Effect of neem on Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton and its parasitoid Ageniaspis citricola Logvinovskaya in Ecuador





Biological control, Botanical control, Citrus leaf miner


Efficacy of neem on Citrus Leafminer (CLM) and effect on its parasitoid Ageniaspis citricola was evaluated, using field, cage and olfactometer tests. Treatments were: aqueous extract of neem (50 gL-1), formulated oil of neem (10 mL L-1) and control. Field study was done in a Citrus aurantifolia orchard, three applications were carried out, which were evaluated every 48 hours until ten days after the treatment. Cage and olfactometer tests were performed in a greenhouse and repeated twice each time. In the cage, it were used 50 infested Citrus reticulata plants per experimental unit, while for the olfactometer test, as experimental arena, transparent plastic jars with 20 adults of CLM inside were used. Variables evaluated were: CLM infestation, dead, live and predated larvae, pupae, emerged adults and parasitized pupal chambers. The highest mortality of the CLM was caused by the aqueous extract of neem with 77.17%, which began 48 hours after application, suggesting inhibition of feeding. The aqueous extract of neem showed in average 88.80 % of repellency of adults of CLM and neem oil 85.64%. The high mortality of CLM and the repellent effect of neem, seem to influence negatively in parasitism which fluctuated between 9.45 % and 20.16 % in treated trees.  


Download data is not yet available.


Arshad, M., Ullah, M., Afzal, M., Iftikhar, Y., Khalid, S., Hussain, Z., Molina-Ochoa, Jaime. and Foster, J. (2019). Evaluation of Synthetic Insecticides and Essential Oils for the Management of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 51(3): 1053-1058.

Arshad, M., Ullah, M., Qureshi, J. andAfzal, M (2018). Physiological Effects of Citrus Leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) Larval Feeding on Photosynthetic and Gaseous Exchange Rates in Citrus. Journal of Economic Entomology, 111(5): 2264–2271. https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/toy150

Bautista, N. (1997). Bioecología de Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton. Minador de la hoja de los cítricos (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Tesis Doctor en Ciencias. Especialidad de Entomología y Acarología. Instituto. Fitosanidad., México: Colegio de Postgraduados.

Beattie, A. and Hardy, S. (2004). Citrus leafminer Agfact H2.AE.4. Sidney: Department of Primary Industries.

Bezzar, R., Kilani, S. andAribi, N. (2016) Larval exposure to azadirachtin affects fitness and oviposition site preference of Drosophila melanogaster. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 133: 85–90.

Borad, P., Patel, M., Vaghela N., Patel, B., Patel, M., andPatel, J. (2001). Evaluation of some botanicals against citrus leafminer (Phyllocnistis citrella) and psyla (Diaphorina citri) on kagzilime (Citrus aurantifolia), Indian Journal of Agricultural Science, 71: 177–179.

Botanical Agricultural Insecticide. (1996). Neem-X. A New Insect Control Weapon. Port Charlotte: USA.

Cañarte, E., Bautista, N., Vera, J., Arredondo, H., & Huerta, A. (2004). Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) and its parasitoids in citrus in Ecuador, Florida Entomologist, 87 (1): 10-17.

Cañarte, E., Valarezo, O., Navarrete, B., and Bautista M., N. (2005). Control biológico del minador de la hoja de los cìtricos Phyllocnistis citrella: Estudio del caso Ageniaspis citricola en Ecuador. Portoviejo: INIAP.

Castaño, O. (1996). El minador de la hoja de los cítricos (Phyllocnistis citrella) In: XXII Congreso Sociedad Colombiana de Entomología. Cartagena de Indias: Universidad de Caldas.

Colmenarez, Y., Corniani, N., Mundstock, S., Sampaio, M. and Vásquez, C. (2018). Use of Parasitoids as a Biocontrol Agent in the Neotropical Region: Challenges and Potential. Retrieved from https://www.intechopen.com/online-first/use-of-parasitoids-as-a-biocontrol-agent-in-the-neotropical-region-challenges-and-potential (accessed 25/08/2019).

Dubreuil, N., Ottomani, M., Gilles, T., Kreiter, P. (2018). Réduction des intrants phytosanitaires en vergers de kiwis et de clémentines en Corse. Innovations Agronomiques, 70: 87-104.

Edwards, O. and Hoy, M. (1998) Biology of Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), a Parasitoid of the Leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America,91(5), 654–660. doi:10.1093/aesa/91.5.654

Faisal- Shareef, M., Raza, A.,Majeed, M., Ahmed, K., Raza, W. and Hussain, H. (2016). Effect of botanicals on the infestation of citrus leaf miner Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studie, 4(4): 1335-1340.

Francesena, N.and Schneiderab, M. (2018). Selectivity assessment of two biorational insecticides, azadirachtin and pyriproxyfen, in comparison to a neonicotinoid, acetamiprid,on pupae and adults of a Neotropical strain Eretmocerus mundus. Mercet. Chemosphere, 206: 349-358. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.05.010

Ghoneim, K., and Hamadah, K. (2017). Antifeedant activity and detrimental effect of Nimbecidine (0.03% Azadirachtin) on the nutritional performance of Egyptian cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis Boisd. (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera). Bio Bulletin, 3(1): 39-55.

González, C., Borges, M., Castellaños, A., González, N., Vázquez, L., and García, M. (1995). Phyllocnistis citrella. Minador de la Hoja de los Cítricos In: II Taller nacional sobre el minador de la hoja de los cítricos. La Habana: Instituto de Investigaciones de Cítricos.

Gottwald, T., Bassanezi, R., Amorim, L. and Bergamin-Filho, A. (2007). “Spatial pattern analysis of citrus canker-infected plantings in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and augmentation of infection elicited by the Asian leafminer”. Phytopathology, 97(6): 674-83. doi: 10.1094/PHYTO-97-6-0674.

Grafton-Cardwell, E., Godfrey, K., Headrick D., Mauk, P. and Peña, J. (2008). “Citrus Leafminer and Citrus Peelminer”. Retrieved from https://anrcatalog.ucanr.edu/pdf/8321.pdf (accessed 25/08/2019).

Green, H., Broun, P., Cakmak, I., Condon, L., Fedoroff, N., Gonzalez-Valero, J., Graham, I., Lewis, J., Moloney, M., Oniang'o, R., Sanginga, N., Shewry, P. and Roulin, A. (2016). “Planting seeds for the future of food”. Journal of the science of food and agriculture, 96(5): 1409-1414. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.7554

Hummel, H., Hein, D., Ley, S., Morgan, E., Kraus, W. andSchmutterer, H. (2011). Twenty five years of azadirachtins(1986- 2011), Pestycydy/Pesticides 1(4): 49-56.

Ogbuewu, I., Odoemenam, V., Obikaonu, H., Opara, M., Emenalom, O., Uchegbu, M. Okoli, B. (2011). “The Growing Importance of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) In Agriculture, Industry, Medicine and Environment: A Review.” Research Journal of Medicinal Plants, 5(3): 230-245. doi: 10.3923/rjmp.2011.230.245.

Olivero, J., Caballero, K., Jaramillo, B. and Stashenko, E. (2009). Actividad repelente de los aceites esenciales de Lippia origanoides, Citrus sinensis y Cymbopogon nardus cultivadas en Colombia frente a Tribolium castaneum, Herbst. Revista Universidad Industrial de Santander. Salud, (41) 3: 244-250.

Sarada, G., Gopal, K., Gouri, T., Mukunda, L., Gopi, V., Nagalakshmi, T. and Ramana, K. (2014). Citrus Leaf Miner (Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, Lepidpptera: Gracillariidae): Biolology and Management: A Review. Journal of Agriculture and Allied Sciences, 3(3): 39-40.

SAS Institute. (1998). Language Guide for Personal Computer release. 6.03 ed. SAS Institute, Cary, North Carolina, USA.

Schuster, S., Thompson, L., Ortega, D. and Polston, E. (2009). Laboratory evaluation of products to reduce settling of sweetpotato whitefly adults. Journal of Economic Entomology,102 (4): 1482-1489.

Sponagel, K. (1997). Propuesta de desarrollo para actividades agroecológicas de CEMADEC con énfasis en el uso del árbol nim. Quito, Corporación PROEXANT.

Tierto, N. (1994). The ability of powders and slurries from ten plant-species to protect. Stored grain from attack by Prostephanus truncatus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) y Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Journal of Stored Products Research, 30(4): 297–301.

Valarezo, O. and Cañarte, E. (1998). El minador de la hoja de los cítricos Phyllocnistis citrella en el Litoral ecuatoriano. Portoviejo: INIAP-COSUDE.

Valarezo, O., Cañarte, E. y Navarrete, B. (2004). Distribución, bioecología y manejo de Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton en Ecuador. Portoviejo: INIAP-PROMSA.

Valarezo, O., Cañarte, E. and Navarrete, B. (2008). El nim: Insecticida botánico para el manejo de plagas agrícolas. Portoviejo. INIAP.

Yanard, D. (2019). “Side effects of different doses of azadirachtin on predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis (nesbitt) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) under laboratory conditions. Applied ecology and environmental research. 17(2): 3433-3440 http://dx.doi.org/10.15666/aeer/1702_34333440

Zhang, A., O´Leary, C. and Quarles, W. (1994). Chinese IPM for citrus leafminer. Practioner, 16(8): 10-13.



How to Cite

Cañarte-Bermúdez, E., Navarrete-Cedeño, B., Montero-Cedeño, S., Arredondo-Bernal, H. C., Chávez-López, O., & Bautista-Martínez, N. (2020). Effect of neem on Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton and its parasitoid Ageniaspis citricola Logvinovskaya in Ecuador. Enfoque UTE, 11(2), pp. 01-10. https://doi.org/10.29019/enfoque.v11n2.519