Gelled emulsions enriched with chickpea flour as a potential substitute for animal fat




fat substitute, gluten free flour, thermal stability, syneresis, hardness


The aim of the study was to develop gelled oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions, formulated with flax oil and chickpea flour with adequate structural and technological properties to be used as substitutes for animal fat. For this, two formulations were made, one without antioxidant and the other with the most widely used synthetic antioxidant in the industry. The chickpea flour and gelatin were hydrated for 3 hours with stirring at 3000 r. p. m., then they were heated for 30 minutes at 90 °C, cooled to 30 °C and processed again at 3000 r. p. m. for 30 seconds, while the oil phase was slowly incorporated with the emulsifying agent. The mixtures were placed in containers, allowed to stabilize at 25 °C for 30 minutes and then refrigerated for 24 hours. The syneresis, thermal stability, lipid oxidation, and infrared spectra of the samples were determined. Some significant differences can be observed for lipid oxidation (p <0.05), however, syneresis and thermal stability did not show differences (p> 0.05), with emulsions showing great water and fat retention capacity. This can be attributed to the protein structure resulting from heating the emulsion to cause gelation. The gelled emulsions obtained have adequate structural and technological properties, with lipid oxidation values under limit of detection of 1.59 mg MDA / kg sample. Given the characteristics of the emulsion obtained, a new field of application of technological strategies opens up to obtain animal fat substitutes as a healthy fat ingredient in meat products.



Download data is not yet available.


Aguilar-Raymundo, V. G., y Vélez-Ruiz, J. F. (2013). Propiedades nutricionales y funcionales del garbanzo (Cicer arietinum L). Temas Selectos de Ingeniería en Alimentos. 7(2), 25-34.

Ashkar A, Laufer S, Rosen-Kligvasser J, et al. (2019) Impact of different oil gelators and oleogelation mechanisms on digestive lipolysis of canola oil oleogels. Food Hydrocolloids, 97,105218.

Delgado-Pando, G., Cofrades, S., Ruiz-Capillas, C., Teresa Solas, M. y Jiménez-Colmenero, F. (2010). Healthier lipid combination oil-in-water emulsions prepared with various protein systems: An approach for development of functional meat products. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 112(7), 791–801.

De Souza Paglarini, C., de Figueiredo, G., Honório, A. R., Mokarzel, L., Vidal, V. A., Ribeiro, A. P. B., Lopes Cunha, R. y Rodrigues Pollonio, M. A. (2019). Functional emulsion gels as pork back fat replacers in bologna sausage. Food structure, 81(5), 1230-1242,

Dickinson, E. (2011). Double emulsions stabilized by food biopolymers. Food Biophysics 6(1), 1-11.

Dickinson, E. (2012). Emulsion gels: The structuring of soft solids with protein stabilized oil droplets. Food Hydrocolloids, 28, 224–241.

Dickinson, E. (2013). Stabilising emulsion-based colloidal structures with mixed food ingredients. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 93, 710–721.

Félix, M., Cermeno, M. y Fitzgerald, R. J. (2020). Influence of hydrolysis on the bioactive properties and stability of chickpea protein based O/W emulsions. Journal of Agricurltural and Food Chemistry.

Félix, M., Isurralde, N., Romero, A. y Guerrero, A. (2018). Influence of pH value on microstructure of oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by chickpea protein flour. Food Science and Technology International, 24(7), 555-563.

Felix, M., Romero, A., Sanchez, C.C. y Guerrero, A. (2019). Modelling the non-linear interfacial shear rheology behaviour of chickpea protein-adsorbed complex oil/water layers. Applied Surface Science, 469, 792-803.

Herrero, A. M., Carmona, P., Jiménez-Colmenero, F., Ruiz-Capillas, C. (2014). Polysaccharide gels as oil bulking agents: Technological and structural properties. Food Hydrocolloids 36, 374-381.

Herrero, A. M., Ruiz-Capillas, C., Pintado, T., Carmona, P. y Jiménez-Colmenero, F. (2018). Elucidation of lipid structural characteristics of chia oil emulsion gels by Raman spectroscopy and their relationship with technological properties. Food Hydrocollids. 77, 212-219.

Hwang, H. S., Fhaner, M., Winkler-Moser, J. K. y Liu, S. X. (2018). Oxidation of Fish Oil Oleogels Formed by Natural Waxes in Comparison With Bulk Oil. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 120(5),1700378.

Jiménez-Colmenero, F., Herrero, A., Pintado, T., Solas, M. T., Ruiz-Capillas, C. (2010) Influence of emulsified olive oil stabilizing system used for pork backfat replacement in frankfurters. Food Research International, 43(8), 2068–2076.

Jiménez-Colmenero, F., Cofrades, S., Herrero, A.M., Fernández-Martín, F., Rodríguez-Salas, L. y Ruiz-Capillas, C. (2012). Konjac gel fat analogue for use in meat products: Comparison with pork fats. Food Hydrocolloids, 26, 63-72.

Kaur, M. y Singh, N. (2005). Studies on functional, thermal and pasting properties of flours from different chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars. Food Chemistry 91 403–411.

Liu, W.-Y., Feng, M.-Q., Wang, M., Wang, P., Sun, J., Xu, X.-L. y Zhou, G.H. (2018). Influence of flaxseed gum and NaCl concentrations on the stability of oil-in-water emulsions. Food Hydrocolloids, 79, 371-381.

Mao, L.K., y Miao, S. (2015). Structuring food emulsions to improve nutrient delivery during digestion. Food Engineering Reviews, 7(4), 439-451.

McClements, D. J. (2012). Advances in fabrication of emulsions with enhanced functionality using structural design principles. Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science, 17(5), 235-245.

Mokni Ghribi, A., Maklouf Gafsi, I., Sila, A., Blecker, C., Danthine, S., Attia, H., Bougatef, A., Besbes, S. (2015). Effects of enzymatic hydrolysis on conformational and functional properties of chickpea protein isolate. Food Chemistry,187, 322-330.

Mozaffarani, D. y Clarke, R. (2009). Quantitative effects on cardiovascular risk factors and coronary heart disease risk of replacing partially hydrogenated vegetable oils with other fats and oils. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 63(2), 22–S33.

Muñoz-González, I., Merino-Álvarez, E., Salvador, M., Pintado, T., Ruiz-Capillas, C., Jiménez-Colmenero, F. y Herrero, A.M. (2019). Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) a Promising Alternative for Conventional and Gelled Emulsions: Technological and Lipid Structural Characteristics. Gels, 5(19), 1-12.

Ospina-E, J. C., Rojnano, B., Ochoa, O., Pérez‐Álvarez, J.A. y Fernández‐López, J. (2014). Development of frankfurter-type sausages with healthier lipid formulation and study of its nutritional, sensory and stability properties. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology,

Ozer, O. y Sariçoban, C. (2010). The Effects of Butylated Hydroxyanisole, Ascorbic Acid, and α-Tocopherol on Some Quality Characteristics of Mechanically Deboned Chicken Patty during Freeze Storage. Czech Journal of Food Science, 28(2), 150-160.

Pehlivanoglu, H., Demirci, M., Toker, O. S., Konar, N., Karasu, S., y Sagdic, O. (2018). Oleogels, a promising structured oil for decreasing saturated fatty acid concentrations: Production and food-based applications. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 58,1-12.

Pintado, T., Ruiz-Capillas, C., Jiménez-Colmenero, F., Carmona, P. y Herrero, A.M. (2015). Oil-in-water emulsion gels stabilized with chia (Salvia hispanica L.) and cold gelling agents: Technological and infrared spectroscopic characterization. Food Chemistry, 185, 470-478.

Pintado, T., Herrero, A. M., Jiménez-Colmenero, F. y Ruiz-Capillas, C. (2016). Strategies for incorporation of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) in frankfurters as a health-promoting ingredient. Meat Science 114, 75–84.

Poyato C, Ansorena D, Berasategi I, Navarro-Blasco, I. y Astiasarán, I. (2014). Optimization of a gelled emulsion intended to supply ω-3 fatty acids into meat products by means of response surface methodology. Meat Science, 98: 615-621.

Romero, M.C., Fogar, R.A., Rolhaiser, F., Clavero, V. V., Romero, A. M. y Judis, M. A. (2018). Development of gluten-free fish (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans) patties by response surface methodology. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 55(5):1889-1902.

Sato, A. C. K., Moraes, K. E. F. P. y Cunha, R. L. (2014) Development of gelled emulsions with improved oxidative and pH stability. Food Hydrocolloids, 34, 184-192.

Shariati-Ievari, S., Ryland, D., Edel, A., Nicholson, T., Suh, M. y Aliani, M. (2016). Sensory and Physicochemical Studies of Thermally Micronized Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and Green Lentil (Lens culinaris) Flours as Binders in Low-Fat Beef Burgers. Journal of Food Science, 81(5), 1230-1242.

Usoltsev, D., Sitnikova, V., Kajava, A. y Uspenskaya, M. (2019). Systematic FTIR spectroscopy study of the secondary structure changes in human serum albumin under various denaturation conditions. Biomolecules, 9, 1-17.

Vieira, S. A., McClements, D. J., Decker, E. A. (2015). Challenges of Utilizing Healthy Fats in Foods. Advances in Nutrition, 6, 309-317.

Yilmaz, E. y Ögütcü M. (2015). Oleogels as spreadable fat and butter alternatives: Sensory description and consumer perception. RSC Advances, 5, 50259-50267.



How to Cite

Britez, M. G., Rolhaiser, F. A., Fernández, C. L., Fogar, R. A., & Romero, M. C. (2021). Gelled emulsions enriched with chickpea flour as a potential substitute for animal fat. Enfoque UTE, 12(3), pp. 24 - 35.