Assessing the Efficacy of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin as a Biological Control Agent against Rose Sawfly Larvae




sawfly; rose plants; integrated pest management; microbial control; Metarhizium anisopliae; mortality.


Increasing concerns over the environmental impact of chemical pesticides have prompted the exploration of alternative, and eco-friendly solutions for controlling insect pests. The use of entomopathogenic fungus (EPF) as a biological control agent is of paramount importance. We aimed to investigate the effect of different concentrations of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin on larval mortality and pupal formation, of sawfly larvae, a major pest of rose plants. Our study revealed a concentration-dependent effect of M. anisopliae on sawfly larvae. At 7 days after EPF exposure, the highest concentration (1 × 109 conidia/ml) led to a mortality rate of 65.0% and at the 11th day, the larval mortality was reached up to 82.5%. The highest EPF concentration resulted in a minimal pupal formation (7.5%). This study demonstrates the potential of M. anisopliae as a valuable biological control agent against sawfly larvae infestations in rose plants.



Download data is not yet available.


K. S. Sastry, B. Mandal, J. Hammond, S. W. Scott, R. W. Briddon. “Rosa Spp. (Rose)”. In: Encyclopedia of Plant Viruses and Viroids, Springer, New Delhi, 2019. Available:

H. Özçelik. “General Appearances of Turkish Roses. Suleyman Demirel University,” Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, vol. 17, pp. 29-42, 2013.

P. Duraimurugan, A. Jagadish. “Preliminary Studies on the Biology of ‘Scirtothrips dorsalis’ Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) as a Pest of Rose in India,” Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, vol. 44, pp. 37–45. 2011. Available:

Y. G. Zhao, B. Z. Hua. “Morphology of the Immature Stages of ‘Arge Pagana’ (Panzer, 1798) (Hymenoptera: Argidae) with Notes on its Biology,” Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, vol. 19, pp. 903-909, 2016. Available:

K. Beneš. “Sawflies (Hymenoptera, Symphyta) of the ‘Bohemian Forest’ and its Foothills,” Silva Gabreta, vol. 20, pp. 131-147, 2014.

A. Haris. “Sawflies of Belső-Somogy (Hymenoptera: Symphyta),” Natura Somogyiensis, vol. 22, pp. 141-162, 2012. Available: https://doi:10.24394/NatSom.2012.22.141

G. Japoshvili, A. Haris. “Sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) from North Western Georgia (Sakartvelo) (Part II.),” Natura Somogyiensis, vol. 39, pp. 35-46, 2022. Available:

J. L. Boevé. “Behavior and Body Size Modulate the Defense of Toxin-Containing Sawfly Larvae Against Ants,” Scientific Reports, vol. 11, 13610, 2021. Available:

R. Khosravi, J. J. Sendi, A. Zibaee, A.M. Shokrgozar. “Virulence of Four ‘Beauveria Bassiana’ (Balsamo) (Asc., Hypocreales) Isolates on Rose Sawfly, ‘Arge rosae’ (Hymenoptera: Argidae) Under Laboratory Condition,” Journal of King Saud University-Science, vol. 27, pp. 49-53, 2015. Available: doi: 10.1016/j.jksus.2014.04.003

H. Bolu, M. Aslan, H. Maral. “Life History and Biology of Rose Sawfly, ‘Arge rosae’ Linnaeus (Hymenoptera: Argidae),” Munis Entomology and Zoology, vol. 16, pp. 484-493, 2021.

M. L. Pappas, F. Migkou, G. D. Broufas. “Incidence of Resistance to Neonicotinoid Insecticides in Greenhouse Populations of the Whitefly, ‘Trialeurodes vaporariorum’ (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) from Greece,” Journal Applied Entomology and Zoology, vol. 48, pp. 373–378, 2013. Available: https://doi:10.1007/s13355-013-0197-z

M. C. Reid, F. E. McKenzie. “The Contribution of Agricultural Insecticide Use to Increasing Insecticide Resistance in African Malaria Vectors,” Malaria Journal, vol. 15, pp. 1–8, 2016. Available: https://doi:10.1186/s12936-016-1162-4

A. G. S. Cuthbertson. “Unnecessary Pesticide Applications in Northern Ireland Apple Orchards Due to Miss-Identification of a Beneficial Mite Species,” Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment, vol. 8, pp. 77–78, 2004.

M. S. Goettel, J. Eilenberg, T. Glare., “Entomopathogenic Fungi and Their Role in the Regulation of Insect Populations” In: Comprehensive Molecular Insect Science, L. I. Gilbert, K. Iatrou S. Gill, Eds., Academic Press, London, UK, 2005, pp. 361-406.

G. Zimmermann. “The Entomopathogenic Fungus ‘Metarhizium anisopliae’ and its Potential as a Biocontrol Agent,” Journal of Pesticide Sciencevol. 37, pp. 375–379, 1993.

D. W. Roberts, R. J. St Leger. “Metarhizium Spp., Cosmopolitan Insect-Pathogenic Fungi: Mycological Aspects,” Advances in Applied Microbiology, vol. 54, pp. 1–70, 2004. Available: doi: 10.1016/S0065-2164(04)54001-7.

G. Zimmermann. “Review on Safety of the Entomopathogenic fungus ‘Metarhizium anisopliae’,” Biocontrol Science and Technology, vol. 17, pp. 879–920, 2007. Available:

S. B. Alves, L. S. Rossi, R. B. Lopes, M. A. Tamai, R. M. Pereira. “‘Beauveria Bassiana’ Yeast Phase on Agar Medium and its Pathogenicity Against ‘Diatraea Saccharalis’ (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and ‘Tetranychus urticae’ (Acari: Tetranychidade),” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol. 81, pp. 70-77, 2002. Available: doi:10.1016/s0022-2011(02)00147-7.

M. V. Garcia, A. C. Montero, M. J. P. Szabo, N. Prette, G. H. Bechara. “Mechanism of Infection and Colonization of ‘Rhipicephalus sanguineus’ Eggs by ‘Metarhizium anisopliae’ as Revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Histopathology,” Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, vol. 36, pp. 368-372, 2005. Available:

N. Mubeen, A. Khalid, M. I. Ullah, N. Altaf, M. Arshad, L. Amin, A. Sadaf. “Effect of ‘Metarhizium anisopliae’ on the Nutritional Physiology of the Fall Armyworm, ‘Spodoptera frugiperda’ (JE Smith)(Lepidoptera: ‘Noctuidae’),” Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control, vol. 32, pp. 1-5, 2022. Available:

A. Egbuna, B. Sawicka, H. Tijjani, L. T. Kryeziu, J. C. Ifemeje, D. Skiba, C. B. Lukong. “Biopesticides, Safety Issues and Market Trends,” In: Egbuna, C. and Sawicka, B. (eds.), Natural Remedies For Pest, Disease and Weed Control,” Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 43-53, 2020. Available:

M. C. Camara, R. A. Monteiro, L. B. Carvalho, J. L. Oliveira, L. F. Fraceto. “Enzyme Stimuli-Responsive Nanoparticles for Bioinsecticides an Emerging Approach for Uses in Crop Protection,” ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, vol. 9, pp. 106-112, 2021. Available:

J. Kienzle, J. Zimmer, P. Maxin, H. Rank, H. Bathon, C. P. W. Zebitz. “Control of the Apple Sawfly ‘Hoplocampa testudinea’ Klug in Organic Fruit Growing Ecofruit,” at the 12th International Conference on Cultivation Technique and Phytopathological Problems in organic Fruit-Growing. Proceedings of the conference. M. Booss (ed-), Traubenplatz 5, D-74189 Weinsberg, Germany, pp. 25-29, 2006.

V. Psota, J. Ouředníčková, V. Falta. “Control of Hoplocampa testudinea Using the Extract from Quassia Amara in Organic Apple Growing,” Journal of Horticultural Sciences, vol. 37, pp. 139−144, 2010. Available: doi: 10.17221/76/2009-HORTSCI

S. Opisa, H. du Plessis, K. S. Akutse, K. K. M. Fiaboe, S. Ekesi. “Effects of Entomopathogenic Fungi and ‘Bacillus thuringiensis’ Based Biopesticides on ‘Spoladea recurvalis’ (Lepidoptera: Crambidae),” Journal of Applied Entomology, vol. 142, pp. 617–626, 2018. Available:

M. G. Feng, B. Chen, S. H. Ying. “Trials of ‘Beauveria bassiana’, ‘Paecilomyces fumosoroseus’ and Imidacloprid for Management of ‘Trialeurodes vaporariorum’ (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on Greenhouse-Grown Lettuce,” Biocontrol Science and Technology, vol. 14, pp. 531-544, 2004. Available:

R. Khosravi, J. J. Sendi, A. Zibaee, A. M. Shokrgozar. “Virulence of Four ‘Beauveria bassiana’ (Balsamo) (Asc., Hypocreales) Isolates on Rose Sawfly, ‘Arge Rosae’ (Hymenoptera: Argidae) Under Laboratory Condition,” Journal of King Saud University, vol. 27, pp. 49-53, 2015. Available: doi:10.1016/j.jksus.2014.04.003

W. Swiergiel, N. V. Meyling, M. Porcel, B. Ramert. “Soil Application of ‘Beauveria bassiana’ GHA Against Apple Sawfly, ‘Hoplocampa testudinea’ (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae): Field Mortality and Fungal Persistence,” Insect Science, vol. 23, pp. 854-868, 2016. Available: doi: 10.1111/1744-7917.12233

D. Baki, H. S. Tosun, F. Erler. “Indigenous Entomopathogenic Fungi as Potential Biological Control Agents of Rose Sawfly, ‘Arge rosae’ L. (Hymenoptera: Argidae),” Journal of Zoology, vol. 45, pp. 517-525, 2021.

W. Wakil, M. Yasin, D. Shapiro-Ilan. “Effects of Single and Combined Applications of Entomopathogenic Fungi and Nematodes Against ‘Rhynchophorus ferrugineus’ (Olivier),” Scientific Reports, vol. 7, 5971, 2017. Available:

R. S. Yehia, E. A. Shaalan, H. M. Al-Sheikh. “Efficacy of Two Entomopathogenic Fungi, ‘Beauveria Bassiana’ and ‘Metarhizium anisopliae’, Isolated from Eastern Saudi Arabia Against the House Fly, ‘Musca Domestica’,” Journal of Zoology, vol. 54, pp. 1405-1411, 2022.

A. Ibrahim, M. I. Hassan, A. I. Hasaballah, M. A. Fouda, G. M. Omar. “Evaluation of Some Entomopathogenic Fungi Against Larvae, Pupae and Adults of House Fly, ‘Musca domestica’ L,” Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, vol. 4, pp. 103-112, 2016.

F. M. Freimoser, G. Hu, R. J. S. Leger. “Variation in Gene Expression Patterns as the Insect Pathogen ‘Metarhizium anisopliae’ Adapts to Different Host Cuticles or Nutrient Deprivation in Vitro,” Microbiology, vol. 151, 2005. Available: doi:10.1099/mic.0.27560-0.

Q. Gao, K. Jin, S. H. Ying, Y. Zhang, G. Xiao, Y. Shang. “Genome Sequencing and Comparative Transcriptomics of the Model Entomopathogenic Fungi ‘Metarhizium anisopliae’ and ‘M. acridum’,” PLOS Genetics, vol. 7, 2011. Available: doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1001264.

H. E. Roy, J. K. PELL. “Interactions Between Entomopathogenic Fungi and other Natural Enemies: Implications for Biological Control,” Biocontrol Science and Technology, vol. 10, pp. 737 – 752, 2000. Available: doi: 10.4236/ae.2020.83010.



How to Cite

Perveen, N., Rashid, E., Aitzaz, H., Shaheen, M., Gul, H. ., Arshad, M., & Irfan Ullah, M. (2024). Assessing the Efficacy of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin as a Biological Control Agent against Rose Sawfly Larvae. Enfoque UTE, 15(1), 16-20.