Enfoque UTE https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista <h3>Enfoque UTE - Scientific Engineering Journal</h3> <p>Enfoque UTE is a scientific journal that publishes research papers in engineering and related areas. The journal is aimed at the community of researchers, professors, and graduate students in general.</p> <p>The journal is oriented towards an international audience and receives collaborations in both English and Spanish, with authors, reviewers and collaborators in general, from all the world regions, with a great diversity of approaches.</p> <p>Enfoque UTE firmly believes in the free dissemination of scientific knowledge, which is why it guarantees that its content and its services in general will be totally free for readers, authors and the general public.</p> <p>In its 11 years of life, the magazine has published more than 300 engineering research papers, serving more than 800 authors. All this has been achieved thanks to the selfless participation of its team of editors, reviewers and contributors, as well as the permanent support of the Universidad UTE, which funds the activities of the journal.</p> <p>Enfoque UTE is registered and indexed in several of the main international databases such as Web Of Science (ESCI), Redalyc, Scielo, REDIB, Latindex, DOAJ, OAJI, MIAR, Periódica, BibLat, Google Scholar, among many others.</p> en-US <p>This work is licensed under a <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/" rel="license">Creative Commons 3.0 BY EC License</a>.</p> enfoque@ute.edu.ec (Comité Editorial) enfoque@ute.edu.ec (Comité Editorial Enfoque UTE) Thu, 01 Oct 2020 06:33:27 -0500 OJS 3.2.0.2 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Analysis of criminal behavior and determining factors of crimes of greater connotation in the Santo Domingo city. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/721 <p>Crime has always been a latent problem that hinders the tranquility of people within my city and the country, so this work was born with the idea of ​​obtaining a better understanding of crime in the city of Santo Domingo, considering its relationship with Regarding variables that can be qualitative as well as quantitative that would describe their future behavior, then to address this problem, a statistical analysis was carried out through the application of multivariate techniques with the help of criminal records provided by the city police, this information We worked under a descriptive approach, taking advantage of all the information obtained. The development of the work began with a factorial analysis to group the variables according to factors the use of the statistical computer tool through SPSS, then a multiple linear regression analysis was carried out with respect to the variable "number of suspects". a multinomial logistic regression analysis considering the variable "Crimes" and its relationship with demographic, spatial, temporal and crime characterization variables. At the end of the analysis, a classification tree was carried out, in order to obtain a more complete description of the criminal behavior.</p> WALTER MORA MURILLO, MOISES FILIBERTO MORA MURILLO Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/721 Biomass Biomass potential and kinetics of drying model of Piptocoma discolor (pigüe) as a source of renewable energy source in Ecuador. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/720 <p>Pigüe (Piptocoma discolor) has great importance because it is a native species of secondary forests, of rapid growth, which makes it ideal for a sustainable forest. This tree has a high predominance in the Amazon, especially in the Ecuadorian part. The residues of the processes of transformation of the wood of the Pigüe, do not have an alternative application to produce energy from these. In the approach of this work it was confirmed that the information on its potential of biomass and energy value, is scarce. The aim of this article was to obtain fresh biomass and the kinetics of its drying. We worked in the four cantons of the province of Pastaza, with 20 plots of 400 m2 and 600 m2, with an average of 15 to 20 trees, whose diameters, at breast height, ranged from 10 to 33 cm. It was established that the average number of trees per hectare was 1274, that the amount of fresh biomass obtained from the 100,987 hectares covered is 41,097,686.87 tons, which means that it contributes with 49.72% of water and 50.28% of solid matter. As for the kinetic model for the drying of the wood of the Pigüe, a R2 = 0.9855 was obtained, with some parameters of a = 1.1318, k = 0.0637765, n = 0.560617 and b = -0.193993, based on a standard error of 0.0301682 and residual self-correction of 0.182239. In terms of energy potential, using 100% of the biomass produced, 13.5 GW of thermal energy can be aspired to.</p> <p><strong><em>Key Words</em></strong>: Biomass, Renewable Energy Source, Biofuel, <em>Piptocoma discolor</em></p> Juan González, Juan Elías González Rivera, Billy Coronel Espinoza, Viviana Quevedo Tumailli, Deny Oliva Merencio, Morillo Robles Campo, Hernán Uvidia Cabadiana Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/720 Parametric and Non-parametric Mathematical Modelling Techniques: A Practical Case of an Electrical Machine Identification https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/718 <p>Mathematical modeling is a very important feature concerning the analysis and control of dynamic systems. Also, system identification is an approach for building mathematical expressions from experimental data taken from processes. In this context, the state of the art describes several modeling and identification techniques which are powerful tools to determine systems behavior through time. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the main techniques for modeling and identification from a parametric and no parametric perspective. Experimental data are taken from an electrical machine, a DC motor from a didactic platform. The paper concludes with the solutions provided by a proper mathematical model.</p> Oscar Gonzales Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/718 Environmental evaluation at the Cement Commercialization Company of Camagüey https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/717 <p>The main ones problematic environmental generated in the production process and of commercialization of the packed cement or to bulk, they are appreciated in the nonfulfillment of the environmental norms on the part of the operators where the cement is stored to bulk, for the emission of powders of cement of the ferro silos in the one discharges, in the contamination by pouring, and for the atmospheric contamination and the acoustics. For it, this work was guided to identify and to value the derived environmental impacts of the load operations and it discharges from cement to bulk in the Comercializadora of Cement Camagüey (ECOCEM). As starting point the environmental diagnosis was used carried out to the entity, that which allowed the identification and evaluation of the environmental aspects, this served as base to establish the monitoring stations. The atmospheric emissions were characterized and made a valuation of the impacts generated by the processes of the entity. The results evidence the necessity to adopt measures to reduce or to eliminate the identified environmental impacts, that which coincides with that outlined in the environmental politics of the Commercial Company of the Cement.</p> Daimy Godínez-Caraballo Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/717 La Transición energética https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/716 <p>Since 2007, the Government of Ecuador established in agenda-setting, a new energy policy, highlighting transition from an initial scenario based on hydrocarbons, to a later one, where renewable or low carbon energies, take a leading role in mix of energy production in country. In addition to the decarbonization of the electricity sector, rising of energy security through the implementation of energy efficiency plans and demand management, and increasing environmental tolerance, through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, were also introduced based on the Energy Trilemma, put forward by World Energy Council. Analytical framework employed to determine the success or failure of the policy was Kameyama´s and Kawamoto´s (2018), where all proposed categories were examined, according to their respective policy instruments, for subsequent contrast with measure indicators. Along with research, the failure of the policy was demonstrated in each of its categories, ground on evidence.</p> ANDRES CAMPANA DIAZ Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/716 CAPITAL DE TRABAJO EL CAPITAL DE TRABAJO Y SU RELACIÓN CON LAS NIIF PARA PYMES EN EMPRESAS COMERCIALIZADORAS DE PLÁSTICOS EN EL ECUADOR. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/714 <p>The present research work has the purpose of evaluating the Working Capital and its relationship with the IFRS for SMEs in plastics trading companies, due to the economic situation that is going through worldwide, companies need to optimize the working capital, forcing to focus on using their own resources and developing new financing options. In order to obtain a better result in our analysis, it was carried out through studies of descriptive and documentary research methods with a mixed approach, qualitative in order to study the behavior of working capital and quantitative because work study techniques were applied that The results were related to the financial analysis of the IFRS for SMEs. As a result of the research, the purpose of the research was to disseminate financial tools that help small entrepreneurs to efficiently keep their financial statements and thereby make their businesses grow and become part of solvent companies that contribute with their productivity to the development of the economy Through correct application of IFRS for SMEs, it affects the Working Capital of plastics trading companies.</p> diana iler flores Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/714 Análisis numérico del comportamiento del flujo en la sección de la garganta de una tobera cónica experimental https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/713 <p>The flow pattern in supersonic nozzles is defined by the aerodynamic profiles of the geometry of the internal walls, among other parameters, the throat being a critical section. In the present work, the objective is to analyze the behavior of the flow in the straight section of the throat of an experimental conical nozzle of a solid fuel probe rocket engine. The over-expanded flow was simulated with the ANSYS-Fluent code in a 2D computational domain, using the RANS model and the Menter turbulence model, and the Sutherland equation for viscosity as a function of the temperature. Five case studies were performed for the throat length in the range of 1-10 mm. Fluctuations of Mach number, pressure and temperature, oblique shock waves in the throat section were obtained for the length of 10 mm; for shorter lengths the intensity of the shock magnitude decreased. It is concluded that, for the throat length of 1 mm, the flow is transonic without the presence of oblique shocks. In the diverging section, shock waves vary in intensity and change position.</p> San Luis Baudilio Tolentino Masgo, María Alejandra Parco, Leonardo Lacruz, Vicente Marcano, John Ferreira, Simón Caraballo, Jorge Mírez Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/713 ADVANTAGES OF THE RADIAL AXIAL INDUCTION MACHINE THROUGH THE STUDY OF DIMENSIONAL EQUATIONS AND THE SPECIFIC TORQUE https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/712 <p>The present investigation focused on synthesizing the advantages that an axial flow machine has over a radial flow machine. The objective was to study by means of the dimensional equations and graphs the torque density and the influence of the number of poles on the torque of both machines. It was concluded that the torque of the axial machine depends on its outer diameter, being more efficient than a radial machine. In addition, in cases where large axial machines cannot be placed, the number of stages is redesigned and their diameter is decreased. While in the case of radial machines this is not possible, but a modification of the space is needed. This work is justified to inform more about the advantages of the axial flow machine, because it is at the forefront of a great solution in cases where it is possible to install motors with very high specific torque and less weight. In addition, they are compatible with various applications, from the car to wind power generators, and have the great advantage that they are not as maintenance-friendly.</p> LISBETH LOZANO Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/712 Condiciones inseguras previstas de las políticas públicas ambientales: Contexto cooperativas de reciclaje del Caribe Colombiano https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/711 <p>Se describieron las condiciones inseguras previstas de las políticas públicas ambientales en cooperativas de recicladores. El tipo de investigación descriptiva y de campo, bajo un diseño no experimental, transeccional, la población corresponde a las cooperativas de recicladores, por lo que la muestra seleccionada es de cien (100) recicladores agremiados del Caribe Colombiano. Se empleó la observación como técnica de investigación y el cuestionario como instrumento de recolección de datos, el mismo estuvo constituido por ítems bajo una escala de actitud tipo Likert, con cinco alternativas de respuestas. Los indicadores materiales o herramientas defectuosas junto a los sistemas de avisos incorrectos a los actores dieron resultados de alto cumplimiento lo cual es muestra de una propensión de los mismos a favorecer la implementación política públicas dirigidas al desarrollo de evitar las condiciones inseguras de trabajo, con apoyo de la normatividad vigente. Se hace inmediato el diseño, planificación e implementación de un sistema de orden y limpieza, este será muy beneficioso debido a que disminuyen los riesgos de accidentalidad y se fortalece la productividad.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> CARLOS ALBERTO SEVERICHE SIERRA Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/711 Design and construction of a hammer mill to produce value-added food from the carrot (Daucus carota) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/710 <p>Milling is the most used unit operation in the industry to transform food as grains, vegetables and meats to products with small size. In this context, the design and construction of a small-scale hammer mill were made in the present study with the aim of reduce the size of dehydrated carrot for obtaining a value-added food. Mill parameters as force, torque and potency were determined by theoretical calculations, while that the operation parameters as milling coefficient and yield were determined by milling and sieving process of carrot. The necessary force of the equipment to mill the carrot was 5820 kg/m*s<sup>2</sup>, while the required torque and potency by motor to generate the cuts through the hammers were 34,92 kg/m<sup>2</sup>*s<sup>2</sup> and 989,28 kg*m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>3</sup>, respectively. Yield of 90 % and milling coefficient of 10 in the hammer mill allowed to reduce the size of the carrot from 5 cm to 0,5 cm. These results demonstrate that designed and constructed hammer mill in the present work allows to reduce pieces of dehydrated carrot to an ideal size for consuming as snack.</p> Cristian Patiño Vidal, Cristina Muñoz Shugulí, Marcelo Patiño Vidal, Jorge Ocampo, Eduardo Muñoz Jácome Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/710 Survey of the amount of trans fatty acids present in pastry products elaborated at bakery stores in Quito https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/709 <p><em>Through this study, the amount of trans fatty acids (TFA) in “mille feuille pastries” was investigate in Quito.&nbsp; The work was executed in three stages: in the first one, surveys were performed to 32 bakeries in Quito which helped to identify the margarine brands used as raw material with the correspondent suppliers as well as the baking conditions. All this information became the basis of this study. During the second stage, the trans-fat content in the mille feuille samples was analyzed by gas chromatography, the results showed 0,29% to 0,46% (percentage of fat) which is equivalent to 0,05% to 0,11% (in 100 grams of product) and do not exceed the limit of 2% established by the Ministry of Public Health in the Agreement No. 4439. The third stage of this work consisted on baking standardized puff pastry doughs to evaluate the influence of the type of margarine and baking conditions (temperatures 186°C±6°C, 165°C±8°C and 147°C±9°C during 14 minutes) on the content of TFA resulting on a non-significant difference amongst the treatments.</em></p> María Lorena Goetschel Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/709 Autoconfiguration with global addresses using IEEE 802.15.4 standard in multi-hop networks https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/708 <p>A cluster-based hierarchical global address allocation scheme is proposed for a wireless sensor network. The proposal uses the IEEE 802.15.4 protocol and aims to reduce the latency of the identifier assignments and reduce the network level processes to be performed at the node. The address allocation process assigns each node a unique global address, which allows the node to have end-to-end connectivity without network-level involvement. The scenario of adding new nodes to the network or nodes that leave it is contemplated. Finally, the proposed scheme is evaluated experimentally, verifying the correct operation of the algorithm proposed in the implemented prototype</p> carlos roberto egas Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/708 Estudio numérico de un intercambiador de calor helicoidal para el enfriamiento del mosto en el proceso de elaboración de cerveza artesanal https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/706 <p>The present work aims to study the behavior of a heat exchanger with a helical tube and shell, for cooling the wort in the process of craft beer production, using the methodology of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) by finite volumes for the modeling of the heat exchanger, which allows us to understand the behavior of the fluid through equations that describe the movement of these, using numerical methods and computer techniques. The software's k-épsilon turbulence model was used for the simulation. By means of the simulation it was obtained that the variation of the mass flow of the must is obtained better results in the obtaining of a smaller exit temperature, where a variation of 15.16°C exists, whereas, varying the temperature of entrance of the water, a variation of 2.71°C to 0.01°C hardly exists.</p> LUIS FERNANDO TOAPANTA RAMOS Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/706 Influence of a higher fairing on the pulling force of a truck https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/705 <p>The consumption of diesel fuel in the country represented 36.61% of the demand for oil derivatives in 2019, which is why it seeks to propose savings alternatives in the land freight transport sector. For this reason, the influence on the drag force generated by the air when the vehicle moves on a highway was analyzed through the incorporation of an upper cabin fairing (windbreaker) in a medium-duty truck. This effect was estimated using the one-dimensional drag force equation and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, estimating a reduction of 8,734% in the drag force when used in the upper cabin fairing, this is complemented by the study made of fuel consumption on the highway where there is a saving of 4.63% with this accessory.</p> David Paul Pachacama Gualotuña Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/705 Heat transfer incremental on a jacketed coolers system through optimization of the water flowrates https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/704 <p>This research proposed an optimized water distribution scheme in order to increase the heat transfer on a hydrogen sulphide gas coolers system. The system is comprised by two jacketed shell and tube heat exchangers, installed in a series-parallel arrangement. Each equipment operates with three streams, hence two major thermal communications are present. The water flowrates optimization was performed through genetic algorithms, using a model based on the ɛ-NTU method for simulation of the heat exchangers. The heat transfer incremental was estimated within the range 3695 to <br>10514 W, while the gas temperature reduction at the system outlet was projected between 2,9 and 9,8 K. Calculated heat recovery varied from 3,90 to 22,16%, averaging 12,44%. Multivariate linear regression was implemented for determination of the functions that solves the studied problem from a technological point of view.</p> Andres Adrian Sánchez-Escalona Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/704 la Performance measurement of the tree tomato food chain: case study https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/703 <p>The aim of this article was to present and discuss the performance measurement results of the tree tomato food chain (Cyphomandra betaceae Sendt) with operations in the Ecuadorian territory. From the food quality approach, efficiency and effectiveness indicators were used in order to assess the quality of the process and product (fruit), respectively. This work used the case study as the research methodology to test the theory. The efficiency levels obtained showed adequate management of the process quality in the stages of the chain; the product quality indicators such as skin color and pulp color index, titratable acidity, pH, soluble solids, maturity index and fruit’s loss of moisture were analyzed; the compliance of the physicochemical indicators highlighted the effectiveness of each stage of the process, which placed the product within the quality limits allowed for consumption. The research is still limited and needs a broader application for the generalization of the measurement proposal of food chains with similar characteristics. However, the proposed performance measurement methodology brings balance and dynamism to the chain's development process; while contributing with key parameters that standardize internal operations and raise levels of joint performance.</p> Ximena Rojas-Lema Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/703 Review of the state of the art of two-phase flow patterns inside a horizontal tube https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/702 <p>This document shows a review of the literature on the different flow patterns found in horizontal pipes, considering hydrocarbon-type refrigerants as working fluid. These refrigerants are a replacement for conventional refrigerants because they have an ozone depletion potential of 0 and a global warming potential of 3, therefore, they do not present a significant environmental impact. After a brief description of the flow patterns, the different flow pattern maps that can be presented are indicated. The R290 and R600a refrigerants are proposed as an alternative for the replacement of R22 and R134a in refrigeration systems, showing an energy saving of 29.14 % and the R290 refrigerant uses only 48% of the mass that R22 uses. The document also identifies regulations on the use of refrigerants, gaps in the literature, and introduces opportunities for future work.</p> William Quitiaquez, C.A. Isaza-Roldán, Eduardo Cortez, Karen Anchapaxi, Patricio Quitiaquez, César Nieto-Londoño, Fernando Toapanta-Ramos Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/702 Multi-stage solar desalination system for water production in coastal areas of Ecuador https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/701 <p>A solar desalination system with heat recovery has been developed for coastal areas of Ecuador with a shortage of fresh water. The prototype consists of a 3 stage distillation tower connected to a thermosiphon flat plate solar collector. The modular design of the equipment allows water production to be varied, from a few liters to more than a cubic meter per day. The system is simple and can be quickly disassembled, greatly facilitating its operation and maintenance. The average monthly production of the desalination unit varies between 4.3 and 5.8 liters per day (2.44 and 3.29 L/m<sup>2</sup>). A simulation program was created in Matlab-Simulink to predict the temperature profiles, distillate output, and heat flows in the unit. The simulation results were very satisfactory, with a small variation between theoretical and experimental data. After verifying its accuracy and validity, the simulation was used to analyze modifications that improve yield and system performance.</p> Marcelo Moya Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/701 New control method for the industrial process of cookies manufacturing https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/700 <p>The Biostructured Process Control Method (BPCM) was applied in the industrial manufacture of cookies. The control biostructure, designed considering the characteristics of the process, was made up of five sub-processes (mixing, molding, baking, sandwiching and packaging) and three sub-processes as part of the mixing sub-process; also, 16 control parameters were identified. Control variable data were evaluated over a five-month period. The control was performed according to the efficacies of the sub-processes and control variables, for which target values were set. During the evaluation period, the process achieved between 95% and 98.1% efficacy, with the company’s requirements being 95% as an internal standard. Opportunities for improvement were identified in sub-processes with lower efficacies. The BCPM is a new method similar to a dashboard like the Balance Score Card, with a quantitative control based on compliance with standards.</p> Milber Oswaldo Ureña-Peralta Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/700 Harina de cefalotórax de camarón en dietas alimenticia de pollos Brolier Cobb-500 en etapa inicial https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/699 <p>Feed conversion in early stage Cobb-500 broiler chickens was determined by the inclusion of shrimp cephalothorax meal. The by-product was obtained from the shrimp company DUFFER (Montecristi, Manabí). A completely randomized design was applied with three treatments T1 (38%), T2 (40%) and T3 (42%) and three repetitions. The experimental unit was 14.69 kg of shrimp cephalothorax meal. Bromatological parameters (moisture, fiber, ash and protein), microbiological (aerobic mesophiles and Salmonella) and the feed conversion factor were evaluated using the equation FC = AC / PPV. The% humidity in the three treatments presented values ​​below the allowed limit (13%), %fiber and %ash, treatment 3 (42%) presented the upper value of the allowed limit (5%) and (8%), respectively. The protein analysis was within the allowed limit (20%). The count of CFU/g of aerobic mesophiles did not exceed the allowed limits (1.2 x 106), established in the NTE INEN 1829 (2014). The feed conversion factor showed that by including 38, 40 and 42% a weight gain of 1.81 is obtained; 1.82 and 1.83, respectively. It is concluded that the inclusion of shrimp cephalothorax meal efficiently influences the diet of Cobb-500 broiler chickens, increasing their weight.</p> Diana Carolina Cedeño Alcivar Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/699 New control method for the industrial process of cookies manufacturing https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/697 <p>The Biostructured Process Control Method (BPCM) was applied in the industrial manufacture of cookies. The control biostructure, designed considering the characteristics of the process, was made up of five sub-processes (mixing, molding, baking, sandwiching and packaging) and three sub-processes as part of the mixing sub-process; also, 16 control parameters were identified. Control variable data were evaluated over a five-month period. The control was performed according to the efficacies of the sub-processes and control variables, for which target values were set. During the evaluation period, the process achieved between 95% and 98.1% efficacy, with the company’s requirements being 95% as an internal standard. Opportunities for improvement were identified in sub-processes with lower efficacies. The BCPM is a new method similar to a dashboard like the Balance Score Card, with a quantitative control based on compliance with standards.</p> Gabriela Cristina Chire-Fajardo Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/697 Biomass Biomass potential and kinetics of drying model of Piptocoma discolor (pigüe) as a source of renewable energy source in Ecuador. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/695 <p>The importance of <em><u>Piptocoma discolor</u></em> is a predominantly fast-growing native species of secondary forest. Currently this wood is used to transport fruits and the waste does not have an industrial alternative, with possible use to produce electrical energy. However, there is limited information available on its biomass potential and energy value. The objective was to obtain fresh biomass and drying kinetics, we worked in the four cantons of the Pastaza province with 20 plots of 400 m<sup>2</sup> and 600 m<sup>2</sup> that had an average of 15 to 20 trees, whose chest height diameters ranged from 10 and 33 cm., Establishing the following values: a) Average number of trees per hectare (1274 NA2/ha); b) Biomass in 100,987 hectares with an average of 41,097,686.87 tons, which means that it contributes with 49.72% of water and 50.28% of solid matter; c) A kinetic model of R2 = 0.9855, the estimate of a = 1.1318, k = 0.0637765, n = 0.560617 and b = -0.193993, based on a standard error of 0.0301682 and residual autocorrection of 0.182239 on drying kinetics; and d) Total energy means more than 13.5 GW of thermal energy using 100% biomass.</p> <p><strong><em>Key Words</em></strong>: Biomass, Renewable Energy Source, Biofuel.</p> Juan González Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/695 Design of a micro-network for recharging electric vehicles in the commercial sector. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/694 <p><strong>Abstract </strong>This document examines the investigation of a microgrid for recharging electric vehicles. Numerical methods are very useful when modeling an electrical energy system since we will know the behavior that the system will have in the face of a representative change in its demand, when introducing a large load such as the charging stations, the voltage in our system will reduce and by Therefore the power, the system will suffer an imbalance between generation and demand, and the objective of the system is to maintain a constant frequency and this will be affected by the increase in demand, with our analysis we will know the percentage of voltage drop and see solutions To compensate for that voltage drop, one solution is to implement a capacitor bank at specific nodes to assist the power electrical system in frequency regulation, but that is a very separate analysis that this document focuses on seeing the percentage of voltage drop, we will observe the system a and its behavior of having implemented this load in the system, this study can ap licarse to any electrical power system.</p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p><strong><em>Index Terms</em></strong><strong>— Micro Grid,</strong> <strong>Electrical Power System, Charging Station. </strong></p> dario gonzalez Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/694 ELECTRICAL ENERGY QUALITY ANALYSIS IN INTELLIGENT MICRO NETWORKS BASED ON THE MANAGEMENT OF ITS PRIMARY RESOURCES https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/693 <p>As centuries of new technological innovations, which is directly related to the use of electricity, the high production and demand for energy quality globally, is the part of preferential analysis in relation to the creation of micro-networks in the innovative years, the increase in society is important for the consumption of energy that is rising , the analysis of actions for the increase and analysis of new power generation plants, the same that are being limited to the production of high-impact reserves, for the reasons defined, this article aims to establish a management model for distributed primary resources of an intelligent micro-network based on a policy of demand response such as the valuation of critical peaks , that allow the improvement of energy quality indicators, it is intended to carry out adequate studies for the quality of electrical service, reliability of coefficients based on the ISO50001 standard, with respect to initial and future conditions, to carry out distributed power generation, we will have a model of management of the distributed resources of a micro-network that allows the best development of energy quality in the country.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Katherine Andrade Granja Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/693 The Economic valuation of the water environmental service of the community La Pita https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/692 <p>Water resource presents serious supply and management problems. In La Pita community (Manabí-Ecuador) there is a wide range of anthropic activities, for which the water resource is extracted directly from the mountains, therefore, this research aims to assess the water environmental service of the La Pita community from the micro basin of the Carrizal river. The contingent valuation method was applied and through surveys the socioeconomic characteristics of the inhabitants of La Pita were determined. After collecting the information, the Logit model was applied to establish the economic value of the water service. 24 water sources that supply the 32 homes where the surveys were applied were identified, each source was georeferenced using the ArcGis 10.4.1 Geographic Information System. About water consumption, in La Pita 65.63% of the inhabitants consume between 0.5 and 3 m<sup>3</sup> of water per month. The economic valuation of the water service in La Pita is 195.00 USD per month. This study has shown that it is possible to value environmental services and generate proposals focused on improving the quality of life in rural areas</p> Isa Delgado Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/692 Management of the resources distributed in a virtual plant, which allows determining the cost of electrical energy. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/690 <p>The implementation and management of a virtual power plant require processes which integrate the different types of conventional and unconventional generation, in the same way to enter electrical markets requires optimal operation and to be competitive in these, optimization can be carried out by means of different mathematical models, which take variables from the virtual power plant to carry out said optimization and comply with all the technical requirements that allow its integration into the electricity markets. By analyzing investigations by different authors, it was possible to get to know that there are several methods to have an optimization of a virtual power plant and that this can be integrated into electricity markets obtaining profits that are reflected in the operation of the plant.</p> Edison Agreda Cuenca Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/690 Impacto de la penetración de generación fotovoltaica en la estabilidad transitoria del Sep https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/689 <p>Con acelerado desarrollo de la tecnología cada vez se hace más frecuente la implementación de generación fotovoltaica en distintas naciones, por su constante reducción de costo en la producción de los panales, esto hace más accesible a países más pequeños poder implementar fuentes de generación renovable con menor costo de inversión que hace una década, y con un elevado beneficio para el planeta, ya que se de alguna manera se contribuye a la reducción de la contaminación, para ello es importante analizar qué tan beneficioso puede llegar a ser este tipo de fuente generadora, ya que ecológicamente va un paso adelante, pero del aspecto técnico no tiende a ser elogiado, en pequeñas cantidades de penetración no puede ser perjudicial, pero cuando se habla de una integración elevada esta puede tener distintos efectos, en el caso de la estabilidad transitoria se analiza con simulaciones distintas perturbaciones en el sistema y poder corroborar si una elevada penetración de este tipo podría ser viable de acuerdo al sistema, ya que el sistema parablemente acepte un límite de esta generación para que pueda garantizar la demanda requerida sin presentar inconvenientes.</p> Alex Chamba Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/689 Automated large scale cleaning of aquaculture raceways https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/688 <p>In modern industry, minimising cost is a very important part of production. Aquaculture production often occurs in long raceways. The raceways are often stained by the product in the form of a scum line that forms throughout the process. Currently, it costs a local company approximately AU$565 to clean a single raceway. A high-pressure water system and its supporting frame were proposed to aid in the cleaning process. The cleaning effectiveness of high-pressure water at different impingement angles and stand- off distances was determined. It was found that the best combination was 90° of impingement and a stand-off distance of 120 mm. This combination caused the high-pressure water to completely clean the sample in a single pass travelling at 50 mm s<sup>-1</sup> with no pre-wetting of the sample. Further, a frame was designed from 6061 aluminium, with a total weight of 36 kg. The machine requires one person to push the frame along the raceway. The new operating cost was reduced to AU$100. The manufacture and materials cost were estimated to be as low as $1000. It greatly reduces the cost of cleaning the raceways and, in turn, increases profitability.</p> Greg Wheatley, Willem Pelser, Rong Situ, Azad Hamzehpour Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/688 Características de la Arena Sílica de Alvarado, Veracruz, México como material para Barreras Reactivas Permeables para la Remediación de Acuíferos contaminados con Lixiviados de Basureros No Controlados https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/687 <p>En este artículo se caracteriza la arena sílica de las costas del municipio de Alvarado, Veracruz, México y comparar sus propiedades con los materiales usados para las Barreras Reactivas Permeables y que permitan su uso como una solución para la remediación de acuíferos contaminados con lixiviados de basureros no controlados, mediante análisis granulométrico, determinación de humedad y concentración de Sílice y Fierro, obteniendo partículas con diámetro de 0.707 mm, humedad relativa de 0.52% y concentración de SiO<sub>2</sub> y de Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> 87.38% y 2.72% respectivamente, lo que comparando con materiales reactivos en uso cumple con los criterios para ser usado como Barrera para la Remediación de Acuíferos con lixiviados</p> Manuel Alberto Susunaga Miranda, Bertha Maria Estévez Garrido, Rodrigo Manuel Susunaga Estévez Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/687 State of art: control Strategies for microgrids with Distributed energy resources https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/686 <p><strong>Abstract:</strong></p> <p>The present document aims to be a recompilation o the different methods that have been used though the years to improve the microgrid performance in its different operation modes, and each characteristics of the grid. For the implementation of control strategies for microgrids in order to improve some aspects of the migro grid connected o islanded here will be presented many types of control strategies. Through this document the strategies Will be explained and will be given many ideas to be consider for the implementation of any control strategy according to the loads type, the parameter to be stabilized.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> microgrid, control strategy, voltage, frequency, power.</p> Sandra Gualotuña Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/686 Diseño y construcción de una cámara de envejecimiento acelerado para ensayos de corrosión en pinturas, recubrimientos y otros materiales https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/684 <p>The objective was the design and construction of an accelerated aging chamber for corrosion tests on paints, coatings and other materials. The NTE INEN 1032-84, ASTM G154 - 06 and G 151 - 00 standards were used as the basis for carrying out the project and meeting the stated objectives, combining various criteria of each standard. The prototype is made of AISI 304 stainless steel and different accessories such as UV lamps, among others. Finally, it was concluded with the validation of the equipment comparing the data of an uncoated plate tested in the chamber with the data obtained in another investigation, finding that there is an approximate error of 2%, validating the chamber. The specimens were exposed inside the chamber for 200 hours by specifications of the aforementioned standards, working with alternate cycles of light and dark, appearing both day and night, thus achieving visible results such as the loss of weight of all the Exposed plaques, discoloration, and rusting of up to 33% of non-corrosive paint, which is indicative of corrosion, in addition to the presence of rust and blistering on the surface of the specimens. Concluding that the built-in accelerated aging chamber acts in the same way as professional cameras.</p> José Omar Cabrera Escobar Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/684 State of the Art of Turbine Model in Transient Stability Study https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/683 <p><em>Transient stability assessment is a dynamic safety analysis of power systems and basically assesses the ability of the system to remain in equilibrium under a contingency in the SEP. Therefore, the assessment of transient stability is becoming an indispensable requirement for the security of energy systems. Blackouts that have arisen in developed countries have shown the most frequent great need for comprehensive studies of transient stability. The analysis of the transient stability implies a meticulous study that is carried out step by step. In you can see the step study of each machine in the system. In the SEP it is constantly subjected to disturbances, only the fact of turning on an appliance can be considered as a disturbance, however, being so small compared to the size of the system, they are insignificant.</em></p> Oscar Rojas Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/683 Survey of Requirements, Protocols, and Challenges in LWSN https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/681 <p>Wireless sensor networks are applicable in different topologies, a special case is the linear topology which is present in the monitoring of large-scale linear infrastructures. Linear topology requirements differ from other topologies. The architectures and protocols for wireless sensor networks are references that are modified depending on the particular application, these architectures and protocols are very complex when applied to linear topologies with thousands of nodes. This article discusses the existing standards and protocols applicable to linear wireless sensor networks, defines its very particular characteristics and how existing protocols can satisfy the requirements of networks with linear topology. Then we present our vision related to linear Wireless sensor networks, medium access control, routing, transport and the specific requirements of this type of networks. Finally, we identify the challenges for the existing protocols and some challenges to the new protocols design to linear topology.</p> carlos roberto egas, Juan Rivera Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/681 la Application of a quality management system in the dairy plant “Ecolac” https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/679 <p>The consumption of milk and dairy products in the world population is growing significantly. The demand of the consumers to acquire safe and quality products, causes that the medium and small companies, have the urgent necessity to implement Quality Management Systems (QMS), in such a way that it allows them to enter the highly competitive markets. This research analyzes the effects of the application of the QMS on the organoleptic, physical-chemical and microbiological parameters of raw and pasteurized milk. The samples were taken in the processes of raw material reception, pasteurization and storage, and the analyses were performed in triplicate for each of the samples. For the analysis of the data a student t test was applied, to determine the differences after the application of the QMS. The results indicate that the application of QMS had positive effects on the physicochemical parameter of acidity and on the microbiological load of mesophilic aerobes in the milk reception process. On the other hand, not effects on organoleptic characteristics, density, pH, fat and total coliforms growth were evidenced. These findings are important since they can be replicated in other dairy processing plants.</p> Byron Herrera Chávez Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/679 Efficient Prediction and Analysis of the possible evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 applying the SEIR model in Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas, Ecuador https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/678 <p>In Ecuador, in the Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas province, a Special Operations Committee (SOC) was created to take containment measures against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2). This research deals with an analysis of the possible spread of the SARS-COV-2 virus causing the infectious disease caused by new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) using the Susceptible, Exposed, Infected and Recovered (SEIR) model as a prediction method according to the rigor of the containment measures evaluated. with the acceptability of people through a survey (95 %, CI) in which three parameters (α) severity of containment measures, (k) social impact of the pandemic and (β) transmission rate, are determined, which we then used as β (t) with initial value of β = 1. All this considering the rapid proliferation of the virus in the province and having an average of α = 3.23 (95 % CI: 3 - 4) and for k = 4.10 (95 % CI: 4 - 5) that the authorities will use to mitigate the spread of the virus, as well as future outbreaks of the disease.</p> Moisés Filiberto Mora Murillo, Walter Alfredo Mora Murillo, Digvijay Pandey Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/678 Thu, 01 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Route design for solid waste collection using graph theory and the algorithm of the Traveling Agent in dynamic programming, in the municipality of Santo Domingo, Río Verde parish, Ecuador https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/677 <p>In Santo Domingo de los Tsa´chilas province, Ecuador, the population grows proportionally to the territorial extension in urban parishes and rural parishes; therefore, the conception of solid domestic waste has increased exponentially. It has a background that in the canton, the distribution of routes for the collection waste has not been treated technically in recent years, nor has it been explored or sustained categorically since 2011; This year, the contract with the company in charge of the collection ends. This research aims to apply graph theory to the sector and generate new routes using python software by applying the Traveler Agent Problem (TSP) in dynamic programming, applying parametric techniques to compare the usual route with the new route and test the hypothesis in the Río Verde parish.</p> Moisés Filiberto Mora Murillo, Walter Alfredo Mora Murillo, Luis Xavier Orbea Hinojosa, Arlys Michel Lastre Aleaga, Gabriel Estuardo Cevallos Uve, Marc Jorba Cuscó; Digvijay Pandey Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/677 Numerical analysis of the flow behavior in the throat section of an experimental conical nozzle https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/676 <p>The flow pattern in supersonic nozzles is defined by the aerodynamic profiles of the geometry of the internal walls, among other parameters, the throat being a critical section. In the present work, the objective is to analyze the behavior of the flow in the straight section of the throat of an experimental conical nozzle of a solid fuel probe rocket engine. The over-expanded flow was simulated with the ANSYS-Fluent code in a 2D computational domain, using the RANS model and the Menter turbulence model, and the Sutherland equation for viscosity as a function of the temperature. Five case studies were performed for the throat length in the range of 1-10 mm. Fluctuations of Mach number, pressure and temperature, oblique shock waves in the throat section were obtained for the length of 10 mm; for shorter lengths the intensity of the shock magnitude decreased. It is concluded that, for the throat length of 1 mm, the flow is transonic without the presence of oblique shocks. In the diverging section, shock waves vary in intensity and change position.</p> San Luis Baudilio Tolentino Masgo, Maria Alejandra Parco, Simón Caraballo, Leonardo Lacruz, Vicente Marcano, John Ferreira, Jorge Mírez Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/676 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Effects of applying saturated steam as an Organic Sterilization System (OSS) in capsicum baccatum var. pendulum and capsicum chinense https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/675 <p>It was determined the influence of weight, temperature and time of injection of saturated steam as an organic sterilization system (OSS), on the microbial load, capsaicin and nutritional components in <em>Capsicum baccatum</em> var. <em>pendulum</em> and <em>Capsicum chinense</em>. Samples of 4 and 3 kg were subjected to 100 and 105°C for 2 and 3 minutes, at a pressure between 20 and 25 kPa, respectively. The controls performed before and after the treatment were: proximal analysis, capsaicin, count of viable misophilic aerobes, coliforms, <em>E. coli</em>, <em>Salmonella</em>, fungi and yeasts. The samples containing 3 kilos, subjected to 105°C for 3 minutes achieved a greater reduction of aerobes and molds. The proximal analysis reported an increase in the content of carbohydrates, proteins, fiber and fat; to which capsaicin decreased by 4.8 and 14.3 % in <em>Capsicum baccatum</em> var. <em>pendulum</em> and <em>chinense</em>, respectively.&nbsp; The statistical evaluation found significant differences between the interactions of the variables: weight, temperature and time for panca chili; weight and temperature for mirasol chili, on the reduction of microbial load.</p> AMÉRICO GUEVARA PÉREZ, Elizabeth Villanueva-Quejia, Diana Nolazco Cama, Gabriela Llontop , Keidy Cancino Chávez Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/675 Characteristics of Silica Sand from Alvarado, Veracruz, Mexico as material for Permeable Reactive Barriers for the Remediation of Aquifers contaminated with leachates from uncontrolled landfills https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/674 <p>This article characterizes the silica sand from the coasts of the municipality of Alvarado, Veracruz, Mexico and compares its properties with the materials used for the Permeable Reactive Barriers and that allow its use as a solution for the remediation of aquifers contaminated with leachate from uncontrolled landfills, by granulometric analysis, determination of humidity and concentration of Silica and Iron, obtaining particles with a diameter of 0.707 mm, relative humidity of 0.52% and concentration of SiO<sub>2</sub> and Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> 87.38% and 2.72% respectively, which comparing with reactive materials in use meets the criteria to be used as a Barrier for the Remediation of Aquifers contaminated with leachates.</p> Manuel Alberto Susunaga Miranda, Bertha María Estévez-Garrido , Rodrigo Manuel Susunaga-Estévez Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/674 Thu, 01 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Impacto del Laboratorio Social de Vinculación realizada por la Comunidad de la UIDE en la Parroquia de Llano Chico Quito, Septiembre – Diciembre 2019 https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/672 <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Este proyecto tuvo como objeto contribuir con técnicos automotrices la divulgación de la importancia de la seguridad y salud industrial en cuatro talleres artesanales de mecánica automotriz, además de formar a los gestores de dichos talleres en el área administrativa. El proyecto se dio a cabo en la parroquia de Llano Chico ubicado al noreste del Distrito Metropolitano de Quito. Para la ejecución del proyecto se realizó un plan de capacitación sobre equipos de protección personal e implementación de seguridad industrial por parte de estudiantes y docentes de la Universidad Internacional Del Ecuador como estrategia para reducir el índice de accidentes laborales. Los resultados de las capacitaciones por medio de evaluaciones y verificaciones indican que los establecimientos seleccionados implementaron las respectivas normas de seguridad reflejando así un ambiente seguro tanto para los trabajadores como para los clientes de la comunidad.</span></p> Denny Guanuche Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/672 The Soil fertility management for the production of gulupa for its exportation (Passiflora edulis Sims) in production areas of Caldas region https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/671 <p>The department of Caldas is the fifth coffee producer in Colombia; however, gulupa (<em>Passiflora edulis Sims</em>) has emerged in the last five years. The incorporation of technologies such as automation, greenhouses, planting distances and fertigation has put a production potential of 33Mg/ha. The objective of this work is to evaluate the response of the gulupa farming, to the application of fertilizers, through a fertigation system; the following treatments were established: fertigation, fertilizers in solid form with irrigation and application of fertilizers in solid form without irrigation. With the information collected from production to date (kg/ha), an analysis of variance was applied for a randomized block arrangement with three repetitions. The analysis allows inferring, that there is variability with 95% reliability, in addition the 5% LMS test was applied to compare the treatments. In addition, it allows establishing that fertigation compared to traditional fertilization treatments, establish significant differences. The results indicate that fertigation is a high efficiency technology, compared to the traditional practice of solid fertilizer applications to the soil.</p> Alvaro Hernán Cortés Duque Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/671 Effects of ultrasound and vacuum drying on vitamin C levels in Aguaymanto (Physalis peruviana https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/668 <p>Uring the osmodehydration process for drying the Aguaymanto, the availability of nutrients such as the ascorbic acid necessary in the diet is decreased. The effect of ultrasound and vacuum drying was evaluated to obtain raisin-type Aguaymanto from three study areas. A 40 kHz ultrasound tub and vacuum drying equipment were used. A randomized complete design (DCA) was applied, for ultrasound with a factorial arrangement of 3x3 at 900, 1050 and 1200 Watts (W); at 45, 50 and 55 ° C, in a time of 20.30 and 40 min respectively, and a second analysis of 3x2, considering the three production areas of Aguaymanto and 2 vacuum conditions at a pressure of 15 kPa and 10kPa, at temperatures of 45, 50 and 55 ° C structured in 120 treatments. With the 20 best treatments, it was verified if there were differences between treatments using the Tukey test. Optimal vitamin C levels for ultrasound were obtained at a power of 1050W, 50 ° C for 20 minutes and for vacuum a pressure of 15 kPa at 50 ° C. No significant differences were observed between the 3 zones. The results show that the greater the application of power and the greater the vacuum, the better the conservation of vitamin C is.</p> ITALO WILE ALEJOS PATIÑO, ROGER ESTACIO LAGUNA, GREGORIO CISNEROS SANTOS, RUBEN MAX ROJAS PORTAL, BELISARIO ESTACIO LAGUNA Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/668 Physico-chemical and functional characterization of seven varieties of Sweet Potato from Manabí-Ecuador https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/666 <p>The present research focused in the physical-chemical and functional characterization of seven varieties of sweet potato in raw and cooked condition from Estación Experimental Portoviejo-INIAP. The varieties of studied sweet potato presented different tonalities (yellow, orange and purple), they influenced in the significant statistical differences (p&lt; 0.05) between varieties. The protein and fat value was not significant for being a tuberous plant; however, the sweet potato presented important starch content between 48.20-66.97 (g /100g dry basis) and dietetic fiber. With respect to bioactive compounds, the anthocyanins emphasized especially in purple fleshed varieties (204.68-109.04 mg/100g), the highest antioxidant capacity searched in Morado Brasil sweet potato variety (16661.44 µg of equivalents of trolox/g); with application of thermal cooking process affected the decrease of these compounds and their antioxidant capacity. However, the results showed that sweet potato studied varieties can be used as flours in food formulation or baking industry.</p> Gabriela Armijos, Elena Villacrés , Maria Belén Quelal, Gloria Cobeña, Javier Álvarez Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/666 Automated large scale cleaning of aquaculture raceways https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/665 <p>In modern industry, minimising cost is a very important part of production. Aquaculture production often occurs in long raceways. The raceways are often stained by the product in the form of a scum line that forms throughout the process. Currently, it costs a local company approximately AU$565to clean a single raceway. A high-pressure water system and its supporting frame were proposed to aid in the cleaning process. The cleaning effectiveness of high-pressure water at different impingement angles and stand- off distances was determined. It was found that the best combination was 90° of impingement and a stand-off distance of 120 mm. This combination caused the high-pressure water to completely clean the sample in a single pass travelling at 50 mm s<sup>-1</sup> with no pre-wetting of the sample. Further, a frame was designed from 6061 aluminium, with a total weight of 36 kg. The machine requires one person to push the frame along the raceway. The new operating cost was reduced to AU$100. The manufacture and materials cost was estimated to be as low as $1000. It greatly reduces the cost of cleaning the raceways and, in turn, increases profitability.</p> Greg Wheatley Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/665 In vitro digestibility of protein and bioactive compounds in accessions of kiwicha (Amaranthus caudatus L., 1753) toasted https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/664 <p>The proximal composition of ten kiwicha accessions from the Santa Ana Experimental Station in Huancayo Peru was analyzed, as well as the Antioxidant Capacity with the DPPH method that was 219.28-545.24 ug eq Trolox / g and with the ABTS method was of 1165.58-1320.34 ug eq Trolox / g, from which the 5 accessions with the highest AC were chosen, which were: 87-25 I, EC-K CCA-051, EC-K CC-062, ECOTIPO 2009, Taray 90, whose average CA between DPPH and ABTS was 838,965 - 911,285 ug Trolox Eq ​​/ g tissue on a dry basis; with the aim of determining the effect of two roasting temperatures (100° C and 150 °C) on in vitro protein digestibility, on total phenolic content and on Antioxidant Capacity by the DPPH and ABTS method.</p> <p>The AC of the 5 accessions of raw and roasted kiwicha at 100ºC and 150ºC are similar, being higher with the ABTS method than with the DPPH.</p> <p>The Total Phenolic Content, expressed in gallic acid, of the five accessions of roasted kiwicha at 150 ° C were significantly higher than those roasted at 100ºC and this one higher than raw kiwichas.</p> <p>The DVP, on a dry basis, of the five kiwichas accessions was higher in the roasted kiwicha at 100ºC than at 150ºC, so it is recommended to consume the roasted kiwicha at 100 °C.</p> Flor de María Vásquez Castillo Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/664 Heat transfer incremental on a jacketed coolers system through optimization of the water flowrates https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/663 <p>This research proposed an optimized water distribution scheme in order to increase the heat transfer on a hydrogen sulphide gas coolers system. The system is comprised by two jacketed shell and tube heat exchangers, installed in a series-parallel arrangement. Each equipment operates with three streams, hence two major thermal communications are present. The water flowrates optimization was performed through genetic algorithms, using a model based on the ɛ-NTU method for simulation of the heat exchangers. The heat transfer incremental was estimated within the range 3695 to <br />10514 W, while the gas temperature reduction at the system outlet was projected between 2,9 and 9,8 K. Calculated heat recovery varied from 3,90 to 22,16%, averaging 12,44%. Multivariate linear regression was implemented for determination of the functions that solves the studied problem from a technological point of view.</p> Andres A. Sánchez-Escalona, Yanán Camaraza-Medina, Yoalbys Retirado-Mediaceja, Ever Góngora-Leyva Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/663 Thu, 01 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Heat transfer incremental on a jacketed coolers system through optimization of the water flowrates https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/662 <p>&nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0cm 28.3pt 0pt 1cm; line-height: normal; text-indent: 0cm;"><span style="font-family: Arial; font-size: small;">En esta investigaci&oacute;n se propuso un esquema optimizado de distribuci&oacute;n de agua para incrementar la termotransferencia en un sistema de enfriadores de sulfuro de hidr&oacute;geno. El sistema est&aacute; compuesto por dos intercambiadores de calor de tubos y coraza enchaquetados, instalados en un arreglo serie-paralelo. Cada equipo opera con tres fluidos y posee dos v&iacute;as principales de intercambio t&eacute;rmico. La optimizaci&oacute;n de los flujos de agua se realiz&oacute; mediante Algoritmos Gen&eacute;ticos, utilizando un modelo basado en el m&eacute;todo ɛ-NUT para la simulaci&oacute;n de los intercambiadores de calor. Se estim&oacute; un incremento del calor transferido entre 3695 y 10514 W, as&iacute; como una disminuci&oacute;n de la temperatura del gas a la salida del sistema entre 2,9 y 9,8 K. La recuperaci&oacute;n termoenerg&eacute;tica calculada oscil&oacute; entre 3,90 y 22,16%, con 12,44% como promedio. Mediante regresi&oacute;n lineal m&uacute;ltiple se determinaron las funciones para soluci&oacute;n tecnol&oacute;gica del problema investigado. </span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0cm 28.3pt 0pt 1cm; line-height: normal; text-indent: 0cm;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-ansi-language: EN-US;"><span style="font-family: Arial; font-size: small;">This research proposed an optimized water distribution scheme in order to increase the heat transfer on a hydrogen sulphide gas coolers system. The system is comprised by two jacketed shell and tube heat exchangers, installed in a series-parallel arrangement. Each equipment operates with three streams, hence two major thermal communications are present. The water flowrates optimization was performed through Genetic Algorithms, using a model based on the ɛ-NTU method for simulation of the heat exchangers. The heat transfer incremental was estimated within the range 3695 to <br />10514 W, while the gas temperature reduction at the system outlet was projected between 2,9 and 9,8 K. Calculated heat recovery varied from 3,90 to 22,16%, averaging 12,44%. Multivariate linear regression was implemented for determination of the functions that solves the studied problem from a technological point of view. </span></span></p> Andres A. Sánchez-Escalona, Yanán Camaraza-Medina, Yoalbys Retirado-Mediaceja, Ever Góngora-Leyva Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/662 The KINETIC STUDY OF POLYPHENOLOXIDASE IN DIFFERENT COFFEE VARIETIES https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/661 <p>En este trabajo, se estudió la cinética enzimática de la Polifenoloxidasa (PPO) en diferentes variedades de café arábico, (Tipico, Caturra, Salchimor). Se evaluaron el pH y la temperatura óptimos de la PPO, su actividad enzimática (U) y la constante de Michaelis Menten. Para determinar la actividad enzimática se utilizó un espectrofotómetro UV-Visible modelo JENWAY 7305 con una longitud de onda de 410nm. Se determinó que la temperatura y el pH óptimo de la PPO fue 50 C° y 7.0 respectivamente, siendo constante en las variedades estudiadas. Se estudió la afinidad de la enzima por el sustrato, así como la actividad de la PPO utilizando catecol como sustrato: Los resultados en las diferentes variedades fueron Tipico&nbsp; K<sub>M</sub> =(0.622*10-<sup>1 </sup>Mm y 6234,32 U/mL);Salchimor K<sub>M</sub>=(0.822*10-<sup>1</sup> mM y 5612.10 U/mL);y Caturra K<sub>M</sub>=(0.933 *10-<sup>1</sup> Mm y 3710.86 U/mL).</p> <p>Finalmente se evaluó la oxidación del catecol (sustrato) observando el tiempo de desaparición que se estableció en 160 s para la variedad con la actividad más alta.</p> <p>En este trabajo, se estudió la cinética enzimática de la Polifenoloxidasa (PPO) en diferentes variedades de café arábico, (Tipico, Caturra, Salchimor). Se evaluaron el pH y la temperatura óptimos de la PPO, su actividad enzimática (U) y la constante de Michaelis Menten. Para determinar la actividad enzimática se utilizó un espectrofotómetro UV-Visible modelo JENWAY 7305 con una longitud de onda de 410nm. Se determinó que la temperatura y el pH óptimo de la PPO fue 50 C° y 7.0 respectivamente, siendo constante en las variedades estudiadas. Se estudió la afinidad de la enzima por el sustrato, así como la actividad de la PPO utilizando catecol como sustrato: Los resultados en las diferentes variedades fueron Tipico&nbsp; K<sub>M</sub> =(0.622*10-<sup>1 </sup>Mm y 6234,32 U/mL);Salchimor K<sub>M</sub>=(0.822*10-<sup>1</sup> mM y 5612.10 U/mL);y Caturra K<sub>M</sub>=(0.933 *10-<sup>1</sup> Mm y 3710.86 U/mL).</p> <p>Finalmente se evaluó la oxidación del catecol (sustrato) observando el tiempo de desaparición que se estableció en 160 s para la variedad con la actividad más alta.</p> Felipe Arturo Jadán Piedra Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/661 Evaluation of an experimental induced ignition engine under different gasoline https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/660 <p>The Ignition Internal Combustion Engine induced (MEP), is a thermal machine that allows mechanical power to be obtained from the chemical energy of a fuel. The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of an experimental MEP through the balance of energy and exergy, under the individual use of the three gasoline sold in Ecuador (Super, Extra and Ecopais). The experimental methodology consisted of starting under the individual use of gasoline until reaching its maximum power at engine speed, where measurements of temperature, specific fuel consumption and the air-fuel ratio were taken for a time of 3 minutes. The results show an energy efficiency of 11.31% for Super gasoline, 10.75% for Extra gasoline and 10.39% for Ecopaís gasoline. Regarding exergy efficiency, 58.81% was established for Super gasoline, 58.89% for Extra gasoline and 59.19% for Ecopaís gasoline. The results allow us to conclude that there is an exergy potential for improvement (PEM) that may be an opportunity to increase energy efficiency.</p> Edilberto Antonio Llanes Cedeño Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/660 Thermo-energetic analysis of the steam generation system in a 49 MW power plant https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/659 <p>In the work carries out a comprehensive thermo-energetic analysis of the steam generation system of a 49 MW thermal power plant, which has not been rigorously studied from an energy point of view. In a algorithm synthesizes the methodology for calculating the gross thermal and exergetic performances of the boilers that comprise it, aspects that have not been interrelated in previous studies. The results show a high degree the harnessing of thermal energy and a low capacity for using the exergy available in the facilities, caused by the deterioration of some of its operationals parameters and by irreversibilities inherent in the process of transforming water into steam. The thermal and exergetic yields of the system amounted to 90,106 and 45,491%, respectively. The proposed algorithm foresees the calculation and the comparison of the real thermo-energetic parameters of the boilers with the nominal ones and the scientific and technical-organizational actions to develop out to achieve superior thermo-exergetic performances. Its future implementation will take into account the analysis of the net thermal yields, the economic-environmental indicators and the energy-operational optimization of the boilers.</p> Yoalbys Retirado Mediaceja Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/659 Manufacture material characteristic analysis of original and alternative auto parts. Case Study: Brake Disc https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/658 <p>All powered vehicles have a braking system adopted according to the type of vehicle and work for which they are designed. In Ecuador, there is a great variety of auto parts that are proposed as alternative replacement, varying in cost and quality. This research aims to quantitatively analyze the characteristics of the brake disc material between original and alternate auto parts. This research analyzes three brake disc samples (A, B, C) from different manufacturing sources, using the ASTM E415-08 spectrometry test and the metallography test under the ASTM A247-16A standard. The spectrometry detects 15 elements in each sample, the carbon equivalent of sample A is 18% and 20% higher in relation to sample B and C, which significantly influences the microstructure. The metallographic tests indicate a pearlitic matrix in each sample, however, there is a different distribution and size of the graphite flakes. According to the SAE J431 standard, each auto part meets the material conditions for the brake disc function.</p> Jaime `Antamba Guasgua, Vladimir Azanza, Gorky Reyes; Alvaro Remache, Soraya Ruiz Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/658 an Aquaponic systems for the sustainable development of rural areas in Manabí https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/657 <p>Aquaponics is an integrated multitrophic system that combines recirculating elements from aquaculture and hydroponics. The objective of this research is to evaluate the production of two aquaponic systems for the sustainable development of rural areas in Manabí. The first system built was the floating root system in a 2: 1 ratio (two plants per fish), 60 lettuce plants (<em>Lactuca sativa</em>) and 30 tilapias (<em>Oreochromis sp</em>) were grown. The second system was nutrient layer (NFT), with a ratio of 1: 1, lettuce and celery (<em>Apium graveolens</em>) (15 plants of each species) and 30 Nile tilapia (<em>Oreochromis niloticus</em>) were grown. Analysis of the physicochemical parameters of the water was carried out in both systems obtaining adequate levels for the development of the food to be produced (turbidity, color, pH, nitrates, ammonium, calcium and carbonate hardness); dissolved oxygen, nitrites and phosphates presented levels outside the optimal ranges; however, 100% survival of the cultivated products was achieved. The growth rate (TC) of lettuce and tilapia was calculated. Aquaponic systems were shown to be a sustainable production practice, with floating root being the system with the best results.</p> Isa Delgado Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/657 The Services supply capacities of the mobile operators of the Republic of Ecuador. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/656 <p><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Este artículo analiza la distribución del mercado entre los operadores de telecomunicaciones en la República del Ecuador, los tipos más extendidos de servicios de telecomunicaciones proporcionados por los operadores de telecomunicaciones, así como el costo de estos servicios.</span></span></p> German Leon Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/656 Environmental impacts on the littoral coastal strip by anthropic action in the city of Trujillo, Peru https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/655 <p>This research describes and analyzes the impacts of the anthropic transformation of the coastal strip of the city of Trujillo, due to the systematic construction and expansion of a rigid structure called the sand retaining mole in the port of Salaverry. The main impacts are related to the modification of the coastline, along with the destruction of beaches and the alteration of ecosystems. Erosion as a phenomenon has been affecting many coastal areas, but in this particular one the problem has increased and seems not to stop even knowing all the aspects and climatic impacts that this may generate, destabilizing natural habitats and changing the behavior of the tides. Directing them to unforeseen areas. With the problems raised, the impacts of the anthropic transformation of the strip and its consequences due to the construction of the retaining mole are described and analyzed. Satellite images, photographs and hydrographic charts were used for the respective analysis, seeking to raise awareness and encourage scientists, authorities and the general public to conserve the coast and save it.</p> CARLOS BOCANEGRA GARCÍA, BILMIA VENEROS URBINA, Zoila Gladis Culquichicón Malpica Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/655 COMPARISON OF THE RADIAL AND AXIAL INDUCTION MACHINE THROUGH THE STUDY OF DIMENSIONAL EQUATIONS, SPECIFIC TORQUE AND TORQUE DENSITY https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/654 <p>The most used motors in the industry are three-phase alternating current. They are not only used in constant speed electric drives, but they have practically displaced direct current ones thanks to the frequency inverters. Axial flow motors have certain advantages over radial flow motors. The present investigation focused on comparing electric induction machines by means of their dimensional equations. The influence of the number of poles on the torque to be obtained was studied. The respective graphs of the specific torque and torque density were made as a function of the Kr factor. It was concluded that the torque of the axial machine depends on its outer diameter. In cases where large axial machines cannot be placed, it is redesigned by increasing the number of stages. Thus, it is in front of a great solution in cases where you want to install motors with very high specific torque and less weight. In addition, they are compatible with various applications, from the car to wind power generators, and have the great advantage that they do not require as much maintenance.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> LISBETH LOZANO, RODOLFO BERRIOS Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/654 Thermo-energetic analysis of the steam generation system in a 49 MW power plant https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/653 <p>In the work carries out a comprehensive thermo-energetic analysis of the steam generation system of a 49 MW thermal power plant, which has not been rigorously studied from an energy point of view. In a algorithm synthesizes the methodology for calculating the gross thermal and exergetic performances of the boilers that comprise it, aspects that have not been interrelated in previous studies. The results show a high degree the harnessing of thermal energy and a low capacity for using the exergy available in the facilities, caused by the deterioration of some of its operationals parameters and by irreversibilities inherent in the process of transforming water into steam. The thermal and exergetic yields of the system amounted to 90.106 and 45.491%, respectively. The proposed algorithm foresees the calculation and the comparison of the real thermo-energetic parameters of the boilers with the nominal ones and the scientific and technical-organizational actions to develop out to achieve superior thermo-exergetic performances. Its future implementation will take into account the analysis of the net thermal yields, the economic-environmental indicators and the energy-operational optimization of the boilers.</p> Yoalbys Retirado Mediaceja, Héctor Luis Laurencio Alfonso, Andres A. Sánchez-Escalona, Yanán Camaraza-Medina, Marcelo Fabián Salazar Corrales, Marbelis Lamorú Urgelles, Ever Góngora Leyva Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/653 Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Mass trapping of Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) using light and sex-pheromone traps in cotton https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/652 <p>The pink bollworm, <em>Pectinophora gossypiella</em> (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is an important insect pest of the cotton crop worldwide. Sex-pheromone and light traps were used to monitor the adult <em>P. gossypiella</em> population in Bt cotton field for the years 2017-18 at southern Punjab, Pakistan. The sampling of infested bolls was done to record the damage level of <em>P. gossypiella</em>. The sex-pheromone traps captured approximately 2-3 times more adults than light traps in all locations during 2017-18. For sex-pheromone traps, temperature showed negative and strong relation (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.63-0.80) with trap catches. Fewer bolls (7.0-9.0%) were infested in plots where sex-pheromone traps were installed compared to check plots (32-37%). Therefore, the pheromone trapping proved an effective and eco-friendly tool for the monitoring and management of <em>P. gossypiella</em>. Our findings enable forecasting of seasonal <em>P. gossypiella</em> population providing additional information for the development of an integrated pest management program for this pest.</p> Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Irfan Ullah, Muhammad Wasim Abbas, Asad Abdullah, Usama Hassan Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/652 Thu, 01 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Simulation of an all-terrain vehicle driving experience using virtual reality https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/649 <p>The present work consists of the creation of a virtual driving experience of an all-terrain vehicle that includes the use of an industrial robot in order to promote engineering careers at a private Mexican university. In its development, a product design and development methodology was used that consisted of virtualizing the route, in this case an off-road track, using computer-aided design and the Unity platform. The robot programming consisted of simulating seven physical movements of the path. For the validation of the experience, a questionnaire was created with 13 items that covered visual aspects such as the recreation of the vehicle's interior, the route such as curves, ascents and descents, and the general experience in terms of duration, sounds and similarity. to a real environment. It was applied to a non-probabilistic sample for the convenience of undergraduate students and was validated based on its Cronbach alpha value. The findings show that the participant's experience and physical integrity are the strengths achieved with this development, a situation that allows its use for the stated purposes.</p> Luis Cuautle Gutiérrez, José de Jesús Cordero Guridi, Johannes Carrillo Aguilar, Eduardo Lebano Pérez Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/649 Artificial Intelligence System for Braking Control of a Car https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/648 <p>An Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithm based on neural networks is developed, which allows you to control the braking system of a car. For this, a simulation model is used to test the neural network algorithm, the parameters for entering the neural network are the speed of the car and the distance or proximity to the car that goes ahead called the safety distance, as an output parameter. It has the information to activate the brake system. Other parameters used in the weighting of the error function associated with the RN are the driving mode, for example the fact of driving fast or slow, or for example when driving fast, apply the brakes more frequently. In the first instance, the algorithm learns from the human the driving mode, forward speed, braking, proximity to the front vehicle, then the algorithm must be tested in unknown situations and verify the learning capacity.</p> Iván Ernesto Yánez ZUrita Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/648 Performance SQL Database Management Systems: MariaDB and PostgreSQL https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/647 <p>El almacenamiento de información en las bases de datos es un tema importante para toda organización en la actualidad. Son los Sistemas Gestores de Bases de Datos conocidos como SGDB encargados de ocultar la complejidad que conlleva la administración de las base de datos. Es común que cada día sean almacenados millones y millones de datos más aún porque en la actualidad existen nuevas tendencias y exigencias para el procesamiento de grandes volúmenes de datos a gran velocidad. Por lo tanto, es indispensable que los SGBD tengan un correcto rendimiento para hacer frente a estas nuevas exigencias. El presente trabajo muestra los resultados obtenidos al realizar pruebas de rendimiento en los Sistemas Gestores de Base de Datos MariaDB y PostgreSQL, aplicando la arquitectura de tres capas para los escenarios de prueba. Ambos SGBD son potentes y muy utilizados por diferentes sistemas. Los resultados obtenidos están relacionados con la cantidad de peticiones por segundo procesadas por estos sistemas. En este caso MariaDB fue superior que PostgreSQL a medida que aumentó la cantidad de usuarios que realizaban en diferentes escenarios gracias a sus motores de búsqueda que generan mejores velocidades para el procesamiento de datos. &nbsp;</p> ANABEL ELENA PILICITA GARRIDO Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/647 Plan de Ahorro Energético en el Hogar de Alumnos de la Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Ambientales de la Universidad Internacional SEK https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/646 <p>Los recursos energéticos que posee el país merecen que se consuman de manera correcta y adecuada. Esto no solo representa un ahorro económico para el país sino ayuda indispensable para el cuidado del ambiente. El presente trabajo reúne un análisis de la eficiencia del consumo de la energía eléctrica en los hogares de 22 alumnos de séptimo semestre de la carrera de Ingeniería Ambiental y quinto semestre de la carrera de Biotecnología de la Universidad Internacional SEK durante los años 2018 - 2019. El registro o factura consumo mensual en KWH para los dos años, permite elaborar la tendencia del consumo y conocer el inventario de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI) de cada una de las familias. Este estudio del ahorro energético, se realiza siguiendo la guía metodológica para la aplicación de la Norma NTE INEN ISO/IEC 14064- 1:2006, para los gases de efecto invernadero de organizaciones, se realiza utilizando el factor de emisión para la actividad eléctrica que es de 0,319 kg CO2 /KWH. De esta manera y con ayuda de gráficas se evalua el comportamiento del consumo de las 22 familias, constatando una elevada emisión de gases de efecto invernadero y un alto consumo en un curso con 60645,14 KWH en comparación con el otro curso que fue de 44793 KWH. Este estudio nos permite consolidar la educación ambiental en hogares ecuatorianos para beneficio de la sociedad.</p> Walberto Efraín Gallegos Eras Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/646 Identifying stakeholders in a smart lab using conceptual techniques for collaborative inquiry SAS2 https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/645 <p>This article is the result of the analysis of stakeholders for the project called "Smart Environment for the joint training macro-lab at the Faculty of Energy of the Universidad Nacional de Loja Smart Lab " using collaborative research and applying the techniques Nominal Identification, Social Analysis CLIP (Collaboration, Conflict, Legitimacy, Interests, Power) and Force Field, as established in the SAS<sup>2 </sup>A Guide to Collaborative Inquiry and Social Engagement. The results obtained from the research made it possible to find the stakeholders involved in the project and the relationships that exist among them, involving factors such as gains, losses, influences and driving forces; thus making it possible to know the elements that counteract the fact that students reflect low learning results in the mastery of practical processes, which prevents agile links in professional practice. Finally, it was demonstrated that by using these techniques, short-term decisions can be made, avoiding risks that could be very expensive for the execution of the project</p> Pablo F. Ordoñez-Ordoñez, Hernán L. Torres Carrión, Oscar Cumbicus, José Benavides, María del Cisne Ruilova, Cristian Narváez Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/645 Characterization and quality of compost produced and marketed in Rupa Rupa-Huánuco https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/644 <p>Cocoa and coffee are important crops in the area and are managed under organic production standards, and the use of organic fertilizers is high, especially compost. For this reason, physical-chemical indicators were evaluated, and the quality of the compost produced with different inputs and marketed in the Rupa Rupa district, Huánuco-Peru region, was determined. It is a non-experimental correlational investigation with statistical adjustment of completely randomized, the treatments are the identified compost: Alborada compost (CAL), M&amp;F Organic compost (CMF), municipal waste compost (CML), compost from the Divisoria Cooperative (CCD) and formulated commercial compost (CCF). Physical (humidity) and chemical indicators (ashes, pH, MO, N, P2O5, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) were evaluated and the quality was determined according to the Colombian technical standard (NTC 5167) , the Chilean official standard (NOCh 2880) and the quality standards of the World Health Organization (OMS). The Results show no differences in the physical and chemical indicators, except for the N levels and according to the NTC and the OMS correspond to good quality compost and the NOCh classifies them as medium quality compost. In conclusion, the compost evaluated are of medium quality and the standard that best determines the quality is the NOCh, which can be applied in countries that do not have a specific standard that determines the quality of the compost.</p> Marlon Ricardo Bailón-Rojas, Nelino Florida-Rofner Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/644 Wed, 28 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Comparative analysis of the asphaltene stabilizing efficiency of Anacardium occidentale peel oil and commercial products https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/643 <p>The research objective was to compare the inhibiting and stabilizing efficiency of asphaltenes from <em>Anacardium occidentale</em> (CNSL) husk oil mixtures in diesel and commercial dispersant products, to evaluate the oil as an alternative anti-asphaltenes chemical treatment of crude oil. The precipitation flocculation onset with n-heptane and the dispersion point by addition of xylene were determined, both by direct observation of asphaltenes floc formation under an optical microscope. The experimental design used was factorial, with four response variables (flocculation onset, inhibitory activity, instability index and stabilization efficiency) and two experimental factors (product and dose). Five products with CNSL and three commercial products, all in doses 2, 4, 6 and 8 µl in 10 ml of a medium crude oil sample, were evaluated. The statistical analysis was based on multifactorial ANOVA and Fisher's minimal significant difference test (LSD) with α = 0.05. It was obtained that the two experimental factors significantly influenced the individual response variables and also their interactions. The products with CNSL were more efficient as inhibitors and the commercial ones more efficient as stabilizers.</p> Dany Day Josefina Arriojas Tocuyo, Tomás Darío Marín Velásquez Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/643 Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Comparative study for vegetative propagation of Chondracanthus chamissoi “Yuyo” on three types of substrate in a controlled environment and its viability in the Moquegua region https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/642 <p>The research compares the vegetative propagation of <em>Chondracanthus chamissoi, </em>commonly called "Yuyo" in Peru on three different types of substrate, under laboratory controlled conditions. The substrates used for comparison were; TA; clam leaflet, TB; Fruit mesh, CT; cape of propylene and TP; <em>Concholepas concholepas</em> shell. According to the study, there was better survival in TB; determining the formation of (DFS) from 20 to 23 days, according to the results, the vegetative propagation strategy is viable for commercial escalation in the coast of Moquegua, Peru.</p> Jose Carlos Zapata-Rojas, Alejandro Marcelo Gonzales Vargas , Sheyla Amanda Zevallos-Feria Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/642 Thu, 01 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Estudio Experimental study on the low power CO2 laser cutting of natural fibers reinforced plastic composite https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/641 <p>The application of plastics reinforced with natural fibers in the industry can be increased using faster and more flexible technologies, such as laser cutting. The anisotropic nature and the degree of combustion of natural fibers in these types of compounds make laser processing very challenging. This study deals with the cutting performance of a low power CO2 laser to cut polymer composite plates (matrix of polyester and epoxy resin) reinforced with natural fibers (Abaca and rice husk) with an average thickness of 3 mm. An experimental DOE design and an ANOVA analysis of variance were used to determine the significant and influential parameters in the quality of cut and the thermal effect on the material. The processing parameters were the cutting power, cutting speed and type of thermoset matrix. The cuts with a minimum zone affected by heat, of approximately 600 mm and a minimum Ra of 3.18 μm, were achieved by working with 76 W and 14 mm/s of power and cutting speed respectively in the composite material of reinforced polyester matrix with rice fiber.</p> Cristian Fabian Pérez Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/641 A Tag Recommendation Hybrid Model for Social Annotation Systems https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/640 <p>Social <em>tagging</em> consists of classifying web resources using words or tags freely chosen by users. The simplicity and openness of social tagging systems to organize resources is the key to your success on the internet. There are numerous approaches to facilitate the user the labeling process, allowing them to reuse labels and thus optimizing their limited reading and writing time. This document proposes a different hybrid approach that simply solves the problem of recommendations based solely on the content of the resource, merging the list of recommendations with the most popular tags in the user's tag history, thus allowing them to reuse terms assigned to others resources.</p> Elías Portilla Olvera, Daniela Lis Godoy Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/640 Thu, 01 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Un A Tag Recommendation Hybrid Model for Social Tagging Systems https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/638 <p style="margin: 0px 41.2px 0px 37.79px; text-indent: 0cm;"><span lang="EN-US" style="margin: 0px; line-height: 105%;"><span style="font-family: Arial;">Social tagging consists of classifying Web resources using words or tags freely chosen by users. The simplicity and openness of social tagging systems to organize resources is the key to your success on the Web. There are numerous approaches to facilitate the labeling process for the user, allowing them to reuse labels and thus optimizing their limited reading and writing time. This document presents a simple way to supplement, with the user's labeling history, a prior approach to recommending tags based solely on the content of the resource to be labeled, thus creating a hybrid recommendation model.</span></span></p> Elías Portilla Olvera Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/638 the Analysis of the fuel pressure rail based on fuel alternatives and on-route working ranges. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/637 <p>This research was carried out in order to generate reengineering on auto parts, where the work of the fuel pressure rail was evaluated using appropriate handling techniques and ecological fuels to evaluate the optimization from its geometry. In the first part of this work, route tests are carried out in driving cycles to obtain the pressure data within the fuel rail, then the simulation is applied in the CAD / CAE program to then validate it in its geometry and of biodiesel B5. The simulation showed that the original design of the fuel rail of the test vehicle has deficiencies, in the flow of fuel within the duct was not distributed evenly across all the outputs of the rail causing the performance to decrease. On the other hand, the data obtained with biodiesel showed that with this fuel the pressure in the rail was lower than when using normal diesel. In conclusion, through the redesign of the rail, the measures were shortened by 10% of all its components, thus reducing the aforementioned failures from to the simulation.</p> Juan Carlos Rocha Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/637 Deformations evaluations and forecast in Turbo Generator 5 in the thermic-energetic plant of Nuevitas, Camagüey https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/636 <p>The evaluation, analysis and deformations forecast in the Turbo Generator 5 of the water heater-energy plant of Nuevitas, it was the main objective of this research. For they were carried out it chronologically geodesic surveying to establishment control record distributed in same time period to specific marks along the structure. These data were used in the physical-numeric models, by Finite Elements Method, it allowed evaluate the load-deformation process and floor-structures interaction. After achieving the historical record of stress-strain plane state, forecast deformations was proposing for the support structure by Arima’s models to evaluate in short term the not-alienations permissible future registered systematically in the axes of the mechanical system rotors in the plant.</p> Michael Alvarez González, Vladimir Mederos Pérez , Miguel Ángel Hernández Machado, Rafael Matamoros García Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/636 Thu, 01 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Development of a solid formulation methodology for Beauveria bassiana with local inputs in Lima - Perú https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/635 <p>The commercial strain of <em>Beauveria bassiana</em> CCB-LE265 produced by SENASA was morphologically characterized and a susceptibility test was performed on <em>Galleria melonella</em> to know the initial conditions of the conidia. Starting from 20 formulas made with local inputs (Bentonite, kaolinite, diatom, Chinese talc, citric acid, egg albumin and cornstarch), nine were preselected by wetting test for 30 seconds, allowing pellet (water soluble granule) to melt and release the content in the field. The quality control of the pellets was performed (spore concentration, conidia forming units, germination percentage and bioassays) at the time of its preparation and 2 months later. For the experimental analysis a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement was used. The best formulation material was the industrial talc, followed by diatomea earth. The heartburn was not considered in this study, however it was notory the decrease in conidia survival by acidifying the medium.</p> David Adrián Hidalgo Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/635 Developing and evaluation of an IoT mobile gateway for 4G LTE networks https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/634 <p>The current trend is to connect everything to network to be monitored and controlled remotely through own concept IoT technologies. One of the problems is to connect the devices to a network, using technologies with sufficient coverage and capacity, so this article shows the development of a mobile gateway for IoT applications under the Android platform evaluated in 4G mobile networks. The IoT mobile gateway sends the data collected from sensors by selecting the MQTT and HTTP protocols, to IoT platforms on the Internet. The architecture is composed of temperature, luminosity and pressure sensors that are integrated into a sensor node which function is for data collection, processing and then via Bluetooth is sent to an Android smartphone where an application that performs the mobile gateway function is running, here data network are sent through the 4G LTE network to the IoT platforms of Ubidots and Watson IoT. Subsequently, tests were carried out with various metrics such as latency, energy consumption and connection costs. It concludes that IoT mobile gateway has better performance under MQTT protocol compared to HTTP.</p> Manuel Fernando Quiñones, Hever Patricio Pachar Bravo, Javier Martínez-Curipoma, Luis Quiñones , Rommel Torres Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/634 Thu, 01 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Artificial neural network to estimate an index of water quality https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/633 <p>The artificial neural network (RNA) is a computational model that emulates the biological neural system in information processing. The originating models are suitable for the purpose of describing long-term specifics, in addition to nonlinear relationships. This tool is used to predict physical chemical and microbiological parameters that influence water quality. The United States National Sanitation Foundation proposed a water quality index, known as the NSF WQI. This article describes the design, training and use of the three-layer neural perceptron neural model for the calculation of the NSF WQI of the Utcubamba River and its tributaries. Using the Matlab software and applying the Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm, the optimal RNA architecture was found to be 6-12-1, plus the percentage for the training, validation, and test sets of 70&nbsp;%, 10&nbsp;%, and 20 % respectively. RNA performance has been evaluated using the root of the root mean square error (RMSE) and the correlation coefficient (R). High correlations (greater than 0.94) were made between the measured and predicted values. Finally, the RNA proposal offers a useful alternative for the calculation and prediction of the water quality index in relation to dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical demand for oxygen (BOD), nitrates, fecal coliforms, potential for hydrogen ions (pH) and turbidity.</p> Lenin Quiñones Huatangari, Luis Ochoa Toledo, Nicolás Kemper Valverde, Oscar Gamarra Torres, José Bazán Correa, Jorge Delgado Soto Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/633 Wed, 01 Apr 2020 00:00:00 -0500 La HUELLA DE CARBONO EN UN EDIFICIO DE UNA EMPRESA DE TECNOLOGÍA https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/632 <p>ABSTRACT</p> <p>An energetic review was developed in a building occupied by technology company, this is a enabling company of the 4th Industrial Revolution IT (Information Technologies), which located in the north city of Quito. The main was&nbsp; to know the impact in terms of CO2 emissions of the Carbon Footprint in a technology company. that are currently in a broad growth of the Ecuadorian economy. The methodology applied was NORMA NTE INEN ISO 14064-1: 2010, Scope 1 and Scope 2, ISO 50001:2012 Energy Management System , chapter 4.4.3 Determining the scope of the EnMs and Executive Decree 2393 from Ecuador, By tabulating the data, the main energy consumers, which were: office equipment, air conditioning system and lighting, according to Scope 1 Fixed installations, for the base year 2017 was 0.96 t CO2 and Scope 2 based on energy consumption was 90.23 t CO2e. An analysis of the lighting efficiency is carried out in comparison with the levels defined by job position according to Executive Decree 2393. Once the users of energy consumption have been identified, an action plan for energy management is established.</p> Walberto Efraín Gallegos Eras Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/632 Manufacture material characteristic analysis of original and alternative auto parts. Case Study: Brake Disc https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/631 <p>All powered vehicles have a braking system adopted according to the type of vehicle and work for which they are designed. In Ecuador, there is a great variety of auto parts that are proposed as alternative replacement, varying in cost and quality. This research aims to quantitatively analyze the characteristics of the brake disc material between original and alternate auto parts. This research analyzes three brake disc samples (A, B, C) from different manufacturing sources, using the ASTM E415-08 spectrometry test and the metallography test under the ASTM A247-16A standard. The spectrometry detects 15 elements in each sample, the carbon equivalent of sample A is 18% and 20% higher in relation to sample B and C, which significantly influences the microstructure. The metallographic tests indicate a pearlitic matrix in each sample, however, there is a different distribution and size of the graphite flakes. According to the SAE J431 standard, each auto part meets the material conditions for the brake disc function.</p> Jaime Antamba, Vladimir Azanza, Gorky Reyes, Álvaro Remache, Soraya Ruiz Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/631 Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Mecanismos cinéticos de la cementación de iones cobre (Cu++) con granallas de zinc https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/630 <p>The residual aqueous solutions of the hydrometallurgical processes of oxidized copper ores, have considerable concentrations of copper ions (Cu ++) that affect the environment, which can be recovered to a large extent by the process of cementation with granules of zinc, so that the Copper ion concentration (Cu ++) in residual aqueous solutions is below the permissible limits. For this reason, the kinetic mechanisms of the cementation of copper ions (Cu ++) with zinc granules in the laboratories of the Yauris metallurgical plant of the UNCP were studied, with a sample prepared from copper sulphate pentahydrate with a concentration of 1 g / l of copper and a pH of 3.5; controlling the cementation times of 60, 120 and 180 minutes at room temperature, obtaining 47.3%, 77.8% and 87.8% of copper deposited respectively, these results demonstrate that it is possible to recover copper ions (Cu ++) from diluted solutions containing ions copper (Cu ++) by means of cementation with zinc blasting, with an optimal maximum recovery time of 166.6 minutes, given the limited diffusion of the cupric ion through the solid layer formed from the reaction zone to the interface.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> José Luis Guerreros Lazo Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/630 Un Design and construction of an auxiliary lighting system for a Pregio 2009 van https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/626 <p>The lighting system of a vehicle plays a very important role in driving, especially when this activity takes place in low light conditions, since the driver must have a wide field of vision. An ineffective lighting, you can be the cause of car accidents, for these reasons, this work focuses on the design and construction of an auxiliary lighting system, based on the 2019 Kia Pregio van. The objective of this system is to improve the angle of lighting, so as to increase the intensity of the lights, improving the driver's field of vision, or provide an emergency lighting source, in case a main halogen fails.</p> Alex Chimbio Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/626 Web Proxy Server Under Java Platform as Technological Support in Distance and Virtual Education https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/625 <p>The research paper poses a new option to the configuration of a web proxy server under the Java platform using the http protocol in the direction of Distance Education and Virtual in the Technical University of Ambato (UTA), which allows them to perform their administration and configuration of a more friendly and easy to use. In the web proxy server using the http protocol, there was a testing scenario suggested, which helps you see the ease for the work done, which allowed for the analysis of data from users who surf on the internet at the address, for the transmission of information to be an efficient and rapid manner, through the network LAN and MAN. The web proxy server; were analyzed, configured to be able to check through their implementation which is the best option for navigation, the parameters that were analyzed are the following: browsing speed, downloading programs, videos, and access to different pages. It presents scenarios which will allow us to create tests with which will be established in peak times when surfing the web and after when there is less traffic on the network.</p> José Augusto Cadena Moreano, Manuel Willam Villa Quishpe Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/625 Development of a solid formulation methodology for Beauveria bassiana with local inputs https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/623 <p>The commercial strain of <em>Beauveria bassiana</em> CCB-LE265 produced by SENASA was morphologically characterized and a susceptibility test was performed on <em>Galleria melonella</em> to know the initial conditions of the conidia. Starting from 20 formulas made with local inputs (Bentonite, kaolinite, diatom, Chinese talc, citric acid, egg albumin and cornstarch), nine were preselected by wetting test for 30 seconds, allowing pellet (water soluble granule) to melt and release the content in the field. The quality control of the pellets was performed (spore concentration, conidia forming units, germination percentage and bioassays) at the time of its preparation and 2 months later. For the experimental analysis a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement was used. The best formulation material was the industrial talc, followed by diatomea earth. The heartburn was not considered in this study, however it was notory the decrease in conidia survival by acidifying the medium.</p> David Adrián Hidalgo Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/623 Third-party management in software development: proposal of a methodology https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/621 <p>Outsourcing allows organizations to reduce costs, optimize the use of resources, provide added value in services and goods, and concentrate on achieving the strategic objectives of the business. However, many software projects have failed due to the lack of knowledge of the factors involved in its planning. Some of these elements are poor communication with the supplier, weak monitoring of the status of tasks, lack of active participation of users and stakeholders at all stages of the process, and software quality assurance. Consequently, this research aims to aid the management of the outsourcing process and proposes a methodology for its management during system development. The methodology comprises 7 phases, each one with its inputs, tasks, and outputs, which are used by the following stages. In summary, it synthesizes the best practices for the management of third parties.</p> Yeison Núñez-Sánchez, Antonio González-Torres Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/621 Wed, 01 Apr 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Methodology of forensic analysis in the collection of digital evidences for informatic crimes. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/620 <p>At present, technological advances and the use of information technologies, as well as the accelerated use and growth of electronic equipment has allowed organizations to increase in aspects related to the economy, processes and services offered to the community. With this evolutionary change, security risks arise that affect information systems and organizations vulnerable to the materialization of computer crimes. All this entails a difficulty in the collection of digital evidence that identifies Who? When? and how was the attack perpetrated? This paper analyzes the subjects involved in the scenario of a computer crime and the methodologies that are applied for the collection and custody of digital evidence. In addition, it presents a literary review that offers the subjects that are present and knows the characteristics necessary to identify and relate suspicious activities with a computer crime. It also raises a technical and legal protocol that serves as a guide for the collection and custody of digital evidence.</p> Mauricio Alexander Quimiz, Jonathan Rodolfo Delgado Cedeño, Jose Manuel Moran Tubay, Alejandra Marielena Gorozabel Alcivar Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/620 Calculation of Voltage Distribution along the Insulator Strings of a 500 kV Transmission Line Based on Finite Element Method https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/619 <p>This paper presents the voltage distributions along the insulator strings of a 500 kV overhead transmission line of Ecuador. The electrostatic problem related to the voltage distribution was solved using the Finite Element Method. A 1: 1 scale drawing is done on a CAD type drawing tool and then exported to the FEMM program that solves the problem and the results related to the voltages in the insulator string are obtained. The voltage differences in the different insulators that constitute a string are appreciated and the difference between the strings determined by the geometric location in the solution space is observed</p> JUAN DAVID RAMIREZ, Krissia Cabezas, Pedro Jiménez, Raúl Canelos, Bolívar Escobar Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/619 Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Implementation of a protective layer based on carnauba wax for polyurethane paint applied to steel plates in different proportions https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/618 <p>At present, the aesthetics of the car is an important factor in the automotive field. For this reason the painting of a vehicle must be impeccable demonstrating good care. To keep the paint flawless, use different protection waxes. Being one of the most used in the automotive market that contains carnauba base. In this work, the behavior analysis of carnauba wax with different percentages in its composition was performed. Through its visual analysis, the effectiveness of the wax was determined with a 10% concentration of carnauba. The 10% carnauba wax solution will guarantee greater protection efficiency in a vehicle's paint. Extending in this way its effective protection against external agents.</p> Andy Joel Condo Camalle Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/618 Effect of two nitrogen and potassium levels through fertirrigation in the initial growth phase of avocado var. Hass plants https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/617 <p>Currently, the cultivation of avocado var. Hass is becoming important in Ecuador; however, there is little information regarding the nutritional management of this crop, resulting in crops with low productivity and poor fruit quality. Due to the high demand for nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) of this crop and the scarce information regarding nutritional and irrigation management, this research aimed to determine the effect of two doses of N and K in the initial growth phase. The trial was implemented using avocado plants var. Hass and treatments were applied using a fertigation system. The experiment was carried out in the Tumbaco Experimental Farm of INIAP, using a completely randomized design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement, having four treatments resulting from the interaction of two levels of nitrogen and potassium and four replications. The comparison of 5% DMS means was performed when there were significant differences. The variables analyzed were: plant height, stem diameter, greenery index, leaf area and foliar nutrient concentration. Based on the results obtained, significant differences were observed in the variables: greenery index and nutrient concentration.</p> Juan Pablo Gaona, LAURA VIVIANA VÁSQUEZ, CARLOS EDUARDO MORALES, WILLIAM FERNANDO VIERA, PABLO FRANCISCO VITERI, ANDREA VERÓNICA SOTOMAYOR, LORENA ANABEL MEDINA, PAUL RICARDO MEJIA, YAMIL EVERALDO CARTAGENA Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/617 IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SILICON HOLLOW FIBER IN THE BACK SEAT OF A FAMILY SEDAN TO IMPROVE THE COMFORT OF ITS OCCUPANTS https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/614 <p>Today, the ergonomics of the driver and passengers is very relevant at the time of construction. This is the case of vehicle seats and their manufacturing materials. The aim is to replace the material that makes up the back of a car seat in order to improve ergonomics, allowing a new driving experience and comfort for its users. The present research considers the improvement of the back seat material, to determine the possible replacement of the common sponge by hollow siliconized fiber. This allows to extend the life of the seat, being a healthier product. The results obtained in the analysis of the two samples were favorable, visualizing that the hollow siliconized fiber is more effective for the absorption of energy, is more ergonomic and more hygienic, for the implementation in the back seat of the vehicle.</p> Esteban Josue Bonilla Borja Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/614 F, GR Effect of two nitrogen and potassium levels in sweet granadilla (passiflora ligularis) varied Colombiana under fertigation at Tumbaco valley https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/613 <p>The cultivation of sweet passion fruit is currently becoming important in the northern part of Ecuador, however there is little information on the nutritional management of this fruit, which leads to problems of low yield and poor fruit quality. Due to the high demand for nitrogen and potassium from the crop, this research aimed to study two levels of these nutrients in the growth phase. Plants of variety Colombian will be used and the treatments will be applied through a fertiirrigation system. The experiment was carried out in the Tumbaco Experimental Farm of INIAP, using a completely random design (DCA) in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement, having four treatments resulting from the interaction of the levels of nitrogen and potassium with four replications. Results detected that high doses of nitrogen and potassium (200 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and their interaction had the highest values ​​in the analyzed variables: plant height (1.74 m), stem diameter (10.46 mm), index of greenery (59.07 SPAD), leaf area (151.03 cm2) and foliar concentration of nutrients (4.13% N and 4.10% K).</p> Juan Pablo Gaona, LAURA VIVIANA VÁSQUEZ, SANDRA PATRICIA AGUAYO, WILLIAM FERNANDO VIERA, PABLO FRANCISCO VITERI, ANDREA VERÓNICA SOTOMAYOR, LORENA ANABEL MEDINA, PAUL RICARDO MEJIA, YAMIL EVERALDO CARTAGENA Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/613 Environmental impact of a heavy machinery workshop https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/611 <p>The maintenance and repair of heavy machinery are ways to prevent negative impacts on the environment, since they ensure the reliability of the machines during their operation. This can result in a reduction in shutdowns due to the occurrence of different types of failures such as: fuel and lubricant spills due to pipe breakage, joint fractures, hydrocarbon outflows due to looseness or improper adjustment of joints, gas emissions harmful to the atmosphere caused by the malfunction of the power system, accidents at work, etc. In some of the centers, environmental management standards are not considered, since generally the volumes of activities are carried out on few machinery. One of the most common environmental difficulties associated with maintenance processes is related to the dumping of waste classified as dangerous. The research aims to determine the extent to which workers in a heavy machinery maintenance workshop know the environmental regulations established under the provisions of ISO 14001/2015 and the consequences that result from their non-observance.</p> Cristhan Andres Sornoza Solorzano Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/611 Implementation of an alert system against engine overheating in vehicles multipoint injection https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/610 <p>Temperature in a vehicle is a fundamental factor for its proper operation. When a fault is generated on the original temperature sensor may cause engine damage due to overheating. By implementing a system that compares the data provided by an LM35 temperature sensor and a Hall effect sensor to count rpm in real time. An Arduino processes the data and constantly informs the driver by means of an LCD. When exceeding a critical temperature, a hearing alarm will be issued and a vehicle injector will be disabled. The system is effective in its purpose of alerting the driver. And it is suitable for deployment in vehicles with multipoint injection due to its low cost.</p> Pablo Felipe Guayllas Guamán Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/610 Analysis and evaluation of conservation techniques to IV range vegetables https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/605 <p>Actually, the trend for the consumption of minimally processed foods such as vegetables and fruits of the IV range grows as changes in consumption habits and accelerated rhythms of life. Conservation methods support the safety and quality of food, as well as the preservation of its nutritional and sensory properties. In this sense, the evaluation of combined conservation methods is proposed to observe its effect on three vegetables of the IV range: lettuce, cherry tomato and carrot. The combined ones correspond to the type of cut of the vegetables, variation of the conservation of ascorbic acid between 150 and 500 ppm and application of vacuum packaging up to 0.5 atm. As a result, in samples maintained at 4 ° C, an increase in the shelf life of 11 days for lettuce, 19 for cherry tomato 18 for carrot was achieved, so that an increase between 19% was obtained and 70% the useful life of the analyzed samples, in comparison with data reached by other authors. In conclusion it is mentioned that the use of combined techniques is an alternative to improve the conservation of vegetables.</p> Christian Franco-Crespo, Maryuri Analuisa Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/605 Modeling of the variation of the electrical conductivity of the leachate of cocoa with different fermentation index https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/609 <p>This study linked the fermentation index of two varieties of cocoa beans: CCN 51 and ICS 6 with electrical conductivity (EC) of the water where they were immersed using a laboratory conductimeter. Mixtures of 11 fermented cocoa beans and unfermented were performed in order to obtain fermentation index from 0% (unfermented beans) to that reached by the fermented cocoa beans. Immersion times tested for determination of the electrical conductivity were 90 and 180 minutes. The results of electrical conductivity for CCN 51 and ICS 6 were 56.1 ± 12.0 to 1375.0 ± 28.0 mS/cm and 150.0 ± 19.9 to 1199.3 ± 44.5 mS/cm, respectively. Subsequent conductivity values ​​did not represent significant increases over time. The relationship between the fermentation index and electrical conductivity for CCN 51 showed positive trend, achieving a R<sup>2 </sup>= 63.1%. The following function by regression: EC (<sub>CCN-51</sub>) = 1196 + 10.83 * (FI) – 0.06 *(FI)<sup>2</sup> got a model with significant adjustment to be used to determine its fermentation index.</p> Jorge Luis Miguel Loo Miranda, Gabriela Cristina Chire Fajardo , Milber Oswaldo Ureña Peralta Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/609 Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Evaluation of the population of Shark Sphyrna zygaena in Ecuadorian waters for 2008-2012 https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/608 <p>Globally, the role of sharks within the ecosystem is recognized, however, fishing activity has affected in recent years their populations; associated with a slow growth rate, long-livedness, late sexual maturity and low reproduction rate. In view of this CITES* I determine as a priority to know the condition of the different stocks of <em>Sphyrna zygaena </em>around the world, this study describes its spatial distribution in Ecuadorian waters, based on data from the commercial fleet (2008-2012), two time scales were selected for analysis, the first on a monthly basis , the second considered spatial distribution. The estimate of the number of cohorts was supported in a maximum function of plausibility based on a multinomial distribution, total length frequencies (LT) revealed that the number of cohorts changes dynamically over time. <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/the">The</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/average">average</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/size">size</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/values">values</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/estimated">estimated</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/by">by</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/the">the</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/cohort">cohort</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/analysis">analysis</a>, <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/i">I</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/determine">determine</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/that">that</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/for">for</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/the">the</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/year">year</a> 2013,<a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/the">the</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/minimum">minimum</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/size">size</a> captured <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/was">was</a> 129.16 <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/cm">cm</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/corresponding">corresponding</a> <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/to">to</a> females captured <a href="https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles-espanol/in">in</a> 2012. While the captured males corresponded to 199 cm (LT), although in general terms, organisms are captured above 200 cm of (LT).</p> carmen cabanilla carpio Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/608 UDP protocol implementation for communication and control of the water level in storage tanks https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/607 <p>The objective of this paper was to implement and industrial network of real-time the UDP protocols found in the transport layer, and the analysis of each layer of the project’s OSI model, remotely activating different actuators to control the water level in different tanks, a wired connection between the computer and PLC devices and a wireless network as a medium. The advantages of being able to automate the actuators, is in the simplicity of this type of protocol since it is simple to apply and improve control times, simplifies the response by being concentrated in key points, additionally described as traffic Data form our network behaves.</p> Carlos David Velasco Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/607 análisis Data traffic analysis using UDP communication for an automated industrial network with Wireshark https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/606 <p>This document deals with the use of the Wireshark tool to capture the flow of data transferred between an industrial automation process connected to a PLC in combination with a hosted AD-HOC network which is configured on a laptop as a server for three laptops more than they form the industrial process, making use of the Sockets library which helps us to exchange any data flow in a reliable and orderly way. Berkeley Socket API (The application programming interface, also known by the acronym API, application programming interface, is a set of subroutines, functions and procedures offered by a certain library to be used by other software as an abstraction layer). In this capture a filter is used based on a port number agreed by all processes, the interface that serves as a means of connection and the UDP protocol. The packets captured by the tool are displayed by layers and each layer with their respective data fields.</p> david javier serrano Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/606 Datta Traffic Control Trough Wireless Networks https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/604 <p>El siguiente documento tiene el propósito de mostrar un<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1"> </a>ejemplo de la optimización de datos que se puede lograr mediante el proceso del control del tráfico de los mismos, para lo cual se propone la opción de crear por medio de las comunicaciones inalámbricas, en este caso se eligió el protocolo UDP (User Datagram Protocol, y haciendo uso del programa wireshark, el cual permitirá visualizar los datos en modo real, mientras se realizan los procesos de funcionamiento del sistema, simulados con PLCS y Computadores</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1"></a>&nbsp;</p> Steven Fitzgerald Rios Medina, Juan Esteban Guacollantes, Jessica Paola Ramirez Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/604 Energía Solar para cocción: Caso de estudio de un Horno Solar con Seguidor económico y eficiente https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/603 <p>Solar energy can be taken in advantage in many ways, and one of them is through solar ovens. These devices offer an option for the replacement of fossil fuels during cooking of food through solar energy. The present article tries to show if it is possible to design an economical and efficient solar oven with tracker, and therefore it is presented the results of the first step of a project for the development of an economical and efficient solar oven for small applications due to its small size, weight and cost. The methodology used was based on the development of a prototype using previously programmed photocells sensors, which capture the sun's rays and move looking for sunlight. Through the implementation of sensors and the Arduino free software microcontroller, it was possible to obtain data on the internal and external temperature of the oven to estimate the effectiveness of the oven in terms of the time it takes to heat food. Finally, positive results were obtained with the solar oven, recording different temperature data according to the meteorological factors present in the city of Quito (Ecuador) where the tests were carried out.</p> Dorian Oswaldo Mora Sánchez, Agustín Rubén Amagua Puga, Diana Carolina Zúñiga Cabrera Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/603 Physicochemical properties and microbial group behavior of postharvest peruvian cocoa bean (Theobroma cacao L.) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/602 <p>Cocoa is used in the manufacturing of different products. Fermenting microorganisms such as yeast and bacteria use the high nutrient content of cocoa. This research evaluated physicochemical properties and microbial group behavior of fresh cocoa bean and four treatments to compare among them (A, A-farmer, B, and B-farmer). Moisture content, mold and yeast count, and <em>Salmonella</em> were determined in fresh cocoa beans and treatments. The results of fresh cocoa beans were moisture content of 56.30 ± 0.02 % and microbiological count below control. Treatments results were moisture content of 3.10 ± 0.02 %, 10.30 ± 0.20 %, 4.80 ± 0.00 %, and 11.40 ± 0.20 % (p ≤ 0.05), mold and yeast count were statistically similar (p &gt; 0.05). <em>Salmonella</em> was not detected in any of the treatments. These findings indicate that regardless of post-harvest process, there is no fungal contamination in cocoa when carrying out good manufacturing practices.</p> Eduardo Salazar, Roxana Valenzuela, Margarita Aguilar, Natali Aranda, Alejandrina Sotelo, Gabriela Cristina Chire-Fajardo, Milber Ureña Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/602 Thu, 01 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 CFD Analysis of a solar flat plate collector with different cross sections https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/601 <p>Low and medium solar heating systems used for domestic and industrial applications, such as water and space heating, usually utilize solar flat plate collectors in order to absorb solar thermal energy converting it into heat and then transferring the heat to a fluid (usually water or air) that flows through it. The aim of this study is to evaluate the solar flat plate collector’s efficiency and the fluid behavior inside the pipeline with three different cross sections, whose hydraulic diameters are 10, 5.12 and 6.16 mm, by using ANSYS Fluent. The results obtained from the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool showed that the collector with the Type I cross section reached temperatures up to 330 K at the pipe outlet obtaining an efficiency of 68&nbsp;%, higher than those of Types II and III, whose efficiencies were 51&nbsp;% and 60&nbsp;%, respectively. Type I cross section also presented the lowest values in both speed and pressure drop, these being 0.266 m/s and 108.3 Pa, respectively.</p> Anthony Xavier Andrade Cando, William Quitiaquez Sarzosa, Luis Fernando Toapanta Copyright (c) 2020 Enfoque UTE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/601 Wed, 01 Apr 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Experimental designs applied in vegetables extracts: a review https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/600 <p>The use of experimental designs is one of the main tools of the researchers, given that it is a set of statistical techniques that generate data from which they can answer the questions raised by the experimenter accepting or rejecting a hypothesis or idea. The purpose of this review is to present the different experimental designs used in the area of plant extracts, because this is a topic of great interest in several areas of knowledge especially in the agro-industrial area.</p> Ronald Bravo Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/600 ENRUTAMIENTO OPTIMO DE INFORMACIÓN DE PMU’S AL PRESENTA UNA CONTINGENCIA EN UNA LÍNEA CON TECNOLOGÍA WAM. https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/599 <p>En la presente investigación se buscó un algoritmo que nos permite enviar la información de las PMU’s en el caso de que el línea se vea comprometida evitando la perdida de información y maximizando al confiabilidad del sistema eléctrico de potencia. El enrutamiento de la información en el caso de presentarse una contingencia se basa en el mismo algoritmo para pérdidas de líneas por corto circuito, la tecnología que se está usando es el sistema WAM debido a la capacidad y la velocidad de procesamiento de información en la red.</p> Nicolas Maximiliano Mendez Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/599 Localización de fallas en líneas de transmisión utilizando el método de dos extremos sincronizados https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/598 <p>En el siguiente artículo se detallara sobre la localización de fallas en sistemas de transmisión usando el método de dos extremos sincronizados, la investigación se ha desarrollado enfatizando el campo de la localización de fallas como parte fundamental, cada fallas producida en una línea de transmisión forma parte de &nbsp;una de las principales causas por lo cual el sistema de potencia podría presentar falencias y tendría que salir fuera de servicio, por lo cual es necesario desarrollar algún mecanismos que este en capacidades de &nbsp;localizar el punto de falla exacto en líneas de transmisión dando lugar al punto de origen de la falla, un PMU está considerado como una de las tecnologías emergentes de suma importancia en cuanto a la recepción de fasores como voltaje y corriente en los sistemas de energía de los últimos tiempos, con el método expuesto se podrá localizar la falla de manera oportuna y maximizar la observabilidad del sistema eléctrico. Este método estará probado en el sistema de 9 barras de la IEEE, simulando una línea con problemas y la distancia a la que se estima ocurre la falla.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> dario alvaro alvaro Copyright (c) https://ingenieria.ute.edu.ec/enfoqueute/index.php/revista/article/view/598