Investigation of Wind Effects on UAV Adaptive PID Based MPC Control System




Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), Coastal Monitoring, Remote Surveillance Missions, Adaptive PID, Model Predictive Control (MPC), External Disturbances Analysis


In this paper, an assessment of the state of coastal territories of Ecuador monitoring issue is conducted. The use of an autonomous robotic aerial platform is proposed as a technical solution to enhance the efficiency of remote surveillance missions performed by national security services along coastline. Considering the UAV nonlinear flight dynamics, as well as the missing information of the environment, is designed a UAV hierarchical control structure composed of an adaptive PID based MPC control strategy. The implementation of an adaptive PID based MPC controller leads to significantly improve the UAV optimal trajectory tracking task, as well as satisfy properties such as adaptiveness, self-learning, and capability of handling uncertainties caused by the unpredictable behavior of sea currents and wind loads retaining robust performance features. In this work, the investigation of external disturbances on UAV stabilization and positioning accuracy considers swirling wind flows and short-term wind gusts. These correspond to deterministic and random processes, are mathematically represented as trigonometric functions with random amplitudes determined by the gust coefficients and the wind loading periods of the pulses. The established range is given by a set of several observations of wind loads in the coastal territories of Ecuador. The analyzed data is collected from the database of national meteorological stations. Finally, the simulation process of the perturbed controlled motion of the UAV along a segmented linear trajectory, as well as the data analysis and graphics are carried out in the MATLAB environment.



Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Andres Martinez, Universidad Estatal Amazónica

Associate professor, PhD 
Faculty of Earth Sciences. Universidad Estatal Amazónica
Research fellow. Department of Mechanics, Mechatronics and Robotics. Southwest State University

Sergey Jatsun, Southwest State University

Doctor of Technical Sciences (Dr. Tech. Sci.)
Head of the Department of Mechanics, Mechatronics and Robotics.
Southwest State University (SWSU)

Oksana Emelyanova, Southwest State University

Full-Time professor, PhD
Department of Mechanics, Mechatronics and Robotics
Southwest State University


X. Wang, Z. Huang, G. Sui, H. Lian, “Analysis on the Development Trend of Future UAV Equipment Technology,” Academic Journal of Engineering and Technology Science, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 114-121, 2020.

A.S. Martinez, L.M. Mosquera, O. Emelyanova, “Control System of Small-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Monitoring Sea Vessels on Coastal Territory of Ecuador,” Frontiers in Robotics and Electromechanics, vol. 329, pp. 295-314, 2023.

B. Fan, Y. Li, R. Zhang, Q. Fu, “Review on the Technological Development and Application of UAV systems”, Chinese Journal of Electronics, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 199-207, 2020.

S. Jatsun, O. Emelyanova, P. Bezmen, A. S. Martinez-Leon and L. M. Mosquera-Morocho, “Hardware/Software Architecture for Research of Control Algorithms of a Quadcopter in the Presence of External Wind Loads,” Electromechanics and Robotics, vol. 232, pp. 165-177, 2022.

A. Correia, P.B. Água, R. Graça, “Machine Learning in Coastal Incident Detection, Identification and Classification with UAV’s,” in 16th Iberian Conference on Information Systems and Technologies (CISTI), 2021, pp. 1-6.

D.R. Green, J. J. Hagon, C. Gómez, B. L. Gregory, “Using Low-Cost UAV’s for Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, and Modelling: Examples from the Coastal Zone,” Coastal management. Academic Press, pp. 465-501, 2019.

M. Zurita, W. Aguilar, V. Enríquez, “Toward the Development of Surveillance and Reconnaissance Capacity in Ecuador: Geolocation System,” Developments and Advances in Defense and Security: Proceedings of MICRADS 2019, pp. 123-136, 2019.

A. Flores, D. Scipión, C. Saito, J. Apaza, M. Milla, “Unmanned Aircraft System for Andean Volcano Monitoring and Surveillance,” in International Symposium on Safety, Security, and Rescue Robotics (SSRR), 2019, pp. 297-302.

E. A. Valencia, K. A. Palma, I. D. Changoluisa, V. H. Hidalgo, P. J. Cruz, C. E. Cevallos, P. J. Ayala, D. F. Quisi, N. G. Jara, “Wetland Monitoring Through the Deployment of an Autonomous Aerial Platform,” IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, vol. 32, no. 1, 012002, 2019.

H. Loya, V. Enríquez, F. Salazar, C. Sánchez, F. Urrutia, J. Buele, “Analysis and Determination of Minimum Requirements of an Autopilot for the Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV),” in International Conference on Computer Science, Electronics and Industrial Engineering (CSEI), pp. 129-142, 2019.

D. Mellinger, V. Kumar, “Control and Planning for Vehicles with Uncertainty in Dynamics,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2010, pp. 960-965.

N. Bao, X. Ran, Z. Wu, Y. Xue, K. Wang, “Research on Attitude Controller of Quadcopter Based on Cascade PID Control Algorithm,” in IEEE Information Technology, Networking, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (ITNEC), 2017, pp. 1493-1497.

A. Zenkin, I. Berman, K. Pachkouski, I. Pantiukhin, V. Rzhevskiy, “Quadcopter Simulation Model for Research of Monitoring Tasks,” 26th Conference of Open Innovations Association, 2020, pp. 449-457.

S. Jatsun, L.M. Mosquera-Morocho, O. Emelyanova, A. S. Martinez-León, “Controlled Adaptive Flight of a Convertiplane Type Tricopter in Conditions of Uncertainty for Monitoring Water Areas,” in 2020 International Multi-Conference on Industrial Engineering and Modern Technologies (FarEastCon), 2020, pp. 1-7.

I. Krzysztofik, Z. Koruba, “Analysis of Quadcopter Dynamics During Programmed Movement Under External Disturbance,” Nonlinear Dynamics and Control, pp. 177-185, 2020.

S. Jatsun, O. Emelyanova, A.S. Martinez, “Design of an Experimental Test Bench for a UAV Type Convertiplane”, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol 714, no. 1, pp. 012009, 2020.

A.S. Martinez, S. Jatsun, O. Emelyanova, “Control of the Electric Drives of a Multirotor System Type Convertertiplane,” Fundamental and Applied Problems of Technics and technology Journal, vol. 1, pp. 83- 93, 2020.

S. Jatsun, S. Efimov, O. Emelyanova, A. S. Martinez-León, P. J. Cruz-Dávalos, “Modeling and Control Architecture of an Autonomous Mobile Aerial Platform for Environmental Monitoring,” in 2019 International Conference on Information Systems and Computer Science (INCISCOS), pp. 177-182, 2019.

O. Doukhi., A.R. Fayjie, D.J. Lee, “Intelligent Controller Design for Quadrotor Stabilization in Presence of Parameter Variations,” Journal of Advanced Transportation, 4683912, 2017.

National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology INAMHI, (2024, Feb 02) “Aplicativos Web”. [Online]. Available: aplicaciones-web/

Oceanographic and Antarctic Institute of the Ecuadorian Navy INOCAR, (2024, Feb 02) “Reporte Metereológico”. [Online]. Available:

R. Casado, A. Bermúdez, “Simulation Framework for Developing Autonomous Drone Navigation Systems,” Electronics, 7, 2021.

B. Lindqvist, S. S. Mansouri, A. Agha-Mohammadi, “Nonlinear MPC for Collision Avoidance and Control of UAV’s with Dynamic Obstacles,” Robotics and Automation Letters vol. 4, pp. 6001-6008, 2020.

I. Nascimento, A. Ferramosca, L. Pimenta, G. Raffo, “NMPC Strategy for a Quadrotor UAV in a 3D Unknown Environment,” in 19th International Conference on Advanced Robotics (ICAR), pp. 179-184, 2019.

A. Ryhlov, “Analysis of Different Distribution Laws Using for Wind Speed Leveling,” Proceedings of Saratov University: Earth Sciences Series, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 25-30, 2010.



How to Cite

Martinez Leon, A. S., Jatsun, S., & Emelyanova, O. (2024). Investigation of Wind Effects on UAV Adaptive PID Based MPC Control System. Enfoque UTE, 15(2), 36-47.