Analysis of the fuel pressure rail based on fuel alternatives and on-route working ranges. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/637 <p>This research was carried out in order to generate reengineering on auto parts, where the work of the fuel pressure rail was evaluated using appropriate handling techniques and ecological fuels to evaluate the optimization from its geometry. In the first part of this work, route tests are carried out in driving cycles to obtain the pressure data within the fuel rail, then the simulation is applied in the CAD / CAE program to then validate it in its geometry and of biodiesel B5. The simulation showed that the original design of the fuel rail of the test vehicle has deficiencies, in the flow of fuel within the duct was not distributed evenly across all the outputs of the rail causing the performance to decrease. On the other hand, the data obtained with biodiesel showed that with this fuel the pressure in the rail was lower than when using normal diesel. In conclusion, through the redesign of the rail, the measures were shortened by 10% of all its components, thus reducing the aforementioned failures from to the simulation.</p> Juan Carlos Rocha Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/637 Deformations evaluations and forecast in Turbo Generator 5 in the thermic-energetic plant of Nuevitas, Camagüey https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/636 <p>The evaluation, analysis and deformations forecast in the Turbo Generator 5 of the water heater-energy plant of Nuevitas, it was the main objective of this research. For they were carried out it chronologically geodesic surveying to establishment control record distributed in same period to specific marks along the structure. Finite Elements Method used these data in the physical-numeric models, it allowed evaluate the load-deformation process and floor-structures interaction. After achieving, the historical record of stress-strain plane state, forecast deformations was proposing for the support structure by ARIMA’s models to evaluate in short term the not-alienations permissible future registered systematically in the axes of the mechanical system rotors in the plant.</p> Michael Alvarez González Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/636 Development of a solid formulation methodology for Beauveria bassiana with local inputs in Lima - Perú https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/635 <p>The commercial strain of <em>Beauveria bassiana</em> CCB-LE265 produced by SENASA was morphologically characterized and a susceptibility test was performed on <em>Galleria melonella</em> to know the initial conditions of the conidia. Starting from 20 formulas made with local inputs (Bentonite, kaolinite, diatom, Chinese talc, citric acid, egg albumin and cornstarch), nine were preselected by wetting test for 30 seconds, allowing pellet (water soluble granule) to melt and release the content in the field. The quality control of the pellets was performed (spore concentration, conidia forming units, germination percentage and bioassays) at the time of its preparation and 2 months later. For the experimental analysis a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement was used. The best formulation material was the industrial talc, followed by diatomea earth. The heartburn was not considered in this study, however it was notory the decrease in conidia survival by acidifying the medium.</p> David Adrián Hidalgo Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/635 https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/634 <p>The current trend is to connect everything to network to be monitored and controlled remotely through own technologies of the IoT concept. One of the problems is to connect the devices to a network, using technologies with sufficient coverage and capacity, so this article shows the development of a mobile gateway for IoT applications under the Android platform evaluated in 4G mobile networks. The IoT mobile gateway sends the data collected from sensors by selecting the MQTT and HTTP protocols, to IoT platforms on the Internet. The architecture was composed of temperature, luminosity and pressure sensors that are integrated into a sensor node that performs the functions of data collection, processing and then via Bluetooth is sent to an Android smartphone where an application that performs the mobile gateway function is running, here data network are sent through the 4G LTE network to the IoT platforms of Ubidots and Watson IoT. Subsequently, tests were carried out with various metrics such as latency, energy consumption and connection costs. It concludes that IoT mobile gateway has better performance under MQTT protocol compared to HTTP.</p> Manuel Fernando Quiñones Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/634 Artificial neural network to estimate an index of water quality https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/633 <p>The artificial neural network (RNA) is a computational model that emulates the biological neural system in information processing. The originating models are suitable for the purpose of describing long-term specifics, in addition to nonlinear relationships. This tool is used to predict physical chemical and microbiological parameters that influence water quality. The United States National Sanitation Foundation proposed a water quality index, known as the NSF WQI. This article describes the design, training and use of the three-layer neural perceptron neural model for the calculation of the NSF WQI of the Utcubamba River and its tributaries. Using the Matlab software and applying the Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm, the optimal RNA architecture was found to be 6-12-1, plus the percentage for the training, validation, and test sets of 70&nbsp;%, 10&nbsp;%, and 20 % respectively. RNA performance has been evaluated using the root of the root mean square error (RMSE) and the correlation coefficient (R). High correlations (greater than 0.94) were made between the measured and predicted values. Finally, the RNA proposal offers a useful alternative for the calculation and prediction of the water quality index in relation to dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical demand for oxygen (BOD), nitrates, fecal coliforms, potential for hydrogen ions (pH) and turbidity.</p> Lenin Quiñones Huatangari, Luis Ochoa Toledo, Nicolás Kemper Valverde, Oscar Gamarra Torres, José Bazán Correa, Jorge Delgado Soto Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/633 Wed, 01 Apr 2020 00:00:00 -0500 La HUELLA DE CARBONO EN UN EDIFICIO DE UNA EMPRESA DE TECNOLOGÍA https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/632 <p>ABSTRACT</p> <p>An energetic review was developed in a building occupied by technology company, this is a enabling company of the 4th Industrial Revolution IT (Information Technologies), which located in the north city of Quito. The main was&nbsp; to know the impact in terms of CO2 emissions of the Carbon Footprint in a technology company. that are currently in a broad growth of the Ecuadorian economy. The methodology applied was NORMA NTE INEN ISO 14064-1: 2010, Scope 1 and Scope 2, ISO 50001:2012 Energy Management System , chapter 4.4.3 Determining the scope of the EnMs and Executive Decree 2393 from Ecuador, By tabulating the data, the main energy consumers, which were: office equipment, air conditioning system and lighting, according to Scope 1 Fixed installations, for the base year 2017 was 0.96 t CO2 and Scope 2 based on energy consumption was 90.23 t CO2e. An analysis of the lighting efficiency is carried out in comparison with the levels defined by job position according to Executive Decree 2393. Once the users of energy consumption have been identified, an action plan for energy management is established.</p> Walberto Efraín Gallegos Eras Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/632 Manufacture material characteristic analysis of original and alternative auto parts. Case Study: Brake Disc https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/631 <p>All powered vehicles have a braking system adopted according to the type of vehicle and work for which they are designed. In Ecuador, there is a great variety of auto parts that are proposed as alternative replacement, varying in cost and quality. This research aims to quantitatively analyze the characteristics of the brake disc material between original and alternate auto parts. This research analyzes three brake disc samples (A, B, C) from different manufacturing sources, using the ASTM E415-08 spectrometry test and the metallography test under the ASTM A247-16A standard. The spectrometry detects 15 elements in each sample, the carbon equivalent of sample A is 18% and 20% higher in relation to sample B and C, which significantly influences the microstructure. The metallographic tests indicate a pearlitic matrix in each sample, however, there is a different distribution and size of the graphite flakes. According to the SAE J431 standard, each auto part meets the material conditions for the brake disc function.</p> Jaime Antamba, Vladimir Azanza, Gorky Reyes, Álvaro Remache, Soraya Ruiz Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/631 Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Mecanismos cinéticos de la cementación de iones cobre (Cu++) con granallas de zinc https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/630 <p>The residual aqueous solutions of the hydrometallurgical processes of oxidized copper ores, have considerable concentrations of copper ions (Cu ++) that affect the environment, which can be recovered to a large extent by the process of cementation with granules of zinc, so that the Copper ion concentration (Cu ++) in residual aqueous solutions is below the permissible limits. For this reason, the kinetic mechanisms of the cementation of copper ions (Cu ++) with zinc granules in the laboratories of the Yauris metallurgical plant of the UNCP were studied, with a sample prepared from copper sulphate pentahydrate with a concentration of 1 g / l of copper and a pH of 3.5; controlling the cementation times of 60, 120 and 180 minutes at room temperature, obtaining 47.3%, 77.8% and 87.8% of copper deposited respectively, these results demonstrate that it is possible to recover copper ions (Cu ++) from diluted solutions containing ions copper (Cu ++) by means of cementation with zinc blasting, with an optimal maximum recovery time of 166.6 minutes, given the limited diffusion of the cupric ion through the solid layer formed from the reaction zone to the interface.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> José Luis Guerreros Lazo Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/630 Un Design and construction of an auxiliary lighting system for a Pregio 2009 van https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/626 <p>The lighting system of a vehicle plays a very important role in driving, especially when this activity takes place in low light conditions, since the driver must have a wide field of vision. An ineffective lighting, you can be the cause of car accidents, for these reasons, this work focuses on the design and construction of an auxiliary lighting system, based on the 2019 Kia Pregio van. The objective of this system is to improve the angle of lighting, so as to increase the intensity of the lights, improving the driver's field of vision, or provide an emergency lighting source, in case a main halogen fails.</p> Alex Chimbio Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/626 Web Proxy Server Under Java Platform as Technological Support in Distance and Virtual Education https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/625 <p>The research paper poses a new option to the configuration of a web proxy server under the Java platform using the http protocol in the direction of Distance Education and Virtual in the Technical University of Ambato (UTA), which allows them to perform their administration and configuration of a more friendly and easy to use. In the web proxy server using the http protocol, there was a testing scenario suggested, which helps you see the ease for the work done, which allowed for the analysis of data from users who surf on the internet at the address, for the transmission of information to be an efficient and rapid manner, through the network LAN and MAN. The web proxy server; were analyzed, configured to be able to check through their implementation which is the best option for navigation, the parameters that were analyzed are the following: browsing speed, downloading programs, videos, and access to different pages. It presents scenarios which will allow us to create tests with which will be established in peak times when surfing the web and after when there is less traffic on the network.</p> José Augusto Cadena Moreano, Manuel Willam Villa Quishpe Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/625 Development of a solid formulation methodology for Beauveria bassiana with local inputs https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/623 <p>The commercial strain of <em>Beauveria bassiana</em> CCB-LE265 produced by SENASA was morphologically characterized and a susceptibility test was performed on <em>Galleria melonella</em> to know the initial conditions of the conidia. Starting from 20 formulas made with local inputs (Bentonite, kaolinite, diatom, Chinese talc, citric acid, egg albumin and cornstarch), nine were preselected by wetting test for 30 seconds, allowing pellet (water soluble granule) to melt and release the content in the field. The quality control of the pellets was performed (spore concentration, conidia forming units, germination percentage and bioassays) at the time of its preparation and 2 months later. For the experimental analysis a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement was used. The best formulation material was the industrial talc, followed by diatomea earth. The heartburn was not considered in this study, however it was notory the decrease in conidia survival by acidifying the medium.</p> David Adrián Hidalgo Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/623 Third-party management in software development: proposal of a methodology https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/621 <p>Outsourcing allows organizations to reduce costs, optimize the use of resources, provide added value in services and goods, and concentrate on achieving the strategic objectives of the business. However, many software projects have failed due to the lack of knowledge of the factors involved in its planning. Some of these elements are poor communication with the supplier, weak monitoring of the status of tasks, lack of active participation of users and stakeholders at all stages of the process, and software quality assurance. Consequently, this research aims to aid the management of the outsourcing process and proposes a methodology for its management during system development. The methodology comprises 7 phases, each one with its inputs, tasks, and outputs, which are used by the following stages. In summary, it synthesizes the best practices for the management of third parties.</p> Yeison Núñez-Sánchez, Antonio González-Torres Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/621 Wed, 01 Apr 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Methodology of forensic analysis in the collection of digital evidences for informatic crimes. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/620 <p>At present, technological advances and the use of information technologies, as well as the accelerated use and growth of electronic equipment has allowed organizations to increase in aspects related to the economy, processes and services offered to the community. With this evolutionary change, security risks arise that affect information systems and organizations vulnerable to the materialization of computer crimes. All this entails a difficulty in the collection of digital evidence that identifies Who? When? and how was the attack perpetrated? This paper analyzes the subjects involved in the scenario of a computer crime and the methodologies that are applied for the collection and custody of digital evidence. In addition, it presents a literary review that offers the subjects that are present and knows the characteristics necessary to identify and relate suspicious activities with a computer crime. It also raises a technical and legal protocol that serves as a guide for the collection and custody of digital evidence.</p> Mauricio Alexander Quimiz, Jonathan Rodolfo Delgado Cedeño, Jose Manuel Moran Tubay, Alejandra Marielena Gorozabel Alcivar Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/620 Calculation of Voltage Distribution along the Insulator Strings of a 500 kV Transmission Line Based on Finite Element Method https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/619 <p>This paper presents the voltage distributions along the insulator strings of a 500 kV overhead transmission line of Ecuador. The electrostatic problem related to the voltage distribution was solved using the Finite Element Method. A 1: 1 scale drawing is done on a CAD type drawing tool and then exported to the FEMM program that solves the problem and the results related to the voltages in the insulator string are obtained. The voltage differences in the different insulators that constitute a string are appreciated and the difference between the strings determined by the geometric location in the solution space is observed</p> JUAN DAVID RAMIREZ, Krissia Cabezas, Pedro Jiménez, Raúl Canelos, Bolívar Escobar Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/619 Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Implementation of a protective layer based on carnauba wax for polyurethane paint applied to steel plates in different proportions https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/618 <p>At present, the aesthetics of the car is an important factor in the automotive field. For this reason the painting of a vehicle must be impeccable demonstrating good care. To keep the paint flawless, use different protection waxes. Being one of the most used in the automotive market that contains carnauba base. In this work, the behavior analysis of carnauba wax with different percentages in its composition was performed. Through its visual analysis, the effectiveness of the wax was determined with a 10% concentration of carnauba. The 10% carnauba wax solution will guarantee greater protection efficiency in a vehicle's paint. Extending in this way its effective protection against external agents.</p> Andy Joel Condo Camalle Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/618 Effect of two nitrogen and potassium levels through fertirrigation in the initial growth phase of avocado var. Hass plants https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/617 <p>Currently, the cultivation of avocado var. Hass is becoming important in Ecuador; however, there is little information regarding the nutritional management of this crop, resulting in crops with low productivity and poor fruit quality. Due to the high demand for nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) of this crop and the scarce information regarding nutritional and irrigation management, this research aimed to determine the effect of two doses of N and K in the initial growth phase. The trial was implemented using avocado plants var. Hass and treatments were applied using a fertigation system. The experiment was carried out in the Tumbaco Experimental Farm of INIAP, using a completely randomized design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement, having four treatments resulting from the interaction of two levels of nitrogen and potassium and four replications. The comparison of 5% DMS means was performed when there were significant differences. The variables analyzed were: plant height, stem diameter, greenery index, leaf area and foliar nutrient concentration. Based on the results obtained, significant differences were observed in the variables: greenery index and nutrient concentration.</p> Juan Pablo Gaona, LAURA VIVIANA VÁSQUEZ, CARLOS EDUARDO MORALES, WILLIAM FERNANDO VIERA, PABLO FRANCISCO VITERI, ANDREA VERÓNICA SOTOMAYOR, LORENA ANABEL MEDINA, PAUL RICARDO MEJIA, YAMIL EVERALDO CARTAGENA Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/617 IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SILICON HOLLOW FIBER IN THE BACK SEAT OF A FAMILY SEDAN TO IMPROVE THE COMFORT OF ITS OCCUPANTS https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/614 <p>Today, the ergonomics of the driver and passengers is very relevant at the time of construction. This is the case of vehicle seats and their manufacturing materials. The aim is to replace the material that makes up the back of a car seat in order to improve ergonomics, allowing a new driving experience and comfort for its users. The present research considers the improvement of the back seat material, to determine the possible replacement of the common sponge by hollow siliconized fiber. This allows to extend the life of the seat, being a healthier product. The results obtained in the analysis of the two samples were favorable, visualizing that the hollow siliconized fiber is more effective for the absorption of energy, is more ergonomic and more hygienic, for the implementation in the back seat of the vehicle.</p> Esteban Josue Bonilla Borja Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/614 F, GR Effect of two nitrogen and potassium levels in sweet granadilla (passiflora ligularis) varied Colombiana under fertigation at Tumbaco valley https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/613 <p>The cultivation of sweet passion fruit is currently becoming important in the northern part of Ecuador, however there is little information on the nutritional management of this fruit, which leads to problems of low yield and poor fruit quality. Due to the high demand for nitrogen and potassium from the crop, this research aimed to study two levels of these nutrients in the growth phase. Plants of variety Colombian will be used and the treatments will be applied through a fertiirrigation system. The experiment was carried out in the Tumbaco Experimental Farm of INIAP, using a completely random design (DCA) in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement, having four treatments resulting from the interaction of the levels of nitrogen and potassium with four replications. Results detected that high doses of nitrogen and potassium (200 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and their interaction had the highest values ​​in the analyzed variables: plant height (1.74 m), stem diameter (10.46 mm), index of greenery (59.07 SPAD), leaf area (151.03 cm2) and foliar concentration of nutrients (4.13% N and 4.10% K).</p> Juan Pablo Gaona, LAURA VIVIANA VÁSQUEZ, SANDRA PATRICIA AGUAYO, WILLIAM FERNANDO VIERA, PABLO FRANCISCO VITERI, ANDREA VERÓNICA SOTOMAYOR, LORENA ANABEL MEDINA, PAUL RICARDO MEJIA, YAMIL EVERALDO CARTAGENA Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/613 Environmental impact of a heavy machinery workshop https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/611 <p>The maintenance and repair of heavy machinery are ways to prevent negative impacts on the environment, since they ensure the reliability of the machines during their operation. This can result in a reduction in shutdowns due to the occurrence of different types of failures such as: fuel and lubricant spills due to pipe breakage, joint fractures, hydrocarbon outflows due to looseness or improper adjustment of joints, gas emissions harmful to the atmosphere caused by the malfunction of the power system, accidents at work, etc. In some of the centers, environmental management standards are not considered, since generally the volumes of activities are carried out on few machinery. One of the most common environmental difficulties associated with maintenance processes is related to the dumping of waste classified as dangerous. The research aims to determine the extent to which workers in a heavy machinery maintenance workshop know the environmental regulations established under the provisions of ISO 14001/2015 and the consequences that result from their non-observance.</p> Cristhan Andres Sornoza Solorzano Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/611 Implementation of an alert system against engine overheating in vehicles multipoint injection https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/610 <p>Temperature in a vehicle is a fundamental factor for its proper operation. When a fault is generated on the original temperature sensor may cause engine damage due to overheating. By implementing a system that compares the data provided by an LM35 temperature sensor and a Hall effect sensor to count rpm in real time. An Arduino processes the data and constantly informs the driver by means of an LCD. When exceeding a critical temperature, a hearing alarm will be issued and a vehicle injector will be disabled. The system is effective in its purpose of alerting the driver. And it is suitable for deployment in vehicles with multipoint injection due to its low cost.</p> Pablo Felipe Guayllas Guamán Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/610 Analysis and evaluation of conservation techniques to IV range vegetables https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/605 <p>Actually, the trend for the consumption of minimally processed foods such as vegetables and fruits of the IV range grows as changes in consumption habits and accelerated rhythms of life. Conservation methods support the safety and quality of food, as well as the preservation of its nutritional and sensory properties. In this sense, the evaluation of combined conservation methods is proposed to observe its effect on three vegetables of the IV range: lettuce, cherry tomato and carrot. The combined ones correspond to the type of cut of the vegetables, variation of the conservation of ascorbic acid between 150 and 500 ppm and application of vacuum packaging up to 0.5 atm. As a result, in samples maintained at 4 ° C, an increase in the shelf life of 11 days for lettuce, 19 for cherry tomato 18 for carrot was achieved, so that an increase between 19% was obtained and 70% the useful life of the analyzed samples, in comparison with data reached by other authors. In conclusion it is mentioned that the use of combined techniques is an alternative to improve the conservation of vegetables.</p> Christian Franco-Crespo, Maryuri Analuisa Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/605 Modeling of the variation of the electrical conductivity of the leachate of cocoa with different fermentation index https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/609 <p>This study linked the fermentation index of two varieties of cocoa beans: CCN 51 and ICS 6 with electrical conductivity (EC) of the water where they were immersed using a laboratory conductimeter. Mixtures of 11 fermented cocoa beans and unfermented were performed in order to obtain fermentation index from 0% (unfermented beans) to that reached by the fermented cocoa beans. Immersion times tested for determination of the electrical conductivity were 90 and 180 minutes. The results of electrical conductivity for CCN 51 and ICS 6 were 56.1 ± 12.0 to 1375.0 ± 28.0 mS/cm and 150.0 ± 19.9 to 1199.3 ± 44.5 mS/cm, respectively. Subsequent conductivity values ​​did not represent significant increases over time. The relationship between the fermentation index and electrical conductivity for CCN 51 showed positive trend, achieving a R<sup>2 </sup>= 63.1%. The following function by regression: EC (<sub>CCN-51</sub>) = 1196 + 10.83 * (FI) – 0.06 *(FI)<sup>2</sup> got a model with significant adjustment to be used to determine its fermentation index.</p> Jorge Luis Miguel Loo Miranda, Gabriela Cristina Chire Fajardo , Milber Oswaldo Ureña Peralta Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/609 Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Evaluation of the population of Shark Sphyrna zygaena in Ecuadorian waters for 2008-2012 https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/608 <p>Globally, the role of sharks within the ecosystem is recognized, however, fishing activity has affected in recent years their populations; associated with a slow growth rate, long-livedness, late sexual maturity and low reproduction rate. In view of this CITES* I determine as a priority to know the condition of the different stocks of <em>Sphyrna zygaena </em>around the world, this study describes its spatial distribution in Ecuadorian waters, based on data from the commercial fleet (2008-2012), two time scales were selected for analysis, the first on a monthly basis , the second considered spatial distribution. The estimate of the number of cohorts was supported in a maximum function of plausibility based on a multinomial distribution, total length frequencies (LT) revealed that the number of cohorts changes dynamically over time. <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/the">The</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/average">average</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/size">size</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/values">values</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/estimated">estimated</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/by">by</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/the">the</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/cohort">cohort</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/analysis">analysis</a>, <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/i">I</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/determine">determine</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/that">that</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/for">for</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/the">the</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/year">year</a> 2013,<a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/the">the</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/minimum">minimum</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/size">size</a> captured <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/was">was</a> 129.16 <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/cm">cm</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/corresponding">corresponding</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/to">to</a> females captured <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/in">in</a> 2012. While the captured males corresponded to 199 cm (LT), although in general terms, organisms are captured above 200 cm of (LT).</p> carmen cabanilla carpio Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/608 UDP protocol implementation for communication and control of the water level in storage tanks https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/607 <p>The objective of this paper was to implement and industrial network of real-time the UDP protocols found in the transport layer, and the analysis of each layer of the project’s OSI model, remotely activating different actuators to control the water level in different tanks, a wired connection between the computer and PLC devices and a wireless network as a medium. The advantages of being able to automate the actuators, is in the simplicity of this type of protocol since it is simple to apply and improve control times, simplifies the response by being concentrated in key points, additionally described as traffic Data form our network behaves.</p> Carlos David Velasco Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/607 análisis Data traffic analysis using UDP communication for an automated industrial network with Wireshark https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/606 <p>This document deals with the use of the Wireshark tool to capture the flow of data transferred between an industrial automation process connected to a PLC in combination with a hosted AD-HOC network which is configured on a laptop as a server for three laptops more than they form the industrial process, making use of the Sockets library which helps us to exchange any data flow in a reliable and orderly way. Berkeley Socket API (The application programming interface, also known by the acronym API, application programming interface, is a set of subroutines, functions and procedures offered by a certain library to be used by other software as an abstraction layer). In this capture a filter is used based on a port number agreed by all processes, the interface that serves as a means of connection and the UDP protocol. The packets captured by the tool are displayed by layers and each layer with their respective data fields.</p> david javier serrano Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/606 Datta Traffic Control Trough Wireless Networks https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/604 <p>El siguiente documento tiene el propósito de mostrar un<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1"> </a>ejemplo de la optimización de datos que se puede lograr mediante el proceso del control del tráfico de los mismos, para lo cual se propone la opción de crear por medio de las comunicaciones inalámbricas, en este caso se eligió el protocolo UDP (User Datagram Protocol, y haciendo uso del programa wireshark, el cual permitirá visualizar los datos en modo real, mientras se realizan los procesos de funcionamiento del sistema, simulados con PLCS y Computadores</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1"></a>&nbsp;</p> Steven Fitzgerald Rios Medina, Juan Esteban Guacollantes, Jessica Paola Ramirez Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/604 Energía Solar para cocción: Caso de estudio de un Horno Solar con Seguidor económico y eficiente https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/603 <p>Solar energy can be taken in advantage in many ways, and one of them is through solar ovens. These devices offer an option for the replacement of fossil fuels during cooking of food through solar energy. The present article tries to show if it is possible to design an economical and efficient solar oven with tracker, and therefore it is presented the results of the first step of a project for the development of an economical and efficient solar oven for small applications due to its small size, weight and cost. The methodology used was based on the development of a prototype using previously programmed photocells sensors, which capture the sun's rays and move looking for sunlight. Through the implementation of sensors and the Arduino free software microcontroller, it was possible to obtain data on the internal and external temperature of the oven to estimate the effectiveness of the oven in terms of the time it takes to heat food. Finally, positive results were obtained with the solar oven, recording different temperature data according to the meteorological factors present in the city of Quito (Ecuador) where the tests were carried out.</p> Dorian Oswaldo Mora Sánchez, Agustín Rubén Amagua Puga, Diana Carolina Zúñiga Cabrera Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/603 Assessment of postharvest microbiological quality of peruvian cocoa bean (Theobroma cacao L.) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/602 <p>Cocoa is used in the manufacture of different products. In processing, fermenting microorganisms such as yeast and bacteria use the high nutrient content of cocoa. This research evaluated the microbiological quality of cocoa seeds under two treatments: A (fermentation and drying) and B (sun drying).&nbsp; Total aerobic mesophilic (TAM), molds and yeasts count, and Salmonella were quantified in fresh cocoa seeds and two treatments. The results were: TAM showed counts of 5.61 ± 2.04; 3.79 ± 0.17; and 2.49 ± 0.21 log CFU/g, respectively (p &gt; 0.05); molds showed counts of 2.83 ± 2.59; 1.23 ± 0.32; and 1.35 ± 0.49 log CFU/g respectively (p &gt; 0.05) and for yeast counts were of 4.20 ± 0.23; 1.81 ± 2.42 and 2.39 ± 0.55 log CFU/g, respectively (p &gt; 0.05). To confirm microbiological values, each treatment was performed by the farmer and yeast contamination was found in treatments A and B (2.59 ± 2.26 log CFU/g and 2.86 ± 1.16 log CFU/g) (p &gt; 0.05). However, Salmonella was not detected in any of the processes. These findings indicate that there must be strict microbiological monitoring of the products, otherwise they would not be within the limits allowed for the consumer health.</p> Gabriela Cristina Chire-Fajardo Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/602 CFD Analysis of a solar flat plate collector with different cross sections https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/601 <p>Low and medium solar heating systems used for domestic and industrial applications, such as water and space heating, usually utilize solar flat plate collectors in order to absorb solar thermal energy converting it into heat and then transferring the heat to a fluid (usually water or air) that flows through it. The aim of this study is to evaluate the solar flat plate collector’s efficiency and the fluid behavior inside the pipeline with three different cross sections, whose hydraulic diameters are 10, 5.12 and 6.16 mm, by using ANSYS Fluent. The results obtained from the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool showed that the collector with the Type I cross section reached temperatures up to 330 K at the pipe outlet obtaining an efficiency of 68&nbsp;%, higher than those of Types II and III, whose efficiencies were 51&nbsp;% and 60&nbsp;%, respectively. Type I cross section also presented the lowest values in both speed and pressure drop, these being 0.266 m/s and 108.3 Pa, respectively.</p> Anthony Xavier Andrade Cando, William Quitiaquez Sarzosa, Luis Fernando Toapanta Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/601 Wed, 01 Apr 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Experimental designs applied in vegetables extracts: a review https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/600 <p>The use of experimental designs is one of the main tools of the researchers, given that it is a set of statistical techniques that generate data from which they can answer the questions raised by the experimenter accepting or rejecting a hypothesis or idea. The purpose of this review is to present the different experimental designs used in the area of plant extracts, because this is a topic of great interest in several areas of knowledge especially in the agro-industrial area.</p> Ronald Bravo Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/600 ENRUTAMIENTO OPTIMO DE INFORMACIÓN DE PMU’S AL PRESENTA UNA CONTINGENCIA EN UNA LÍNEA CON TECNOLOGÍA WAM. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/599 <p>En la presente investigación se buscó un algoritmo que nos permite enviar la información de las PMU’s en el caso de que el línea se vea comprometida evitando la perdida de información y maximizando al confiabilidad del sistema eléctrico de potencia. El enrutamiento de la información en el caso de presentarse una contingencia se basa en el mismo algoritmo para pérdidas de líneas por corto circuito, la tecnología que se está usando es el sistema WAM debido a la capacidad y la velocidad de procesamiento de información en la red.</p> Nicolas Maximiliano Mendez Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/599 Localización de fallas en líneas de transmisión utilizando el método de dos extremos sincronizados https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/598 <p>En el siguiente artículo se detallara sobre la localización de fallas en sistemas de transmisión usando el método de dos extremos sincronizados, la investigación se ha desarrollado enfatizando el campo de la localización de fallas como parte fundamental, cada fallas producida en una línea de transmisión forma parte de &nbsp;una de las principales causas por lo cual el sistema de potencia podría presentar falencias y tendría que salir fuera de servicio, por lo cual es necesario desarrollar algún mecanismos que este en capacidades de &nbsp;localizar el punto de falla exacto en líneas de transmisión dando lugar al punto de origen de la falla, un PMU está considerado como una de las tecnologías emergentes de suma importancia en cuanto a la recepción de fasores como voltaje y corriente en los sistemas de energía de los últimos tiempos, con el método expuesto se podrá localizar la falla de manera oportuna y maximizar la observabilidad del sistema eléctrico. Este método estará probado en el sistema de 9 barras de la IEEE, simulando una línea con problemas y la distancia a la que se estima ocurre la falla.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> dario alvaro alvaro Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/598 Transient Analysis in Power Electrical Systems Considering Dynamic Interconnections with HVDC Systems in Wind Generators https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/597 <p>This article takes the main characteristics of high voltage in direct current, its components, how it works and its applications, for this we remember that electric power systems have more and more unconventional renewable energies as sources of generation, the majority being solar energy and relevant photovoltaic, in this sense the implementation in large quantities of these types of generation in the system can affect the stability of the frequency. The SEP is present in conditions of response to a fault or disturbance, the inertia of the machines is one of them, this acts as the first response, so it is a fundamental part of the recovery of the frequency, therefore, Study of the stability of the system is essential in wind and photovoltaic generation sources that do not have inertia. Therefore, this article focuses on developing a frequency stability simulation model in HVDC systems using Matlab and Power Factory software, resulting in frequency behavior in the event of a system failure, so that the simulation is Carry out the models proposed by IEEE by varying the electrical control characteristics of each type of wind generator.</p> Orlando Alexander Alvarez Lastra Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/597 Efecto de la componente DC en cortocircuitos aplicados a protecciones de distancias https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/596 <p>This article analyzes the effect of the DC component in short circuits associated with distance protections and their relationship. In other words, it allows us to ask ourselves the question of the impact that failures or short circuits cause in distance protection. This study of the behavior of the CC component in the face of a short circuit takes into account the variations that can be obtained at different angles at the exact moment of the failure and see its effects on the system.</p> johan sebastian vásconez Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/596 Estimation of the cost of energy Estimación del costo de la energía en micro redes mediante programación líneal https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/594 <p>El aumento de la población y el desarrollo industrial, han obligado a que exista una mayor demanda energética, esto obliga a las empresas generadoras a aumentar su infraestructura de producción de energía, lo cual es muy costoso, por esta razón se busca implementar políticas de respuesta a la demanda (RD), incluyendo generación distribuida (GD), así se logrará un consumo energético más eficiente, ya que se podrán trasladar cargas no representativas de horarios pico de consumo, a otros periodos de tiempo. Además, se puede implementar sistemas de gestión energética (GE), es decir, adoptar políticas en donde se haga una planificación de consumo óptimo y esta sea aplicada a la industria o al sistema eléctrico en general, esta política ayudaría a la empresa a que mejore su competitividad, ya que los gastos por consumo energético se reducirían, al tener equipos más eficientes.</p> Galo Alexander Larco Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/594 Optimal Location of Transformers in Electrical Distribution Networks Using Geographic Information Systems https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/593 <p>This research shows a heuristic model for the design of scalable and reliable electrical distribution networks. The algorithms presented allow to optimize the location of transformation centers using on their database geographic information systems from which it is possible to define user locations, candidate sites, possible routes for the deployment of the electricity grid and, in general, data for the reconstruction of the scenario. The model employs clustering and triangulation methods, as well as algorithms for creating a minimally expanding tree and the consequent site assignment for transformer placement. After setting the optimal locations for the transformer site, the algorithms compute voltage drops in secondary circuits, required transformation capability, execution times, and coverage achieved. The results obtained are adjusted to the requirements of an actual distribution power grid and show a good performance on the proposed scenario.</p> Stanislao Pinzón, Stéfany Yánez, Milton Ruiz Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/593 Fri, 31 Jan 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Surface temperature and states of the vegetation of the forest of Polylepis spp, district of San Marcos de Rocchac, Huancavelica – Peru https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/592 <p>The effect of surface temperature on the state of the vegetation in the forest of Polylepis spp and to relate it is the objective of this research. As methodology 9 satellite images of the Landsat 8 OLI / TIRS Sensor were used, evaluated using remote sensing, applying Pearson r correlation and statistical t student hypothesis. The following results were obtained: the relationships during the 9 months of the year 2018 - - 2019 between LST - NDVI r = 0.11, t = 0.29; LST - NDWI r = -0.43, t = 1.27; LST - SAVI r = 0.13, t = 0.34 and LST - MSI r = 0.56, t = 1.77; the average ratio of 9 images classified in Jenks Natural Breaks values ​​between LST - NDVI r = 0.99, t = 47.12; LST - NDWI r = -0.98, t = 28.93; LST - SAVI r = -0.99, t = 65.39 and LST - MSI r = 0.99, t = 30.39; and the effect of “TVX” for NDVI (East: -0.0778 / 0.0549; West: 0.6434 / -0.0120), NDWI (West: -0.6128 / -0.0463; East: 0.3057 / 0.0474), SAVI (West: 0.4089 / 0.0232; East: -0.0073 / -0.0011) and MSI (East: 0.5565 / 0.1856; West: 1.3993 / 0.0362). In conclusion, it is confirmed that during the 9 months that the monitoring lasted, there was no statistical correlation and that on average of the 9 images classified in Jenks Natural Breaks there is a correlation; TVX confirmed the influence of surface temperature on the state of vegetation within the forest over time.</p> Bimael Justo Quispe Reymundo, Ronald Héctor Révolo Acevedo Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/592 Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Optimization of nano-composites by Genetic Algorithm to achieve maximum strength https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/590 <p>The purpose of the present study was to investigate the optimization of Nano composite by genetic algorithm to achieve the highest strength. Nanocomposite-reinforced polymeric nanocomposites, due to their unique mechanical / thermal properties, are widely used in various industries such as automotive, aerospace, packaging, sports, plastic, electrical and so on. Predicting the mechanical properties, these materials are experimentally and theoretically performed. In this research, the genetic optimization algorithm is use to select the most optimal one among the numerous modes of nanocomposites. The objective function, the optimal state selection, has constructed using numerical equations solved and proven in valid scientific papers. The ultimate goal of this method is to select the best state of the nanocomposite compositions without any real tests and without the time and cost. Instead of repeated and costly experiments, networking &nbsp;as well as optimization of nanocomposite compounds were used, according to the study. The results of reaserch showed that increasing the mass percentage of nanocomposite elasticity models leads to better yield. Also, by increasing the length-to-diameter ratio, the tensile strength of the nanocomposite can be increased. The use of high density polyethylene material also has a significant impact on the improvement of elasticity models. By examining the three optimal values ​​obtained, for polyethylenes with different elasticity models, was found that the mass percentage was almost constant. Given this, it can be said that whatever the ratio of length to diameter is high, Better elasticity models will be achieved.</p> Saeid seydi esfahlan Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/590 Optimal Location of Transformers in Electrical Distribution Networks Using Geographic Information Systems https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/589 <p>This research shows a heuristic model for the design of scalable and reliable electrical distribution networks. The algorithms presented allow to optimize the location of transformation centers using on their database geographic information systems from which it is possible to define user locations, candidate sites, possible routes for the deployment of the electricity grid and, in general, data for the reconstruction of the scenario. The model employs clustering and triangulation methods, as well as algorithms for creating a minimally expanding tree and the consequent site assignment for transformer placement. After setting the optimal locations for the transformer site, the algorithms compute voltage drops in secondary circuits, required transformation capability, execution times, and coverage achieved. The results obtained are adjusted to the requirements of an actual distribution power grid and show a good performance on the proposed scenario.</p> Stanislao Pinzón, Stéfany Yánez, Milton Ruiz Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/589 Alternative Under Frecuency Load Disconection Methodology Based on Semi-Adaptative Model https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/587 <p>Stability analysis in electrical power systems is based on the study in dynamic state of the voltage and frequency, since at the moment that there is some contingency it fluctuates drastically due to the primary and secondary controls of the voltage and frequency to the power systems that act on the generators. In order to solve the possible stability problems that may arise in power systems, various techniques have been developed that act on the generating machines for their protection as well as on the loads for the power cut. The present investigation proposes an alternative methodology for load disconnection by low frequency as an option to save the power system from a possible blackout due to instability due to a fall in the frequency, managing to improve the results affected by other improved techniques, the frequency change range, frequency deviation and the effects of demand disconnection. The proposed methodology was tested in the IEEE 14 bus system.</p> Diego Carrión, Alex Ayo, Jorge Wilson González Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/587 Fri, 31 Jan 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Contextaware Mobile apps Challenges in context-aware mobile applications building tools https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/586 <p>In recent years, technological growth has been exponential in relation to mobile devices (such as embedded sensors as GPS or accelerometer) that has allowed developing context-aware mobile applications for the market. This growth generates a new challenge about how to support the creation of this kind of application in order to adapt them to the user’s current demand. There are at present several approaches that could be used to create context-aware mobile applications, but these approaches are not designed to support variability in the kind of generated applications. The aim of this paper is to propose a building tool that allows generating a wide variety of applications. Our tool has been designed from scratch considering a taxonomy of variability concepts (relevance, combination, precision and accuracy’s margins, configuration type, and execution type) which help to identify the potential variability points to obtain more flexible building approaches. Finally, an analysis and discussion in relation to this topic will be presented.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/586 Outlier detection with data mining techniques and statistical methods https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/584 <p>The detection of outliers in the field of data mining (DM) and the process of knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) is of great interest in areas that require support systems for decision making. A straightforward application can be found in the financial area, where DM can potentially detect financial fraud or find errors produced by the users. Thus, it is essential to evaluate the veracity of the information, through the use of methods for the detection of unusual behaviors in the data. This paper proposes a method to detect values ​​that are considered outliers in a database of nominal type data. The method implements a global algorithm of "k" closest neighbors, a clustering algorithm called k-means and a statistical method called chi-square. These techniques have been implemented on a database of clients who have requested a financial credit. The experiment was performed on a data set with 1180 tuples, where, outliers were deliberately introduced. The results showed that the proposed method is able to detect all the outliers entered.</p> Marcos Patricio Orellana Cordero, Priscila Cedillo Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/584 Fri, 31 Jan 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Optimal Design of Electrical Distribution Networks Based on Real Data https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/583 <p>This research shows a heuristic model for the design of scalable and reliable distribution networks using real data. The database uses a geographic information system, which contains the coordinates of households, buildings, etc. optimizing the location of transformation centers and their sizing considering georeferenced areas from which user and candidate sites locations, possible routes of the electric network.&nbsp; The algorithm determines the optimal path for the primary network of medium and low voltage, location of transformers and inspection wells. The conductors must be deployed along the streets. This algorithm computes the voltage drop in each branch, the capacity that each transformer needs and the computing time.</p> Milton Gonzalo Ruiz Maldonado Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/583 Estimated cost of electricity with time horizon for micro grids based on the policy response of demand for real price of energy https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/579 <p>The intelligent microgrids are an efficient alternative, which allows to supply the demand decreasing the losses of the electrical system and at the same time; the environment and the consumers are the main beneficiaries. This article develops a heuristic based on an energy management model based on the real price of electricity, which will allow end users to encourage the implementation of a policy of response to demand, in order to optimize their consumption, for which a micro smart grid is analyzed, with conventional and non-conventional renewable generation, In addition, a mechanism of "real energy price" will be implemented as a policy of response to demand, with the aim of optimizing the costs of energy that will be transferred to users depending on the stratum to which it belongs, these costs will have a short-term horizon with hourly intervals, achieving a reduction in the purchase of energy from the system</p> EDWIN MARCELO GARCIA TORRES Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/579 Fri, 31 Jan 2020 00:00:00 -0500 DETECTION OF MALICIOUS PRIMARY USER EMULATION ON MOBILE COGNITIVE RADIO NETWORKS https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/578 <p>One of the attacks that has high impact on the mobile cognitive radio network is the primary user emulation that can disable the entire system for the transmission or reception of information. It is divided in malicious and selfish attack according to the attack main objective. Energy detection is a fast mechanism for primary user detection or primary user emulation attack on mobile cognitive radio network. This work focuses on the detection of energy for the malicious primary user emulation attack. The test environment is developed over software-defined radio in NI-USRP 2922 devices. We estimate the probabilities of detection and false alarm of an attacker and they are compared with theoretical models and experiments in the test bed, showing its operation and functionality over detection of this specific attack. Results show a probability of detection of about 90% with fixed and dynamic location attacker.</p> Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/578 Novel Approach for Teaching English Language using Emerging Information and Communication Technologies for Visual Impairment Students https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/577 <p>Nowadays, Higher Education Institutions (HEI) need to be more inclusive from the methodological vision appropriate used in the classroom. Visual impairment students (VIS) become a challenge for teachers who look for incorporating different learning environments. This challenge increases when teaching and learning process to VIS is related to the English language; due to the absence of educational didactic resources available at the school and the lack of knowledge of appropriate teaching methodologies and strategies to develop the different language skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing that go with the educational process in the acquisition of the English language. In accordance with this problem, this research proposes a novel methodological strategy, based on the usage of meaningful learning with emerging technologies as a main guide for students with visual impairment. Thus, the road map of good practices in the use of this methodology will allow establishing a clear process to achieve students’ active, meaningful and autonomous participation, using the least time in the teaching-learning process of the English language.</p> Jorge Cardenas, Esteban Inga Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/577 Fri, 31 Jan 2020 00:00:00 -0500 In-situ co-design of Mobile Games using Design Thinking’s resources approach https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/574 <p>The contribution of this paper is to explore how in-situ co-design of indoor spaces (e.g. building) of Location-based Mobile Games could be handle, by describing the learned lessons on this topic. This paper presents a conceptual framework for in-situ co-design of indoor spaces on Location-based Mobile Games to assist to carry out this kind of experience using useful resources (as Design Thinking's resources). An experience of in-situ co-design for an indoor space on a Location-based Mobile Game is presented using this framework; for some phases an authoring tool was used which allows in-situ co-design of relevant locations for an application. Based on this experience, the authoring tool was extended to create a specific kind of Location-based Mobile Game. This paper presents this extension along with a proof of concept that shows how an in-situ co-designed game created by this extension was used by end-users.</p> Cecilia Challiol, Franco Martín Borrelli, Francisco Goin Plexevi, Candela Mariel Rouaux Servat, Facundo Ivan Mendiburu, Estevan Gomez-Torres, Silvia Ethel Gordillo Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/574 Fri, 31 Jan 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Evaluation of video traffic behavior metrics in an experimental multicast network https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/576 <p>Currently, there is a significant change in data traffic on networks, both local and Internet, across the spectrum of possible customers, whether fixed or mobile. The consumption of video traffic increases day by day in all its formats. Service providers are required more bandwidth, quality and performance, for all products, but mainly those based on video. This article presents an improved version of our laboratory tests for generic networks with four sub-scenarios, which allow injecting multicast video traffic, represented in different codecs. The topology of network used includes a streaming server and up to 20 desktop computers as clients. The most important metrics to be analyzed have been defined, based on performance and quality of service (QoS) measurements under limited bandwidth conditions. Experimental numerical results can be useful for administrators, simulation analysts, designers, and data network planners. But, also, this document aims to serve as a guide for the management of similar networks and the efficiently use available resources, without compromising performance and QoS.</p> Higinio Alberto Facchini, Santiago Cristobal Pérez, Alejandro Dantiacq, Fabian Hidalgo Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/576 Fri, 31 Jan 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Determination of gold in geological, mine and metallurgical samples by fire assay and its application for mine control in Ecuador https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/575 <p>The present investigation describes the process of validation of the method for the determination of gold by fire test in sediments, rocks, concentrates, and tailings by atomic absorption, with the objective of providing reliable results to mining control agencies in Ecuador and other interested parties. In the study, the validation parameters were established, which are the limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), working interval, linearity, selectivity and specificity, repeatability and intermediate precision, veracity and uncertainty, and their criteria of compliance. Utilizing statistical analysis of the experimental results and together with the acceptance and rejection criteria, the validation parameters were evaluated.</p> <p>Finally, the method implemented by the IIGE chemical laboratory for the determination of gold is declared validated in sediment, rock, concentrate and tailings samples</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Gold; fire assay; validation; mine control; atomic absorption.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Diana Estefania Buitrón Ortega Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/575