Evaluation of gas emissions in light gasoline vehicles in height conditions. Case study Quito, Ecuador

  • Edilberto Antonio Llanes Cedeño Universidad Internacional SEK
  • Juan Carlos Rocha-Hoyos Universidad Internacional SEK
  • Diana Belén Peralta Zurita Universidad Internacional SEK
  • Julio César Leguísamo Milla Universidad Internacional SEK
Keywords: fuel consumption, pollutant emissions

Abstract

At present it is very important to estimate the contribution of the vehicle fleet in the inventories of polluting emissions for the city of Quito due to its geographical characteristic that places it at a height above 2810 m. In this research, the emission factors en route of three fuels used mainly by light vehicles in Ecuador are evaluated; Super gasoline with 93 octane; Extra gasoline with 87 octanes; and Ecopaís gasoline (Extra gasoline and 5% bioethanol). A Chevrolet Aveo 1.6 L vehicle was used, instrumented with an on-board system to obtain information on pollutant emissions and total fuel consumption in a pre-determined route of 12 km, at an average speed of 40 km/h. The simplified combustion model was used to develop a mass balance with respect to the amount of carbon present in the fuel, and thus obtain the emission factors ( ) in grams of pollutant per kilometer traveled. The results obtained are: Extra gasoline: CO 3.194 g/km, HC 0.060 g/km and NOx 0.142 g/km; Gasoline 92 Super: CO 4.770 g/km, HC 0.099 g/km and NOx 0.281 g/km; and Ecopaís gasoline: CO 5.939 g/km, HC 0.082 g/km and NOx 0.279 g/km.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Edilberto Antonio Llanes Cedeño, Universidad Internacional SEK

Ingeniero Mecánico Automotriz, Master en Eficiencia Energética, PhD en Ciencia Técnica

References

Ait-Helal, W., Beeldens, A., Boonen, E., Borbon, A., Boréave, A., Cazaunau, M., ... & Gallus, M. (2015). On-road measurements of NMVOCs and NOx: Determination of light-duty vehicles emission factors from tunnel studies in Brussels city center. Atmospheric Environment, 122, 799-807.
Asociación de Empresas Automotrices del Ecuador AEADE. (2017). Anuario 2016, Obtenido de: http://www.aeade.net/anuario/
Belis, C. A., Karagulian, F., Larsen, B. R., & Hopke, P. K. (2013). Critical review and meta-analysis of ambient particulate matter source apportionment using receptor models in Europe. Atmospheric Environment, 69, 94-108.
El Comercio, EC. (2016). OMS Fichas de las ciudades más contaminadas del Ecuador: Disponible en: http://www.elcomercio.com/tendencias/ciudades-ecuador-polucion-enfermedades-contaminacion.html
Franco, V., Kousoulidou, M., Muntean, M., Ntziachristos, L., Hausberger, S., & Dilara, P. (2013). Road vehicle emission factors development: A review. Atmospheric Environment, 70, 84-97.
Frey, H. C., & Eichenberger, D. A. (1997). Remote Sensing of Mobile Source Air Pollutant Emissions: Variability and Uncertainty in On-Road Emissions Estimates of Carbon Monoxide and Hydrocarbons for School and Transit Buses (No. FHWA/NC/97-005). Center for Transportation Engineering Studies, Department of Civil Engineering, North Carolina State University.
Global MRV. (2017). Portable Emissions Measurement System OEM- 2100AX AXION R/S+, Disponible en: http://www.globalmrv.com/pems-axionrs-2/
Guasgua, J. F. A., Campaña, G. G. R., & Paredes, M. E. G. (2016). Estudio comparativo de gases contaminantes en un vehículo M1, utilizando gasolina de la Comunidad Andina. Enfoque UTE, 7(3), 110-119.
Hernández, M., Menchaca, L., & Mendoza, A. (2014). Fuel economy and emissions of light-duty vehicles fueled with ethanol–gasoline blends in a Mexican City. Renewable Energy, 72, 236-242.
INEN. (2002). NTE INEN 2204:2002. Límites permitidos de emisiones producidos por fuentes móviles terrestres a gasolina. Quito: INEN.
Lee, T. W., Lee, J. T., & Kim, J. S. (2012). Evaluation of On-Road NO x Emission from a Light Duty Diesel Vehicle using a Portable Emissions Measurement System. Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, 28(1), 94-104.
Li, L., Ge, Y., Wang, M., Peng, Z., Song, Y., Zhang, L., & Yuan, W. (2015). Exhaust and evaporative emissions from motorcycles fueled with ethanol gasoline blends. Science of the Total Environment, 502, 627-631.
Park, S. S., Kozawa, K., Fruin, S., Mara, S., Hsu, Y. K., Jakober, C., ... & Herner, J. (2011). Emission factors for high-emitting vehicles based on on-road measurements of individual vehicle exhaust with a mobile measurement platform. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 61(10), 1046-1056.
Rocha Hoyos, J. C., & Zambrano León, V. D. (2015). Análisis del funcionamiento del motor de encendido provocado, debido a la presencia de aditivos (Master's thesis, Quito, 2015.).
Rocha-Hoyos, J., Tipanluisa, L. E., Reina, S. W., & Ayabaca, C. R. (2017). Evaluación del Sistema de Tracción en un Vehículo Eléctrico Biplaza de Estructura Tubular. Información tecnológica, 28(2), 29-36.
Rojano, R. E., Mendoza, Y. I., Arregoces, H., & Restrepo, G. M. (2016). Dispersión de Contaminantes del Aire (PM10, NO2, CO, COV y HAP) emitidos desde una Estación Modular de Compresión, Tratamiento y Medición de Gas Natural. Información tecnológica, 27(5), 99-110.
Schifter, I., Díaz, L., Rodríguez, R., & Salazar, L. (2011 a). Assessment of Mexico’s program to use ethanol as transportation fuel: impact of 6% ethanol-blended fuel on emissions of light-duty gasoline vehicles. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 173(1-4), 343-360.
Secretaría del ambiente DMQ. (2016). Calidad del aire en Quito 2015, disponible en: www.quitoambiente.gob.ec.
Weiss, M., Bonnel, P., Hummel, R., Provenza, A., & Manfredi, U. (2011). On-road emissions of light-duty vehicles in Europe. Environmental science & technology, 45(19), 8575-8581.
WHO. (2016). AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION. Disponible en: http://www.who.int/gho/publications/world_health_statistics/2016/whs2016_AnnexA_AmbientAirPollution.pdf?ua=1&ua=1. http://www.who.int/gho/publications/world_health_statistics/2016/whs2016_AnnexA_AmbientAirPollution.pdf?ua=1&ua=1
Wu, Y., Zhang, S., Hao, J., Liu, H., Wu, X., Hu, J. & Stevanovic, S. (2017). On-road vehicle emissions and their control in China: A review and outlook. Science of The Total Environment, 574, 332-349.
Published
2018-06-19
How to Cite
Llanes Cedeño, E., Rocha-Hoyos, J., Peralta Zurita, D., & Leguísamo Milla, J. (2018). Evaluation of gas emissions in light gasoline vehicles in height conditions. Case study Quito, Ecuador. Enfoque UTE, 9(2), pp. 149 - 158. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.29019/enfoqueute.v9n2.201
Section
Automation and Control, Mechatronics, Electromechanics, Automotive