Current Status and Challenges of IoT Research in the Ecuadorian Healthcare Sector: A Systematic Literature Review




Internet of Medical Things; Emerging Technologies; Remote Patient Monitoring; Privacy and Information Security; Systematic Reviews.


The Internet of Things (IoT) has the potential to revolutionize healthcare by enabling remote patient monitoring, personalized care and disease prevention. In Ecuador, research on IoT in the healthcare field is rapidly expanding. However, there’s a need for a clearer understanding of the current state of this research. This study examines the contributions of Ecuadorian authors in this field through their publications in two globally impactful bibliographic databases. The methodology employed is a systematic review using the PRISMA statement, resulting in a final stage comprising 23 articles. These publications encompass system proposals, prototypes, and reviews with applications in areas such as epidemiology, cardiology and nursing. The recurrent mention of patient information privacy is a challenge in implementing IoT-based healthcare systems. The conclusions emphasize that future work perspectives should address the challenges identified, considering the growing trend of publications from Ecuadorian authors.



Download data is not yet available.


J. Gómez, B. Oviedo, and E. Zhuma, “Patient Monitoring System Based on Internet of Things,” Procedia Computer Science, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 90–97, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.procs.2016.04.103.

J. Bedón-Molina, M.J. López, and I.S. Derpich. “A Home-Based Smart Health Model,” Advances in Mechanical Engineering, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 1-16, 2020, doi: 10.1177/1687814020935282.

G. Guerrero-Ulloa, C. Rodríguez-Dominguez, and M.J. Hornos, “IoT-Based System to Help Care for Dependent Elderly,” in Communications in Computer and Information Science, M. Botto-Tobar, G. Pizarro, M. Zúñiga-Prieto, Eds. Cham, Switzerland, Springer International Publishing, 2019, pp. 41–55.

D. Yacchirema, C.E. Sarabia-Jácome, C.E. Palau, and M. Esteve, “System for Monitoring and Supporting the Treatment of Sleep Apnea Using IoT and Big Data,” Pervasive and Mobile Computing, vol. 50, pp. 25-40. 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.pmcj.2018.07.007.

W.G.C. Sailema, T. Olivares, and F. Delicato, “Topologías en el Internet de las Cosas Médicas (IoMT),” Revista Tecnológica – ESPOL, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 120-136, 2022, doi: 10.37815/rte.v34n4.960.

S. Li, L.D. Xu, and S. Zhao, “The Internet of Things: A Survey”. Information Systems Frontiers, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 243–259, 2015, doi:

J.C.V. Ferreira, M.F.C. Higuera, and J.A.V. Barrera, “Nuevos desafíos en el desarrollo de soluciones para E-Health en Colombia, soportados en Internet de las Cosas (IoT),” Revista EIA, vol. 18, no. 36, pp. 1-19, 2021, doi: 10.24050/reia.v18i36.1508.

L. Pozo-Guzman, J. Berrezueta-Guzman, “IoT as an Alternative Way to Improve the Telemedicine Methods Against Covid-19 in Vulnerable Zones,” in Computer and Information Science, G. Rodriguez Morales, E.R. Fonseca, J.P. Salgado, M. Pérez-Gosende, M. Orellana Cordero, S. Berrezueta, Eds, Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, 2020, pp. 64–76.

L. Enciso-Quispe, S. Sarmiento, and E. Zelaya-Policarpo, “Personalized Medical Alert System Based on Internet of Things with DHIS2,” in Proceeding of the 13th Iberian Conference on Information Systems and Technologies (CISTI), Cáceres, Spain, 2018, pp. 1-6.

C.J. Martínez, S. Galmés, “Analysis of the Primary Attacks on IoMT Internet of Medical Things Communications Protocols,” in Proceedings of the IEEE World AI IoT Congress (AIIoT), Seattle, WA, USA, June 2022.

D. Yacchirema, J.S. De Puga, C. Palau, and M. Esteve, “Fall Detection System for Elderly People Using IoT and Big Data,” Procedia Computer Science, vol. 130, pp. 603–610, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.procs.2018.04.110.

M.Z. Rahman, M.A. Akbar, V. Leiva, A. Tahir, M.T. Riaz, and C. Martin-Barreiro, “An Intelligent Health Monitoring and Diagnosis System Based on the Internet of Things and Fuzzy Logic for Cardiac Arrhythmia Covid-19 patients,” Computers in Biology and Medicine, vol. 154, pp. 106583, Mar. 2023, doi: 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2023.106583.

K. Kakhi, R. Alizadehsani, H.M.D. Kabir, A. Khosravi, S. Nahavandi, and R. Acharya, “The Internet of Medical Things and Artificial Intelligence: Trends, Challenges, and Opportunities,” Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 749–771, 2022, doi: 10.1016/j.bbe.2022.05.008.

C. Yacchirema-Vargas, “Arquitectura de interoperabilidad de dispositivos físicos para el Internet de las Cosas (IoT)”. Ph.D. dissertation, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Valencia, España, 2019, [Online]. Available:

S. Hendriks, “Internet of Things: How the World Will be Connected in 2025”. Master thesis, Utrecht University, Netherlands. 2016, [Online]. Available:

H. Arksey, L. O’Malley, “Scoping Studies: Towards a Methodological Framework,” International Journal of Social Research Methodology, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 19-32, 2005, doi: 10.1080/1364557032000119616.

R, The R Project for Statistical Computing. [Online]. Available:

Zotero, Your Personal Research Assistant. [Online]. Available:

M.F. Abad-García, A. González-Teruel, J. Argento, and J.M. Rodríguez-Gairín, “Características y visibilidad de las revistas españolas de ciencias de la salud en bases de datos”, Profesional de la información, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 537-550, 2015, doi: 10.3145/epi.2015.sep.04.

A. Vuotto, V. Di Césare, and N. Pallota, “Fortalezas y debilidades de las principales bases de datos de información científica desde una perspectiva bibliométrica,” Palabra clave, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 101, 2020.

F. Sadoughi, A. Behmanesh, and N. Sayfori, “Internet of Things in Medicine: A Systematic Mapping Study,” Journal of Biomedical Informatics, vol. 103, no., pp. 103383, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.jbi.2020.103383.

M.A.G. Bejarano, “La investigación cualitativa,” INNOVA Research Journal, vol. 1, no. 2, pp.1-9, 2016, doi: 10.33890/innova.v1.n2.2016.7.

H. Fernández-Sánchez, K. King, and C.B. Enríquez-Hernádez, “Revisiones sistemáticas exploratorias como metodología para la síntesis del conocimiento científico,” Enfermería universitaria, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 87-94, 2020, doi: 10.22201/eneo.23958421e.2020.1.697.

M.D. González-Zamar, E. Abad-Segura, E. Vásquez-Cano, and E. López-Meneses, “IoT Technology Applications-Based Smart Cities: Research Analysis,” Electronics, vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 1246, 2008, doi: 10.3390/electronics9081246.

B. Mazon-Olivo, A. Pan, “Internet of Things: State-of-the-art, Computing Paradigms and Reference Architectures,” IEEE Latin America Transactions, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 49-63, 2022, doi: 10.1109/TLA.2022.9662173.

J. Wang, M.K. Lim, C. Wang, and M.L. Tseng, “The Evolution of the Internet of Things (IoT) Over the Past 20 Years,” Computers & Industrial Engineering, vol. 155, pp. 107174, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.cie.2021.107174.

J. Ruiz-Rosero, G. Ramirez-Gonzalez, J.M. Williams, R. Khanna, and R. Pisharody, “Internet of Things: A Scientometric Review,” Symmetry, vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 301, 2017, doi: 10.3390/sym9120301.

G. Herrera-Franco, N. Montalván-Burbano, C. Mora-Frank, and L. Bravo-Montero, “Scientific Research in Ecuador: A Bibliometric Analysis,” Publications, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 55, 2021, doi: 10.3390/publications9040055.

S.G. Yoo, F. Castro De la Cruz, “Enhanced BSN-Care: Cryptanalysis of BSN-Care and Proposal of Improved Authentication System,” In Proceeding of the IEEE International Symposium on Robotics and Intelligent Sensors (IRIS), Tokyo, Japan, 2016, pp. 17-20.

J.M. Parra, W. Valdez, A. Guevara, P. Cedillo, and J. Ortíz-Segarra, “Intelligent Pillbox: Automatic and Programmable Assistive Technology Device,” in Proceeding of the 13th IASTED International Conference on Biomedical Engineering (BioMed), Innsbruck, Austria, 2017, pp. 20-21.

A.M. Plaza, J. Díaz, and J. Pérez, “Software Architectures for Health Care Cyber-Physical Systems: A Systematic Literature Review,” Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 1-23, 2018, doi: 10.1002/smr.1930.

D.C. Yacchirema, C.E. Sarabia-Jácome, C.E. Palau, and M. Esteve, “A Smart System for Sleep Monitoring by Integrating IoT with Big Data Analytics,” IEEE Access, vol. 6, pp. 35988-36001, 2022, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2849822.

M.G. Molina, P.E. Garzón, C.J. Molina, and J.X. Nicola, “Heart Rate Monitor Based on IP Networking,” in Proceeding of the 22nd International Conference on Circuits, Systems, Communications and Computers (CSCC 2018), 2018, pp. 1006.

W. Velásquez, A. Munoz-Arcentales, and J. Salvachúa, “Fast-Data Architecture Proposal to Alert People in Emergency,” in Proceeding of the IEEE 8th Annual Computing and Communication Workshop and Conference (CCWC). Las Vegas, USA, 2018, pp. 188-200.

W. Velásquez, J. Muñoz, and J. Salvachúa, “E-Health Services Role in a Smart City-A View after a Natural Hazard,” Engineering Letters, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 686-695, 2019.

G. Guerrero-Ulloa, M.J. Hornos, C. Rodríguez-Domínguez, and M. Fernández-Coello, in “IoT-Based Smart Medicine Dispenser to Control and Supervise Medication Intake,” C.A. Iglesias, J.I. Moreno Novella, A. Ricci, D. Rivera, D. Roman, Eds. Intelligent Environments 2020, 2020, vol. 28, pp. 39-48.

M.A. Quiroz-Martínez, R.A. Arguello-Ruiz, M.D. Gómez-Ríos, and M.Y. Leyva-Vázquez, “Evaluación de potencial del Internet de las Cosas en la salud mediante mapas cognitivos difusos,” Conrado, vol. 16, no. 35, pp. 131-136, 2020.

M.Y.L. Vázquez, B.S.M. Arteaga, J.A.M. López, and M.A.Q. Martinez, “Design of an IoT Architecture in Medical Environments for the Treatment of Hypertensive Patients,” Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologías de Informação, vol. E33, pp. 188-200, 2020

A. Garcés-Salazar, S. Manzano, C. Nuñez, J.P. Pallo, M. Jurado, and M.V. García, in “Low-cost IoT framework for tele-medicine applications,” Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informação, vol. E43, pp. 153-166, 2021.

U. Ulloa, D. Prado, and P. Cedillo, “Systematic Literature Review of Internet of Things Solutions Oriented to People with Physical and Intellectual Disabilities,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies for Ageing Well and e-Health (ICT4AWE 2021), 2021, pp. 228-235.

T. Munir, M. Akbar, S. Ahmed, A. Sarfraz, Z. Sarfraz, M. Sarfraz, M. Feliz, and I. Cherrez-Ojeda, “A Systematic Review of Internet of Things in Clinical Laboratories: Opportunities, Advantages, and Challenges,” Sensors, vol. 22, no. 20, pp. 8051, 2022, doi: 10.3390/s22208051.

M. Amin, D. Shehwar, A. Ullah, T. Guarda, T.A. Tanveer, and S. Anwar, “A Deep Learning System for Health Care IoT and Smartphone Malware Detection,” Neural Computing & Applications, vol. 34, no. 14, pp. 11283-11294, 2022, doi: 10.1007/s00521-020-05429-x.

G. Rathee, H. Saini, C.A. Kerrache, and J. Herrera-Tapia, “A Computational Framework for Cyber Threats in Medical IoT Systems,” Electronics, vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 1705, 2022, doi: 10.3390/electronics11111705.

A.M. Peralta-Ochoa, P.A. Chaca-Asmal, L.F. Guerrero-Vásquez, J.O. Ordoñez-Ordoñez, and E.J. Coronel-González, “Smart Healthcare Applications over 5G Networks: A Systematic Review,” Applied Sciences, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 1469, 2023, doi: 10.3390/app13031469.

J. Villacís, F. Morales, E. González, and R. Coral, “Módulo asistencial para medir signos vitales de una persona mediante Internet de las Cosas,” Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informação, vol. E55, pp. 52-66. Jan. 2023.

S. Zeadally, F. Siddiqui, Z. Baig, and A. Ibrahim, “Smart Healthcare: Challenges and Potential Solutions Using Internet of Things (IoT) and Big Data Analytics,” PSU Research Review, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 149-168, 2019, doi: 10.1108/PRR-08-2019-0027.

A. Banerjee, C. Chakraborty, A. Kumar, and D. Biswas, “Emerging Trends in IoT and Big Data Analytics for Biomedical and Health Care Technologies,” V.E. Balas, V.K. Solanki, R. Kumar, M. Khari, Eds. Handbook of Data Science Approaches for Biomedical Engineering, Academic Press, 2020, pp.121-152.

M. Kante, P. Ndayizigamiye, “An Analysis of the Current Status of Internet of Medical Things Policies in Developing Countries,” NPG Neurologie - Psychiatrie – Gériatrie, vol. 20, no. 119, pp. 259-265,2020, doi: 10.1016/j.npg.2020.03.002.



How to Cite

Vaca-Orellana, C., & Valle Dávila, M. . (2024). Current Status and Challenges of IoT Research in the Ecuadorian Healthcare Sector: A Systematic Literature Review. Enfoque UTE, 15(2), 36-47.